Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 20, Issue 8

Volume 20, Issue 8, Autumn 2009, Page 1-95


Genetic Effects for Yield and some of its Components in Upland Cotton

Ghada A. Al-HamdanyGhada A. Al-Hamdany; Khalid M. Dawod

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 1-10

Graphics analysis, components of genetic variation and heritability, for the characters: plant height, number of vegetative branches, number of fruiting branches, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield, were computed from a half diallel set of seven cotton varieties (Halab90, Sp8886, Delta pine5409, Lachata, Dunn1047, Coker310 and Deer22). The variance due to dominance were generally higher than the additive for all studied characters. Graphics analysis suggested the presence of epistatic gene effects (non-allelic interaction) in high proportion for number of bolls per plant and boll weight, as well as additive gene effect with partial dominance for plant height, number of vegetative branches, number of bolls per plant, and seed cotton yield. Moderate narrow sense heritability was observed in case of plant height whereas low for the remaining characters.

Improved Synthesis of 3-(α , α-diphenyl –α- hydroxymethyl)- 4-amino 1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione and Facile Route to 3,6-Disubstituted 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazoles(*)

Salim J. Mohammed; Badie A. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 11-16

The reaction of thiocarbohydrazide (1) with benzilic acid (2) at the melting temperature (160-170 °C) allows an improved preparation of 3-(α,α-diphenyl-α-hydroxymethyl)-4-amino-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione (3).
The compound (3) reacts easily with suitable carboxylic acids in presence of phosphorous oxychloride to afford 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b] [1,3,4] thiadiazole ring systems (4a-g). The synthesized products were confirmed by physical and spectral methods.

Direct Determination of Sulfacetamide Sodium by Derivative UV Spectrophotometry

A. Al-Obaydi; Israa; Isam J. Al-Nuri

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 17-26

UV Derivative spectra were used for the direct quantitative determination of sulfacetamide sodium in distilled water. The quantification was accomplished using the integrated area under the peaks. The zero-order spectrum of sulfacetamide sodium shows an absorption band at  = 258 nm, with an max = 14900 l. mol-1. cm-1, the determination limit was (0.55-25.4) g/ml with R2 = 0.9999 and RSD =1.25 %.
The determination limits were (0.25-50.80) g/ml for both first and second-order derivatives with R2 = 0.9982, 0.9995 and RSD = 1.60 %, 2.40 % respectively. This indicates a more sensitive and accurate results as compared with the zero-order method. These methods were applied to the direct determination of the samacetamide eye drop.

Spectrophotometric Determination of some Phenothiazines Using N-Chlorosuccinimide

Theia; a N. Al - Sabha; Saladdin M. Al-Talib

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 27-37

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of some phenothiazine derivatives as pure and in dosage form. The method is based on oxidation of phenothiazines by N-chlorosuccinimide in hydrochloric acid medium to give red coloured species having maximum absorptions in the range 516.5-534.5nm. Beer‘s law is obeyed over the concentration ranges 2-28, 2-32 and 4-40µg.ml-1 with apparent molar absorptivity of 6.16×10³, 5.89×10³ and 5.34×10³ l.mol-1.cm-1 for phenothiazine, promethazine hydrochloride and chlorpromazine hydrochloride respectively. Additives and excipients normally found in dosage forms do not interfere.

The Effect of the Chain Sequence Distribution, Nature of Monomers and Temperature on the Electrical Conductivity of some Unsaturated Amide-Ester Copolymers

Yousif A. Shahab; ad F. Mahmood; Asaad F. Khattab

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 38-51

Ten Amide-ester copolymers were synthesized, whereby the sequence distribution and the used dicarboxylic acids were varied. The electric conductivity of the copolymers are determined in the pure and doped states. The results showed that two factors are important in determining the conductivity levels: the flexibility of the polymer chains, and the efficiency of conjugation along the chains. Thus acidic units that give rise to coiled chains structure, and hence flexibile segments gives high conductivity compared with acid units that give rise to extended structure and rigid segments like terephthalic acid. The introduction of saturated units that interrupts the chains conjugation decrease the electrical conductivity of the polymers.
The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity (σ) of the investigated copolymers was studied in the temperature range (303-373K). A plot of ln (σ) versus (1/T) reveals that two regions with an inflection point at the glass transition temperature Tg of the polymers. The Tg of the investigated polymers determined by this method was found to be influenced by the nature of the repeating unit of the polymers and their sequence distribution.

