Volume 18, Issue 2, Spring 2007, Page 1-133

Numerical Taxonomy for Genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) in North of Iraq

Zeravan A. S; Saleem I. Shahbaz; Amer M. AL Maa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42626

The present research included numerical taxonomy for the genus Crataegus L. which is growing in Iraq and represented by the following five taxa namely: (Crataeques azarolus var. aronia, C.azarolus var. pontica, C. azarolus var. sharania , C. monogyna and C. meyeri) by using morphological, pollen grains and Chromosomal number features.
The results showed that the similarity range among the species was 30-68% and the highest Similarity was 68% found between the C. azarolus var. aronia and C. azarolus var. sharania.
In dendrogram the taxa meet at (51%) level of similarity, indicating awide range of Variation among the taxa of this genus.

Induction of Malformation of the External Eye with Adhesive Parts and Other External Malformations Caused by a Single Dose of Hypervitaminosis A in Swiss Mouse Embryo

Hamad J. Juma; Janan H. Abdul-Fattah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 16-29
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42628

The result of this study shows a new type of eye malformations, when the pregnant mice were injected intraperitoneally in the 7th day of gestation, with a single dose of 15,000 IU of VA. We suggest to call this malformation as the external eye with adhesive and hard components. The external eye appeared in all living embryos and the histological studies showed five different forms of it. A description of other external malformations were discussed in details.

The Effect of Parasitism on Some Piochemical Compounds in Liver of Acanthobrama marmid Infected with Pseudochetosoma salmincola (Digenea) and Ligula intestinalis (Tapeworme)

Mohammad S. Al-Salehi; Baidda H. Al-Khayat

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 30-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.6918

The dissection of (312) of A. marmid shows that (112) fishes were infected with digeneans parasite Pseudochetosoma salmincola, (43) infected with larva of tapeworm Liagula intestinalis (single infection) and (30) with double infection.
The result of statistical analysis show that the single infection with digeneans trematode and larva of cestode have significant effect on biochemical changes in the liver of A. marmid. A significant decrease has been found in the total concentrations of protein, glycogen, cholesterol and also in the activity of GPT and GOT, while there was an increase in the activity of AlP and AcP. However, the double infection have greater effect on the biochemical changes than single infection.

Effect of Different Periods of Exposure to Passive Smoking on Internal Diameter and Thickness of Lung Arteriolesin Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

Hamad J. Jumaa; Qussay M. Al-Dakheel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 41-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.6934

In the present work, the effect of different periods of exposure to passive smoking on arterioles of rabbit lung were investigated. Results showed changes in internal diameter and wall thickness of arterioles when exposed to passive smoking at different periods. Decreasing in internal diameter and increasing in thickness of arterioles have been also demonstrated histologically and statisticaly.

Study of Properties and Activity of Cytidine Deaminase in Serum and Erythrocytes by a Colorimetric Method

Zahraa M. Hammodat

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 51-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.6923

A colorimetric method was developed for determination cytidine deaminase activity in serum and erythrocyte haemolysate. This method based on estimation the amount of ammonia produced from conversion of cytidine into uridine. The optimum conditions of the enzyme using this method were obtained.
The result showed that maximum activity of cytidine deaminase by the method above in serum and erythrocyte haemolysate was obtained using (100 mM) and (200 mM) of buffer solution sodium phosphate for serum and erythrocyte respectively at pH (7.5) and (2mM) cytidine as a substrate and (75µL) serum and (50 µL) erythrocyte haemolysate as a source of enzyme for (45 min) and (30 min) serum and erythrocytes haemoly sate at (35 ºC).
Moreover, the results of the study also predicted that presence of some amino acids such as histidine, glutamic in the reaction solution activate the enzyme activity, while some metal salts such as MgCl2, CoCl2, KCl and CuCl2 inhibited the activity.

Effect of Atenolol on the Level of Lipids in Hypertensive Patients

Mahdi S. Yassen; Mahdi S. Yassen

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 64-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.6924

This clinical study was designed to evaluate the effect of Atenolol at a dose of (100 mg / day) on the level of serum lipids namely total choleterol (T-cho), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C), very ow density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C) as well as the ratios of LDL-C/HDL-C and T-cho/HDL-C. (152) patients were diagnosed as having hypertension, (112) of them were treated with Atenolol (tenormin) (100mg/day), the remaining (40) patients have been hypertensives who have not been treated for hypertension and for the sake of comparison, samples have been taken from (40) normal individuals (the control group) of both sexes.
It was found that Atenolol increased the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C, T-cho/HDL-C, TG, VLDL-C, LDL-C and T-cho while it decreased the level of HDL-C in blood serum of both sexes as compared with the non treated hypertensives. The results also demonstrated that hypertension caused an increase in the LDL-C/HDL-C and T-cho/HDL-C ratios, LDL-C, TG, VLDL-C and T-cho while it caused slight decrease in HDL-C in blood serum of both sexes as compared with control group.
Nevertheless, it was found that the increase in the ratio of T-cho/HDL-C and the levels of TG, VLDL-C and T-cho in blood serum of hypertensive females was slightly greater than that in their counter part males.

