Volume 19, Issue 2, Spring 2008, Page 1-164

Isolation and Diagnosis of Some Auxins and Cytokinines in Seedlings and Callus of Nigella sativa L.

Rehab A. Al-Baker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42266

This study included detection the content of callus and seedlings of
Nigella sativa L. IAA (Indole-3-acetic Acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid) of Auxins, BA (Benzyl Adenine) and kinetin of the cytokinines, the pure extraction of callus and seedlings were prepared by the use of 80 % Ethanol, diagnosis of plant growth regulators was carried out by using thin layer chromatography technique (TLC) which proved that Rf values of spots separated from callus were (0.97 / 0.62 / 0.96) which were nearly to that Rf values of the spots of standards of IAA, 2,4-D and BA which were (0.95 / 0.67 / 0.96) respectively. Also the results showed that the Rf values of spots separated from seedling extract were (0.94 / 0.78 / 0.95) which were nearly that Rf of IAA, BA and kinetin (0.95 / 0.74 / 0.96) respectively.
colorimetric method depended on salkoweski reagent was used for estimation of IAA in callus and seedling extracts of Nigella sativa, the results showed that seedling content of IAA almost reached to 20 Mg/g fresh weight, while callus extract gives 11 Mg/g fresh weight.

The Effect of Eucalyptus and Orange Leaves Added to the Soil on Germination and Growth of Four Ornamental Plants

Janan Saeed; Fatin K. Ibraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 15-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42305

The experiment was conducted on green house to investigate the addition effect of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L.) and Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) on seed germination and growth of four species of the ornamental plants ( Dimorphothica aurantiaca L., Chrysanthemum carinatum L., Calendula officialis L. and Gaillardia pulchella L.).
The results showed that the effects of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus and Orange which added to the soil (Separately) caused the reduction in the percentage of seed germination of the plants. As for growth a decrease in plants planted in soils containing fresh Eucalyptus leaves, while an increase in plants planted in soils containing Orange leaves.
The results also showed different in the responses of the ornamental plants species to the allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus and Orange leaves added to the soil, it appeared that Dimorphothica aurantiaca L. and Chrysanthemum carinatum L. were more sensitive to the allelopathic effect for these trees, while Calendula officialis L. and Gaillardia pulchella L. were less sensitive for these trees.

Genetic Effect of the Antifungal Griseofulvin in Aspergillus amstelodami

Hiba K. Mahmood; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 26-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42307

The present work aimed at investigating two genetic aspects of the antifungal Griseofulvin (GRF) in the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus amstelodami.The first was its ability to act as a mutagen and the second was its ability to act as a photosensitizer for the DNA to be mutated by the non-mutagenic near UV(NUV). To this end, four sublethal or subinhibitory concentrations (500, 1000, 1250, 1500 g/ml) of the antifungal were tested for their ability to induce forward mutations resist to the toxic base analogue 8-azaguanine(azg) in conidia of this fungus.Within the experimental conditions specified in the present work,non of these two endpoints was fulfilled.

The Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Nerium oleander and Melia azedarach on Growth of Trichomonas vaginalis In vitro

Hussain I. Arteen; Rana S. Abdallah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 39-51
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42312

The present study involved the poisonous effect of an aqueous extract of Nerium oleander leaves and Melia azedarach fruits on Trichomonas vaginalis, growing on Diamond’s medium (TYM) enriched with 10% of inactivated human plasma.
The results indicated that these extracts have poisonous effect on T. vaginalis. The uses of concentrations 0.5, 1, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5 mg/ml for leaves extract of N. oleander and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 1.75, 2 mg/ml for fruits extract of M. azedarach, caused gradual inhibition of trichomonad numbers proportioned with the increase of concentration during different growth periods 24-48-72 hours.
The high concentrations 2.5 mg/ml for leaves extract of N. oleander and 2 mg/ml for fruits extract of M. azedarach caused inhibition of the trichomonads growth at rates 66.6% and 68.8% respectively during 72 hours of growth.
It was observed that these extracts have an effect on number of generation which decreased during different growth periods between 0.26±0.12 to 1.57±0.22 and 0.4± 0.08 to 1.53±0.13 generation in contrast with control 1.84±0.14 to 3.17±0.04 for N. oleander and 1.48±0.13 to 3.22±0.06 for M.azedarach_when high concentrations of N. oleander leaves and M. azedarach fruits extracts were used respectively. It was also observed that these extracts had an effect on generation time which increased with increasing of concentrations used during different growth periods.
The IC50 concentrations for extracts were determined which were 2 and 1.75 mg/ml for N. oleander and M. azedarach, respectively, during 72 hours of growth.

