Volume 20, Issue 7, Autumn 2009, Page 1-112

Genetic Analysis of Fifth Filial Generation in A Six-Row Barley

Nageeb K. Yousif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 7, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.39994

Six population of fifth filial generation for two crosses in a six-row barley (Jezera-1× Benedict and Baraka × Arivate), each population with five groups and each group with five families in addition to their parents were used to estimate the components of genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, broad sense heritability , narrow sense heritability and expected genetic advance from selection for grain yield and its components. Additive genetic variance values were: (1) significant at 1% level for biological yield, plant height, grain yield and 100 grain weight in the two crosses and for spike length in the first cross. (2) significant at 5% level for spike number and number of grains per spike in the two crosses and for spike length in the second cross. Narrow sense heritability recorded high values for the studied characters which lead to an increase in the values of expected genetic advance , this indicates that selection in the fifth filial generation will be effective to obtain pure lines with superior character in the two crosses.

The Effect of Water Extract of Ocimum basilicum and the Fungal Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum on Fungi causing Damping-off of Okra

Anfal M. Jalal; Esam D. Sulaiman; Najwa B. Al Lashi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 7, Pages 12-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40002

The present study includes the effect of water extract of basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves and culture filtrate of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum on the mycelial growth of damping-off fungi of Okra, Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. All tested concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/ml) of the aqueous extract of O. basilicum caused significant reduction on the linear growth of the pathogenic fungi and reaching 100%, at some concentrations. The inhibition increased with the increase in concentration of the extract from 5 to 30% for both R. solani and M. phaseolina. The inhibition reached 97.04% for F. solani.
All concentrations of the extract gave the same effect on the dry weight of pathogenic fungi and caused maximum inhibition (100%) to R. solani and M. phaseolina. Addition of three concentrations 10, 20 and 30% of culture filtrate of the biocontrol fungus caused significant decrease in the growth of fungi and the effect increased with the increase in concentration to 30%. Maximum inhibition was noticed with M. phaseolina and F. solani (98.16 and 96.48% respectively). Similar reduction inhibition on the dry weight of fungi, was recorded when various concentrations of the culture filtrate of the biocontrol fungus was added to the liquid media.
Combining the aqueous extract and culture filterate of T. harzianum showed more inhibitory efficiency on the growth of all pathogenic fungi and their dry weights as compared with individual treatments alone and reached 100% at concentration 30%.

Effects of some Fertility Activating Drugs on Histology and Biochemistry of Ovaries of White Rats

Likaa H. Al-Dulaimi; Muna H. Jankeer; Janan H. Abdul-Fattah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 7, Pages 28-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40051

The present study included monitoring and diagnosis of tissue changes in polycystic ovary among white adult female rats, which were exposed to continuous light with an intensity of 350 lux/m2 for 14 weeks. These changes were a number of identifying cystic structures of various sizes, the absence of corpus luteum, congestion of blood vessels and ovarian hyperplasia. The study also investigated the influence of two fertility-activating drugs, as clomiphene citrate 1.6 mg/ kg of body weight for one dose estrus stage, metformin 300 mg/ kg of body weight daily. Each of the drugs was used alone or together were given for different periods 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The highest histological change were found when using them together. While no significant tissue changes were observed when using metformine alone. But the treatment with clomiphene citrate alone resulted in medium tissue changes, and were less when combining the two drugs together. The most important changes are fibrosis ovarian follicle cysts, hyperplasia in the cortex and medulla as well as the congestion of blood vessels in addition to an increase in the number of corpora lutea when they are in different atretic stages.
The study also included the estimation of concentration of malondialdehyde and glutathione in the polycystic ovary tissue exposed to continuous light. It was found that there was a significant increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde and a significant decrease in the concentration of glutathion. In addition to that, the influence of clomiphene citrate and metformin drugs separately, or together, to estimate the concentrations of malondialdehyde and glutathion in adult female ovary tissues was also investigated. Malondialdehyde concentration was high, while glutathion concentration was low when combining the two drugs. The same results were obtained in all drug treatments and their increase over different periods of time, except for the groups, which were treated with metformin.

