Volume 19, Issue 4, Summer 2008, Page 1-220

Biochemical Study of Some Enzymes in a Number of Digeneans Cercariae

Mohammed S. Al-Salihi; Kusai A. Al-Chalabi; Ahmed A.Khudhair

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41524

Biochemical studies showed the presence of various significant distinctions in the activity of enzymes in some types of cercariae under study. The highest activity was (4.90 0.26) nmol/min/mg protein for adenosine deaminase in monostome cercaria, (297.30 7.99) mol/min/mg protein for glutathione –S- transferase in microcercous cercaria, (209.40 6.05) mol/min/gm fresh weight for acetylcholinesterase in furcocercous cercariae, (94.67 1.15) enzymatic unit for lactate dehydrogenase in gymnocephalous cercaria. Finally, (23.40 1.08) enzymatic unit for alkaline phosphatase and (7.27 0.25)enzymatic unit for glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase in distome cercaria. Therefore the activity of these enzymes could be used in distinguishing the various types of cercariae.
Electrophoresis technique showed different patterns of bands. Approximate molecular weights for protein bands in various cercariae varied between (25000-676000) Dalton.

Effect of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Garlic Extracts on the Mutagenicity of Short Wave Ultraviolet in Conidia of the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Rafi’a K. Girges; Rafi’ K. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 16-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41528

یتضمن البحث اختبار تاثیر مستخلصات الثوم المائیة والکحولیة على القابلیة التطفیریة للاشعة فوق البنفسجیة القصیرة الموجة (UVC) فی کونیدات الفطر Aspergillus amstelodami، وقد جرى دراسة اربعة تراکیز غیر سامة لکل من المستخلصین المائی والکحولی وکانت تراکیز المسنخلص المائی المدروسة هی (2.5 ، 5 ، 7.5 و 10 ملغم / مل من العالق الکونیدی)، اما تراکیز المستخلص الکحولی فقد کانت (0.5 ، 1 ، 1.5 و 2 ملغم / مل من العالق الکونیدی). وقد اجریت الدراسة بطریقة المعاملة المسبقة فأظهر کل من المستخلصین المائی والکحولی وبالتراکیز المذکورة لکل منهما تاثیرا مثبطا للقابلیة التطفیریة للاشعة فوق البنفسجیة قصیرة الموجة (UVC).

Activity of The Enzymes: Alkaline Phosphatase, 5-Nucleotidase and Acetylcholine Esterase in The Blood and Synovial Fluid for Some Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Hussain I. AL-Khan; Mayada H. AL-Jammas

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 26-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41560

The research dealed with the study of the alkaline phosphatase, 5-nucleotidase and acetyl choline esterase activity in the blood and the synovial fluid of the Rheumatoid arthritis patients. The enzymes activities of the blood of Rheumatoid patients and healthy people have been compared, and of both sexes. Also, a comparison of these activities in the synovial fluid and the blood in 5 patients has been conducted.
The results in the blood showed an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase in male and female patients in different percentages. The activity of 5-nucleotidase remained with in its normal value in both sexes in all age groups, while the activity of acetylcholine esterase decreased in male and female patients in all age groups compared to healthy peoples.
The study of the synovial fluid showed a decrease in alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholine esterase enzymes activity while an increase in the 5-nucleotidase enzyme activity compared with that in blood for the same patients.
Therefore, the activity of the acetylcholine esterase. could be used as new marker for diagnosis rheumatoid artheritis in addition to the existing means.

Study on Intestinal Parasites as a Causative of Diarrhea and Some Effectors on Them in Children of Neinavah Governorate

Najwa Mahfoth; Sagida S. Al -Zako; Zohair I. Ftohe

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 37-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41566

The present study surveyed the intestinal parasites which cause diarrhea in 600 children consulting Ibin-al_Ather hospital in Neinavah governorate for a period of 10 months using both direct smear and concentration technique for examining stool. The total percentage of infection was 64.16% among those referred to the laboratory for stool examination. Four species of parasites were recorded: two species of protozoa, namely: Entamoeba histolytica 36.10% and Giardia lamblia 40.26% and two species of worms namely Hymenolepis nana 19.74% and Enterobius vermicularis 3.89%. Also the study extended to reveal the factors that affect the percentage of infection and symptoms associated with diarrhea.
The highest percentage of infection was in the age 1-2 years and the males had higher infection rate than females and children coming from rural regions more than those coming from urban region.