Effect of Soil Extracts of Sunflower Residue In Germination and Growth of Wheat and Sunflower Cultivers

Salah M. Saied; Wasan S. Hussan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 52-64
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42316

Laboratory experiments were conducted to find the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower residue added to soil of )local and Syrian caltivar ( in the four growth stages )seedling, elongation, flowering and maturity (at three concentrations )2.5,1.5, 0.5 %( w.w in germination and growth of wheat and sunflower cultivars. The result showed that aqueous extracts of sunflower )Syrian( caused the reduction in germination percentage, plumule and radical growth of sun flower and wheat.
The statistical analysis of the results showed a significant difference between wheat and sunflower in sensitivity to the effect of aqueous extracts of sunflower residue (Amrabee) wheat cultivar and (local) cultivar of sunflower gave best germination and growth rates.

Estimation of Glutathione in Three Organs of Experimentally Infected Mice by Trichomonas vaginalis Parasite

Maha A.AL-Samak; Ramzia H. Abdul Rahman; Wahda A. Khrofa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 65-71
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42323

The result of this study showed that there is decrease in the level of glutathione in the liver, kidney and heart tissues of infected mice by Trichomonas vaginalis after comparison with the control group at the at a level of (P ≤ 0.5).
This maybe gave an indicator to the oxidative harm injury or to decrease in the glutathione synthesis or building in body, which give indicator to that the infection by Trichomonas vaginalis affected negatively on the level of tissue glutathione in experimentally infected mice by this parasite.
The present study detected the level of glutathione in the tissues of infected mice by Trichomonas vaginalis to study the ability of this parasite to effect in the glutathione tissues of these mice which maybe is the one co- factor that increase the virulence of the parasite.

Histological and some Histochemical Studies on Hydatid Cyst Wall of Echinococcus granulosus in Human

Hamad J. Jumaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 72-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42326

The present study is concerned with histological structure and histochemical composition of hydatid cyst layers of Echinococcus granulous from liver and lungs of naturally infected human being.
Through histological techniques the laminated layer appeared as series of contiguous laminations emerging from germinal layer like U shape such a result is rarely obtained. A comparative study also deals with a histochemical components of both layers of the cyst including neutral carbohydrates glucose, glycoprotein, proteins , lipids , deoxyribonucleic acid and calcium.
The histochemical study of the cyst layers laminated and germinal, has revealed that they consist of complex compounds lik neutral mucopolysaccharids, glucose , glycoproteins, glycolipids and 1, 2 glycols materials, in addition to the more hyaluronic acid, sulphated and carboxylated mucopolysaccharirs with various concentrations in both laminated and germinal layers, with proteins, particularly bound proteins were also observed. It is noticed that the germinal layer contained lipids particularly lipoproteins and phospholipids and calcium more than the laminated layer. It was also observed that the laminated layer lacks glycogen. On the other hand, the germinal layer contains glycogen, as well ascalcareous corpuscles and deoxyridonucleic acid .

The Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Siwak Plant Salvadora persica on Lactic Acid Bacteria Streptococcus and Lactobacillus spp. Isolated from Human Mouth

Esraa H. Ghanim; Adeeba Y. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 88-93
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42330

The study includes the isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria which are considered as members of normal flora of the human mouth. These include the Lactobacillus and Streptococcus spp. on Mitis Salvarus Agar medium. Identification of these bacteria was performed depending on morphological and biochemical crieteria and the following species were identified: Lactobacillus casie, Lact. brevis, Lact. acidophilus, Lact .salivarius, Lact. fermenti, Streptococcus mitis, Str. salivarius, The study includes also the effect of the aqueous extract of Salvadora persica on the isolated bacteria which showed antiseptic effect on all species under the study

Study About the Use of (Alfalfa) Medicago sativa Extract in Preparing of Culture Media for Microorganism Growing

Muhsin A. Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 94-100
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42334

In this work the ability of (Alfalfa) Medicago sativa extract in preparing of culture for microorganism growing was estimated, results shows that the wet plant extract was most efficient than dried plant and the (Alfalfa) medium was suitable for growing the different type of gram negative and positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus shows best growing, the growth of all types of bacteria was best at local medium in comparison with foreign medium (Nutrient agar) and it was found that the weight 60g/L of wet plant was suitable in medium preparation.

