Volume 20, Issue 5, Summer 2009, Page 1-102

Evaluation of Latex and ELISA Efficiency in Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Different Hosts

Wasan A. Al-Aubaedy; Redhaa N. Hamoo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40013

The goal of this study was assessment and comparing between two common used tests in detection of Toxoplasmosis in different hosts. Two types of ELISA (IgM and IgG), and Latex 2ME tests were used for recognition of Toxoplasma gondii in women, ewe, and goat. Results showed that infection percentage were: 34.4%, 40%, and 46.6% in women, ewe, and goat respectively. When Latex 2ME test was used to distinction in between acute and chronic infection, the maximum acute infection was recorded in goat (30.95%), while the maximum chronic infection was (83.33%) in ewe. Thirty positive samples in Latex 2ME test for each host deposit to ELISA test (both IgM and IgG), and the outcome of this test confirm highly significant difference (P≤0.01) in infection percentage among different hosts. And finally there was highly significant difference (P≤0.01) between ELISA (IgM and IgG) test and Latex 2ME test in proportion of infection with Toxoplasmosis in hosts except women.

Effect of some Plant Extracts and the Insecticide Nomolt on the Ovary of Musca domestica L.

Najem S. Gorgees; Aulfat T. Yaseen

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40020

The principal aim of the study was to detect the effect of sublethal concentrations of 4 alcoholic plant extracts in addition to an insecticide known as nomolt on the growth and developmnt of ovaries and their follicles in females of the house fly, Musca domestica L. obtained from the treatment of the second larval instars with these extracts . The plant extracts included the leaves extract of Prosopi farcta, Datura stramoniun and Capparis spinosa, in concentrations 10,20,30 ppm and the fruit extract of Melia azedarach in concentrations 1,2,3 ppm, however the concentrations of nomolt were 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1ppm. The effect of these concentrations has being studied on the length and width of the ovaries and their primary follicles along a period including four stages of the adult life.24, 48, 72, 96 hours after emergence. The results of this study have clearly shown that some of the concentrations of the alcoholic plant extracts and of nomolt have had a highly significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development of the ovaries and their follicles. They have sometimes shown a complete growth and / or vitellogenic inhibitory effect, or have interrupted the process of vitellogenesis, or have decreased the numbers of ovarioles, or have caused their and degradation disintegration and follicle degeneration.

Activity and Properties of 5- Nucleotidase in Human Amniotic Fluid

Raja A. AL-Taii; Muna H. Jankeer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40029

The present research includes a study of activity and properties of 5 - Nucleotidase (5-NT, EC. was determined in human amniotic fluid using coloremetric method. Maximal activity of the enzyme was obtained in a reaction mixture containing 40 mM of Barbiturate-HCl buffer at pH 7.5 containing 11 mM of adenosine 5- monophosphate (5-AMP) as a substrate and 50 l of amniotic fluid (Enzyme volume). The reaction mixture was incubated at 37C for 30min, under the optimum condition. The enzyme activity equal to (66.7±0.32) unit per liter in amniotic fluid.

Comparison of Routine Identification Methods for Leptospira with PCR Technique

Sahira I. AL-Sanjary; Amera M. AL-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 35-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40041

The study included comparision between routine methods for isolation and identification of Leptospira from clinical and environmental samples with PCR.Routine work included the study of morphological and cultural characteristics using dark-field microscope, transmission electron microscope and light microscope as well as some enzymatic activities . Leptospira showed positivity to catalase and oxidase enzymes .
Leptospira DNA was extracted it quantitated between (5.5-6) µg/µl with purity (1.8-1.9) .
To compare with PCR , specific primer was used for amplification of 331 bp of 16S rRNA gene .
The Leptospira percentage from blood and urine samples were the same (0.45% and 6.2% respectively) by using routine methods and PCR technique , while from CSF samples it gave 1.6% routienelly but the PCR gave negative results . With respect to the water samples the number of isolates were 12 (24%) by routine methods but by PCR technique it gave positive result only for 8 isolates (16%) .