Using X-Ray Radiation Film and Geiger Counter For Measurement the Density of the Solid Materials

Qusay KH. Al-dulamey; Ayad J. Jarjes

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 77-86
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.6932

يهدف البحث إلى إيجاد طريقة بسيطة وعملية لقياس كثافة المواد الصلبة باستخدام فلم الأشعة السينية وعداد كايكر ككاشف للأشعة السينية وأشعة كاما لما يملكه من مواصفات إن الاختلاف بين القيم العملية والنظرية لكثافة المواد يعود إلى عدم نقاوة المادة الماصة للأشعة فضلا عن نسبة الخطأ في القياس.

Establishment of Calibration Curve for Optical Density Measurement Devices for the Two Methods of Development of X-Ray Film by 241Am and Comparison with Theoretical Results

Qusay KH. Al-Dulamey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 87-98
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42635

The aim of this study is to find calibration curve for the densitometer that measures the optical density, because of the error associated with the instrument measurements due to the reduction of efficiency because of the instrument ageing. The calibration is done for the instrument when the film is processed manually and automatically. A comparison with the theoretical results is made.

Measurement of the Percentage Surface Dose Using in Nuclear Medicine and the Factors Acting on it

Khalid A. Jassim; Rawaa N. Al-Shammary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 99-110
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.6926

All radiotherapy photon beams are accompanied to some extent by secondary electrons, which originate by interactions with lead collimators, shadow trays and the air through which the beam passes.
Surface dose, the shape of the dose build-up curve and the depths of the maximum dose are all influenced by this electron contamination.
The aim of this study is to measure the radiation dose in electron build-up region, the skin surface and to qualify the electron contamination and the factors acting on it such as source – surface distance (SSD) and field size (FS). The present study of a Co-60 teletherapy source employs a LiF / Teflon thermoluminescent detectors to measure the surface dose in perspex phantom. Percentage surface dose was measured at source-surface distances of (60 cm) to (90 cm), with an open beam using (5x5 cm2, 10x10 cm2, 15x15 cm2, 20x20 cm2, 25x25 cm2) beam size as defined at the surface.

Quality Difference Between Two Location on Tigris River Within Mosul City

Muna H. Jankeer; Muath H. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 111-124
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.6927

Tigris River is one of the main important surface water resources in Iraq. This necessitates continuous study of its quality. In this regard two locations had been chosen to be studied through 12 month, starting from April (2000) up to March (2001). The study included testing of some physical and chemical parameters of the two locations. The locations were first at Msherfa village (water treatment plant), before the river enters the city of Mosul, the other is down stream at Al-Bosafe (water treatment plant). Waste water as much as 400000 m3/day of different kinds reaches the river within Mosul City. Sanitary waste is assumed as the main part; accordingly some parameters surpass international recommended levels, mainly organic load and the hardness. Eutrophication phenomenon was clear too, due to change in taste, color and odor of the raw water during summer time. Turbidity due to organic load was quite clear due to the organic load and the main nutrient of nitrogen and phosphorous. Finally the drop in pH did occur probably due to carbon dioxide liberated from organic compounds cracking. Results of the studied locations reflected that Tigris river water quality was beyond the international recommended standard of raw water; conventional raw water treatment plant could not treat and improve such quality of raw water and restoring it to be within the international recommended levels of water supply.

The Injection of "Slime" Slurry for Treatment of Dissolution Problems at the Foundation Rocks of the Site of the State Company for Phosphate Plants, Al-Qaim, Western Iraq

Salim M. Al-Dabbagh; Kotayba T. Al-Youzbakey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 125-133
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42631

Sulfuric acid pollution still represents constructional problems at the basement rocks of the State Company for Phosphate. According to the concepts of the geochemical engineering, such problem can be treated by slime slurry injection (ssi). The data of laboratory experiments show that the ssi leads to: 1. induced gypsum cementation reaction in carbonate basement rock and make them less porous i.e. increase its compressive strength and 2. fill in dissolution cavities and channels with gypsum crystals which decrease the rate of migration of underground water to adjacent constructions of the manufacture of sulfuric acid production. The present study suggest few additions to increase the efficiency of achievement of ssi goals.