Synthesis of some Acetylenic Amines Derivatives by Mannich Reaction

Haiffaa Y. Hussin

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 52-57

Some acetylenic amine derivatives containing nitrogen bases (cytosine, uracil) were synthesized through Mannich reaction which involved reaction of N-propargyl cytosine or uracil with paraformaldehyde and secondary amines. The structure of synthesized compounds have been confirmed depending on the physical and spectral data.

Synthesis of some N-Aryl- p-Toluene Sulfonamide Compounds

Ahlam M.N. Yahya; Mohammad A. Al-Iraqi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 58-68

A number of acetylenic amine (4a-e) were synthesis from propagyl p-(p-toluene sulfonamido) benzoate (3) with secondary amines via Mannich reaction. The carbonyl isothiocynate compound (5) was synthesized from the reaction of the corresponding benzoyl chloride with potassium thiocynate. This compound was converted to the corresponding thiourea compounds (6a-e), thiocarbomate (7a-d) and (8a-e) by their reaction with different amines, alcohols and phenols respectively. The structure of the synthesized compounds have been elucidated by their physical and spectral methods.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride by Coupling with Diazotized 2- Aminobenzothiazole

Noha Th. Abdul Fatah; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 69-81

A spectrophotometric method for determination of microgram amounts of phenylephrine-HCl(PE) has been proposed. The method is based on coupling of phenylephrine-HCl with diazotized 2-aminobenzothiazole in alkaline medium. The molar absorptivity of the formed dye is 6.620×103 l.mol-1. cm-1 at λ max 510 nm and Beer's law obeyed within in the range of 10-250 μg of phenylephrine-HCl /25 ml (0.4 – 10 ppm). The colour reaction was highly stable and did not show a significant change in absorbance(within acceptable analytical error) up to 48 h with a relative error +0.31 to +1.07% and a relative standard deviation of ±0.95 to ±3.09%, depending on concentration level. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of phenylephrine-HCl in pharmaceutical preparation (nose drop) .

Estimation of Net Radiation in Iraq

Amal M. Banoosh; Rajaa A. Basheer; Waleed I. Al- Rijabo

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 8, Pages 82-95

FAO-56 Model was used to estimatenet Net Radiation falling on horizontal surface in Mosul, Baghdad and Nasiriyah stations for the time series (1980-2002). Results showed that there is a sort of relatedness between estimated and measured incoming short wave radiation(Rs) in the three stations, where the values of mean absolute error (M.A.E.) is not exceed (11,14,24)% in Baghdad, Nasiriyah and Mosul respectively. Rn estimated by the Model appear that Mosul station gives the lowest values of Rn in comparison with Baghdad and Nasiriyah stations, this is due to the amount of incoming solar radiation reached the earth surface. Summer months in Nasiryiah gave also values of Rn lower than that in Baghdad because of the sand storm which domain during the summer months in Nasiriyah. Two linear Regression Equations were found, the first between net radiation and net incoming short wave radiation (Rn & Rns ) and the second between net radiation and net long wave radiation (Rn & Rnl ) in each of the three stations. The correlation coefficient (R) found in the first relation is very high and ranged between (0.98 – 0.99 ), while the values of ( R ) in the second relation ranged between ( 0.67 – 0.87 ). Liner Regression Equations were also found between Rn and meteorological elements (Temperature, Relative Humidity, wind Speed and Sun Shine Ratio ) in each of the three stations.