Pathological Changes in Erythrocytes of Lower Vertebrates (Salamander and Lizard) Infected with Blood Protozoa (Haemogregarines)

Tagrid H. Saber

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 48-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40047

The study include the examination of blood films of 17 samples of salamanders Neurergus crocatus crocatus and 35 samples of lizards Mabuya vittata were examined. The percentage of infection with the intra-erythrocytic blood protozoa (Haemogregarines) was 11.7% and 8.6% in the tow samples respectively. The infection appears in 5% of salamander erythrocytes and in 8% of lizard erythrocytes.
The results showed that the most important pathological effect was the decrease of RBC count in the two samples. Other pathological effects was hypertrophy of some erythrocytes both infected and non infected ones, with 5% and 7% of them in salamander and lizard respectively. About the faintly stained erythrocytes, they appear in 4% and 5% in the salamander and lizard respectively. Few of RBC's showed vacualation with rose-shaped appearance in both samples with 1.0% and 1.5% respectively. Few erythrocytes show some abnormalities in their shape, whereas some of them appear with club-shape, and some of them have small lateral projections (1-2) with different lengths which are more clearly shown in lizard.

The Volta metric and Thermodynamic Behavior of Cysteine and its Interaction with Albumin

Zhraa A. Bader; adalla T. Sulaiman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 61-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40053

The work involves the quantitative determination of (L – cysteine) using (SWV). L – cysteine gives a well- defined reduction peak at (-0.546) volts against[(Ag/AgCl,sat. KCl)] using phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7).The relationship between the diffusion current and concentration over the range [2 × 10-6(M) – 3.98 × 10-7(M)] is linear with a correlation coefficient of (0.9974). At higher concentrations above [ 3 × 10-6] molar, the reduction peak of the (L – cysteine )divided into two peaks where the original one belongs to (L – cysteine) at (-0.52 volt) and a small peak at (-0.46 volt) which may be belong to the formation of (L – cystine ) amino acid.
The interaction of Albumin-Amino acid (L-cysteine) was also carried out and It was found that the reduction peak of the amino acid decreases with increasing addition amount of Albumin. The binding constant (K) is calculated at different temperatures. Vant Hoff relation was applied to obtain the thermodynamics parameters (∆H, ∆S,∆G). The interaction seems to be of the ( ion-ion) type.

The Abnormal Behaviour of Epoxy Resin in Acidic and Basic Organic Media

Amin L. AL-Yaour; Akram A. Mohamed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 79-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40066

The present work deals with the influence of aging effect on epoxy resin exposed to different organic acidic and basic media. Four organic acids, acetic acid (AA), formic acid (FA), n-butyric acid (BAc) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), beside the following, four Amines, aniline (AN), ethanol amine (EA), n-butyl amine (BAm) and n-methyl benzyl amine (MBA) were used.
The minimum values of ∆W% in acidic medium was detected at low temperature (10ºC) then increased at 30ºC and attained relatively constant values at 50ºC. Trifluoroacetic acid shows a maximum values of ∆W% while minimum values observed in FA according to the following sequence.
TFA > BA > AA > FA
In basic media (amines), ∆W% values not exceed 1% in BA, while they reach almostly 30% in AN and MBA. ∆W% values are decreased in the following order:
MBA > AN > EA > BAm
Except in EA and BAm, it was found that the values of ∆W% is directly proportional to the formula weight. Amines with aromatic rings like AN and MBA which considered as weak bases are behave in similar manner as acids and give high ∆W% values. This study decleare that the organic compound added to the epoxy inspite of their nature (acid or base), were effect on the epoxy weight through certaine sterical or chemical interaction. The treatment of epoxy resin with amines rised there softening temperature, where organic acids have no effect .

The Effect of Humidity on the Optical Storage BDK/MR and PMMA/BDK/MR Systems Using the Spectroscopic Eillpsometry

Taha. M. AL- Maula

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 95-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40078

The effect of humidity on the two optical storage systems PMMA/BDK/MR, BDK / MR has been studied by preparing the system of BDK/MR from the Azo – dye of the methyl red (MR) and it is mixed with benzyl dimethyl ketal (BDK) in certain rates of size. But the other system PMMA/BDK/MR has been prepared from the Azo – dye of methyl red (MR) doped with poly methyl methacylate (PMMA) benzyl dimethyl ketal (BDK) and was used as a photoinitiartor at certain rates of size. The effect of humidity has been studied by using device of spectroscopical Eillipsometry which has different angles on the two systems of optical storage, and its become clear that the effect of humidity on the system BDK/MR is greater than that of PMMA/BDK/MR. From this we conclude that the thin films which were prepared from PMMA / BDK / MR system are better than those of the BDK/MR system and adding these information to the programming library for spectroscopical device .