The Study of Inhibitory Effect of Propolis on Some Gram positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

Zeyad T. Al-Rassam; Mahmood A. Al-Tobje; Adeaba Y. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41569

The inhibitory effect of propolis produced by honey bees was determined for some Gr positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis) and some Gr negative (Klebsiella pnemonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli.), the inhibition was particularly evident on, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumonia. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of porpolis on these three bacteria were determined. These were 2.5 (µg/disc) for Streptococcus pyogenes, 0.25 for Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus .

Histological Structure of the Cyst Wall of Contracaecum larva and the Histopathology in the Stomach of Silurus glanis

Zohair I. Ftohe; Mohammad S.A. Abdul Fraj

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 59-71
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41573

Larvae of Contracaecum sp. were found encysted in the stomach of Silurus glanis in three successive stages namely L2, L3 and L4. The cystes were white in color, elongated and their dimensions were 0.5×0.9 mm. In general, the wall consists of two layers, outer thick and inner thin layers. The outer one consists in turn of collagenous fibers intermingled with epithelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphocytes. While the inner layer consist of collagenous fibers, few fibroblasts, lymphocytes and fibrocytes. The most important histological changes due to the infection with this larva is infiltration of inflammatory cells around the cyst and its cavity , which is represented by macrophages, nucleated cells and acidophils, and in same time occurrence of necrosis, and local aggregation of lymphocytes between the muscle bundles. Also, few pycnotic cells were observed and erythrocytes, macrophages and remnants of cells around the larval cuticle, and the presence of blood vessels surrounding the cyst. Furthermore, dwarfness of intestinal glands and destruction of the epithelial tissue were observed.
As regard the carbohydrate, the cyst walls reacted strongly positive with Periodic acid Schiff, Alcian blue and Best Carmine, while the cyst layer reacted negatively with Toludine blue.
Both cyst walls reacted positively with protein detecting technique including Mercury Bromophenol blue and Ninhydrin Schiff, with lipid detecting technique such as Aceton Sudan Black–B, Feulgen reaction, for detecting DNA, finally, strongly reacted by using Von Kossa technique.

Effect of Zingiber Officinale Rhizomes Powder on Some Physiological , Histological and Biochemical Features in White Male Rabbits

Abeer A. Al-Hadidy; Janan H. Abdul-Fattah; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 72-84
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41984

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Zingiber officinale rhizomes powder in some physiological, histological and biochemical features (7-8) months old in white male rabbits, Rabbits were divided into 2 groups (6 rabbits for each group). The first group was given the standard ration and normal water, the second group was given Zingiber officinal powder (1000 mg/kg) ration daily for 4 weeks. Results showed that the treatment with Zingiber officinale's powder caused a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides a swell as a significant decrease in lowdensity lipoprotein LDL-C level, and increase in highdensity lipoprotein HDL-C level in blood serum, as well as increase of testosterone hormone level in comparison with control group. Histological sections showed some changes of liver tissue as swelling of hepatic cells, enlargement of centeral vein diameter. The testes showed increasing of cell layers lining the seminiferous tubules and increasing of leydig cells number. The adrenal gland showed an appearance of large sinusoids in each of Zona - Fasiculata and Zona – reticularis of the cortex.

Biological Effect of Four Plant Extracts admixed with the Diet of the Third Instar Larvae on Growth and Development of the Larvae, Pupae and Adults of House Fly, Musca domestica L. ( Diptera: Muscidae)

Muneef A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 85-93
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41986

تم أختبار تأثير مستخلصات أربعة أنواع من النباتات التي مزجت مع الغذاء في نمو وتطور العمر اليرقي الثالث للذباب المنزلي Musca domestica L.، وأظهرت النتائج أن لمستخلص أوراق نبات Azadirachta excelsa Jack تأثيراً مميتاً في أطوار الذباب المنزلي بنسبة بلغت 94 % عند التركيز 400 جزء في المليون بعد سبعة أيام من المعاملة، كما سبب المستخلص نفسه ظهور تشوهات مظهرية في العذارى والكاملات، وتشير النتائج الى أن لهذا المستخلص تأثيراً مشابهاً لتأثير منظمات نمو الحشرات. وكان لمستخلص بذور الانيسون Pimpinella anisum L. تاثيراً مميتاً للأطوار ولكن بنسبة لاتزيد عن 50 % عند التركيز 400 جزء في المليون بعد سبعة ايام من المعاملة. وقد أظهر مستخلص قلف الدار صيني Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. تأثيراً ضعيفاً في الأطوار اذ لم تتجاوز نسبة الموت 40 %. بينما لم يكن لمستخلص أوراق عنب الذئب Solanum nigrum L. أي تأثير.