Study the Immunological Activity of Complement in the Sera of Healthy Subjects During Fasting

Zeyad T. Al-Rassam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 7, Pages 48-59
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40073

Blood samples were collected from 24 healthy donors , 15 males and 9 females ranging in age from 23-45 years. Three blood samples were obtained from each subject, before fasting, 15 days and 29 days after fasting. Serum potassium, Magnesium, Calcium and complement C3, C4 and quantity of serum causing hemolysis for 50% of RBCs (CH50) were calculated.
The results showed a significant increase in the level of Potassium 15 days after fasting while no difference were recorded in its level after 29 days after fasting, and the results showed a significant decrease in serum Calcium level after 15 days, while no significant difference occurs after 29 days compared with its level before and after 15 days of fasting. The results showed a significant increase in the level of complement component C4 after 29 days of fasting while no significant difference were recorded in the level C3 complement component during the three experimental stages, the results also recorded a significant decrease in the amount of serum which causes hemolysis for 50% of SRBC after 29 days of fasting, and the results also showed an inverse correlation between the amount of serum causing hemolysis for 50% of SRBC and serum Magnesium level and complement C4 level, and an inverse correlation between C3 complement component and Calcium level while proportional correlation with Potassium serum level , and an inverse correlation with serum Potassium level.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrazepam Using Phloroglucinol as Coupling Reagent

Zeena T. Shakir

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 7, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40082

This paper describes the development of a spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrazepam after diazotization of it’s reduced product and coupling with phloroglucinol in basic medium , to form an intense yellow – coloured , water – soluble and stable azo-dye which shows a maximum absorption at 434 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range 15 to 200 µ g/25 ml with a molar absorptivity 6.1183×104 l. mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity of 0.0046 µ g.cm-2. The relative error is ranged from -1.6 to 2.8 % and relative standard deviation from ±0.1 to ±3.3 % , depending on the concentration level.
The method has been applied successfully to the determination of nitrazepam in pharmaceutical preparation (tablet).

Computer New Simulation of the Interacting Boson Model (IBM-1) to Determine the Properties of 120-126Xe Even – Even Isotopes

Mushtaq A. Al-Jabbori; Imad M. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 7, Pages 73-95
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40098

A new program by MATLAB-7 has been established to identify the energy levels properties of xenon even-even isotopes through the using the interacting boson model unstable limit . The parameters of the considered limit is separately calculated, once for the ground-state band and the other for the exited-state band. Since the calculated energy of the yrast-band for the considered isotopes has showed good agreement with the experimental values. As a consequence the backbending of the energy levels for each isotopes is indicated from the calculated values of the energy levels and they were in a good agreement with the experimental values. However, the electrical transition probability has also been calculated using two methods. The first has taken into consideration the experimental half life of the transition , the transition energy between two particular sequence states and the internal conversion factor which is calculated by using an interpolation method. The results have showed good agreement with that of the experimental ones. The second method of calculation of is based on , unstable limit which in turns also showed an acceptable agreement with the experimental values. Finally, the effect of the neutrons number onto the transition probability has also been investigated.

Preparation of Non-Organic Acids Resistant Binder by Using Iraqi Quartzite Rocks

Waleed Y. Al-Ubaide

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 7, Pages 96-112
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40087

The present study discusses the possibility of preparing a type of acids- resistant binder to inorganic acids from materials available in Northern Iraq, to be used in the treatment of cracks that occur in the vats or containers of acid treatment, and may also be considered as a kind of acidic mixture, or paste, that bind types of acids resistant-brick as cementing material.
This work has been focused on the available raw materials such as white Quartzite rock found in appropriate amounts in various parts of Iraq besides to the use of Sodium Silicate (Water Glass) manufactured at Ramadi Glass Factory.
The current research comprises several stages in order to identify the most appropriate conditions for the production of this type of substance (acid proof cement), where the practical side deals with the preparation of raw materials used in the manufacture of this kind of substances.
We selected Quartzite rock to prepare filling materials (fillers), of sizes ranging from (50-300) micron after crushing, grinding, milling and size classification, as well as preparation of samples of cement consisting of different percentages of constituents, and study the impact of the degree of concentration of different acids, the sinking time, and the temperature on the overall qualities of samples prepared with a view to the most appropriate mixtures approved for this purpose.
It was concluded that the most appropriate amounts of the approved mixtures that were components of the solid / liquid ratio (2: 1) and as follows:
• Sodium Silicate (Water Glass): 22 -25 part.
• Silicate powder (Quartzite): 40 -45 part.
• Na-Fluro Silicate) Na2SiF6): 4-7 part.