The Effects of Some Single Bacterial Isolates and Combination between them on Biodegradation of 2- Kirkuk Crude Oil

Yaseen Owaied

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 101-115
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42335

This study was conducted to show the ability of some isolates of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Actinomyces spp. and the combination between the three bacterial isolates to biodegrade Kirkuk crude oil. The results indicated that the combination were higher activity on crude oil and reached more than 82%. When Pseudomonas aeruginosa shown biodegradation percent more than 65% on crude oil, But Bacillus subtilis was more than 68% crude oil. The ability of Actinomyces spp. to biodegrade crude oil show more than 45%.
When depending by use analysis through Gas-Chromatography and Infra-Red Spectrum furthermore the viable count as another scientific indicators has been added to confirm the occurrence of biodegradation. The results showed that the viable count of the isolates increased with the time of incubation period at 28 days on crude oil, which that confirms the ability of isolates of strains in this study for a highly used of the component of this crude oil in growth.

Studying Some of the Extracts and Isolated Proteinous Compounds From Apple (Pyrus malus) in Mice Exposed to Oxidative Stress

Mohammed B. Al-Saadon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 116-133
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42341

This study was conducted to prepare cold and boiled aqueous extracts of Pyrus malus fruits, and thens to isolate extracts of alkaloid, flavonoids and glycosides for this plant. The study also comprised the sisolation and study the proteinous compounds, one of the techniques used to isolation was the gel filtration technique which was isolated two compounds A (166226) Dalton, B (2925) Dalton from the cold proteinous precipitate and two compounds A (34609) Dalton, B (719) Dalton from the boiled proteinous precipitate. The effects of these extracts and compounds previously mentioned above were studied on serum glucose, total cholesterol, total lipids, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, also glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver, kidney and heart tissues in mice exposed to oxidative stress. These extracts were administrated intraperitoneally.
After one week from the treatment the results were indicated that the cold and boiled crude aqueous, non proteinous extracts, proteinous precipitate and proteinouse compounds (B) which were isolated from it at the doses of 500,500,490.35, 491.66, 9.65,8.34,5.07,3.836) mg/kg body weights ,also the alkaloids, flavonoids at the doses of (0.52,0.31) mg/kg body weights were caused a significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum glucose, total cholesterol, total lipids, LDL-C levels and MDA level in liver, kidney and heart tissues, with an associated significant increase (p<0.05) in serum HDL-C level and GSH level in liver, kidney and heart tissues in mice exposed to oxidative stress. Finally we suggested most of extracted isolated from fruits of apple (especially the extract of flavonoids) have antioxidant in mice exposed to oxidative stress.

Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in some Marble Samples used as Building Materials

Rasheed M. Yousuf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 134-143
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42343

A comprehensive and short term method has been employed to determine the radioactive contamination from natural sources. So, the natural gamma ray spectrum analysis technique using HPGe have been used to measure the emitted gamma lines from the radioactive isotopes. The specific activity of 238U, 232Th series as well as 40K was determined in the studied samples, which are consisted of eleven types of marble used as building material.

The Effect of Al Concentration in The Window Layer on the Efficiency of p- Ga1-xAlxAs/p-n GaAs Solar Cell

Huda M. Muneer; Bassam M. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 144-164
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42346

In this research a theoretical method was introduced to calculate the efficiency of GaAs solar cell, with a window layer (which epitaxially grown to prevent the surface recombination process caused by surface defects) which contains Al and the effect of variation of Al concentration on the efficiency of the solar cell, where we consider the window layer as a forth layer in the energy band diagram for the photovoltaic cell. Because of the lack of information about the necessary and essential variables for calculating the efficiency like absorption coefficient, effective mass of carriers, refractive index, ..etc. This variables was calculated by numerical methods using the few existing experimental information's. Absorption coefficient, refractive index, permittivity, coefficient and diffusion lengths and relaxation times for Al concentrations (0 – 45 %) and for the effective wavelengths were calculated and used to find the efficiency at the former Al concentrations.