Cellulytic, Pectolytic and Protease Enzymes of the Fungi Trichoderma pseudokomngii, Trichoderma harizianum and Gliocladium roseum Used in Biological Control

Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 94-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41993

The ability of the fungi Trichoderma pseudokomngii, Trichoderma
harizianum and Gliocladium roseum to produce Polygalacturonase (PG),
Polygalacturonase transeliminase (PGT), Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) and protease were studied in culture medium filtrates as well as mycelial mats. The study revealed that (PG) in the culture medium filtrate of each fungus had higher activity than in that in the mycelial mat. While there is no significant difference in it's activity between the culture medium filtrate and mycelial mat in the three fungi (PGT) activity of
T. harizianum culture medium filtrate had significant difference from that of the other fungi wheares (PGT) had significant difference between G. roseum culture medium filtrate and it's mycelial mat. While T. pseudokomngii had the reverse. The results revealed that there is no significant difference in the (CMCase) activity of the culture medium filtrate for T. pseudokomngii and T. harizianum. Also no significant difference has been found in the enzyme activity of the mycelial mat for the three fungi. The enzymeprotease had higher activity in the G. roseum culture medium than of
T. pseudokomngii and T. harizianum .

Combining Ability Analysis of Half Diallel Crosses in Durum Wheat

Mohamed S. Al-Taweel; Ahmed A. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 103-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41997

The parent seeds of Six durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf), (1-Azul-5, 2-Yousef-1, 3-Omgenil-3, 4-Syrian-4, 5-Mrb3/mna-1 and 6-Um-Rabee) and their half diallel crosses were planted in the field of College of Agricultural and Forestry at Hammam AL-Alil during the season 2001 – 2002 using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) with three replications to study the effects of general and specific combining abilities for number of days to 50 % flowering, plant hight, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/plant, Biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, 1000-grain weight and protein percentage. The genotype mean variance (parents and F1) was significant at probability level of 1% for all the traits. General combining ability variance was significant at 1% probability level for all the traits except for 1000-grain weight where as specific combining ability variance was significant at 1% of probability level for all the traits except for number of days to 50% flowering which was significant at 5% of probability level. The ratio of the general combining ability to specific combining ability components was more than one for all the traits except for number of spikes / plant, 1000-grain weight and protein percentage. General combining ability effects for Syrian-4 and Um-Rabee parents were in desirable direction for most traits. The cross Azil-5 × Um-Rabee exhibited desirable effects for general and specific combining ability for all the traits except for the harvest index and protein percentage.

Occurrence of Ligula intestinalis in (Acanthobrama marmid) Fish in Mosul – Iraq

Mnal H. Hasan; Nadeah S. AL-Hayali; Mohsen S. Daoud

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 130-134
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42005

In a study dealing with the occurrence of Ligula intestinalis larvae in 344 (Acanthobrama marmid) (Heckel, 1843) fish during the period from Aug 2000 to March 2001, a total infection rate of 24.12% was observed. The infection rates in male and female fish were 21.25%, 26.63% respectively. The number of the larvae ranged from
1-7 perfish.
The total average length of the obtained larvae were 26.7 cm. The infection fish suffered from genital organs atrophy.

Study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resistance to Hibitane and Formalin

Mahmod Z. Al-Hasso; Subhi H. Khalaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 135-142
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42007

The effect of hibitane and formalin was studied against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial isolates were taken from respiratory, urinary tracts and wound infections.
The sensitivity percentages were recorded to different concentrations of disinfectants in different time intervals. The study showed that Hibitane has a better effect on this bacterium than Formalin, where the isolates were (70%) sensitive to concentration
(2000 gcm3) of Hibitane after (40) minutes of treatment, while their sensitivity percentage to the same concentration of Formalin was (41.7%) after (60) minutes of treatment. The study also showed that sensitivity percentage increases with the increase of disinfectant concentration and treatment time.

Study of Arylesterase and It’s Relationship With Some Clinical Variables in Atherosclerotic Patients in Mosul (Part I)

Thikra A. Allwsh; Rana F. Jasim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 143-157
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42011

The research included a study of (50) samples of blood serum healthy control compared
with (50) samples of atherosclerotic patients. It was found that the normal range of arylesterase activity in control group (117.22 ± 5.03 U/ml), The enzyme activity was not affected by sex and decreased with aging. Also sex and age had no effect on the enzyme activity in patients. A significant decrease in activity, HDL, total protein, albumin and globulin, was found also that a significant increase of total lipids, where as no change was found in total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL and calcium in serum of atherosclerotic patients compared with control group.
Correlation coefficient between arylesterase activity and the clinical variables in control and patients groups showed a linear relationship of arylesterase activity with total protein in control group, with HDL and albumin in patients group.

Isolation and Purification of Arylesterase From Normal Blood Serum(Part II)

Thikra A. AL-Allwsh; Rana F. Jasim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 158-173
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42017

The research included isolation and purification of arylesterase from normal blood serum.The molecular weight of the partially purified enzyme was determined by gel filtration using (Sephadex G75) and SDS electrophoersis techniques. It was found that the first proteinous peak separated from ammonium sulfate saturation of serum with (25 50%) using gel filtration and SDS electrophoresis techniques had apparent molecular weight of (48123 d) and (49185d) respectively.The second proteinous peak separated from serum by gel filtration technique had apparent molecular weight (47305 d).On the other hand, the first proteinous peak separated from HDL serum had a molecular weight (49907 d).
The optimum conditions of arylesterase for the two peaks separated from HDL and ammonium sulfate precipitaion solution showed an optimum reaction incubation time at (12),(10) minutes, an optimum pH at(7.2),(7.6), an optimum temperature(30 C), (25 C) and optimum substrate concentration (4 mM), (4.5 mM) and Vmax value (243.9U/ml), (238.1 U/ml) and Km value (3.07 mM), (3.26 mM) respectively.

Effect of Air Blowing of Qaiyarah Asphalt on The Stability of (Asphalt-Sulfur) Blends

Lubna A. Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 174-190
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42079

Rheological properties of qaiyarah asphalt were modified by air blowing for different intervals of time. Sulfur has been added in different wt. percentages (5,10,15) to the oxidized asphalt.The homogeneity of samples was studied after more than one year of aging.The results of microscopic tests showed improvement in the homogeneity of these blends in comparison with the original asphalt- sulfur blends.

Measurement of the Radiation Dose for the Common Thyrotoxicosis Diseases for the131I by Using Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLDs)

Mohammed T.AL-Hadithy; Assima M. AL-Emmam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 191-204
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42083

One of the major problem for the toxic Goiter is the estimation of absorbed dose, because the increase or the decrease in the dose negatively affects the treatment of the disease. In this research a method was proposed to measure the radiation dose for the enlarged region for some of the diseases of the toxic goiter which is common in the northern part of Iraq using (TLD) dosimeter of (LiF) which can be used generally to measure the radiation dose. It is used here for its great convenience for this disease. The dosimeters are fixed on the enlarged region of the goiter then the patient takes the dose of 131I. The proposed method for measure the radiation dose depend on the analysis of decay scheme of 131I and counting the different emitted energies and its percentages combining this theoretical analysis with the reading of the (TLD) the values of the absorbed dose by the enlarged regions. In this way for measuring the absorbed dose the physician can estimate the future dose.

Determination of the Specific Activity of Cs137 and K40 in Environmental Nineveh Governorate

Ahmad Kh. Emhemed; Rasheed M. Yousuf; Hana Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 205-220
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42085

The background radioactivity of environmental Nineveh governorate was determined by measuring the radioactivity for each one of cesium Cs137 and potassium K40 in soil, plant and milk using highly parity germanium (HPGe) detector with crystal volume (76 cc) and energy resolution (2.2 keV) at the gamma line (1332 keV) of Co60 radioactive calibration source.
The measurements and sampling procedure cover (41) positions from different parts of Nineveh governorate, the results shows that Cs137 specific activity range is:
(15.89 – 70.97) Bq/kg in soil, (1.1 – 3.73) Bq/kg in plant and (o.63 – 2.1) Bq/kg in milk.
While the K40 specific activity range is: (323.86 – 1025.0) Bq/kg in soil,
(210.51 – 599.134) Bq/kg in plant and (200.25 – 480.1) Bq/kg in milk.
It is noted that the results in this work shows good agreement with other literatures and the activity levels are within the reasonable values denoted by authorized agency, as well as the fluctuations in results may be due to the geological and geographical differences.