Volume 18, Issue 6, Autumn 2007, Page 1-195

Effect of the Toxic Culture Filtrate of the Fungus Stemphylium botryosum on the Growth of Some Fungi and on the Germination of Some Plant Seeds

Anfal M. Jalal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42480

Results of study the effect of culture filterate of Stemphylium botryosum on the germination percentage of barley, Lentil, wheat and chichpea seeds (in vitro), showed significant inhibition on germination which reached 100% in chichpea seeds.
As for plumule and radical lengths, the results indicated different degrees of inhibition ,minimum of which was the lentil seeds. The effect of different concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 %) of the filterate on the growth of some fungi (Cladosporinm herbarum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarinm oxysproum, Macrophomina phaseolina) was demonstrated by the 20% concentration as it caused inhibitions in the growth of M. phaseolina and F. oxysproum 11% and 33% respectively. While the other concentration had no inhibitory effect on the fungi.

Serotyping and Biotyping of Haemophilus influenzae Which Isolated from Patients and Carrier in Mosul City

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Hiyam A. Al-Tai

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 10-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42484

Isolation and identification of bacteria Haemophilus influenzae were done from 286 bacteria cultures of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) from patients and from 1420 randomly collected carrier samples including 710 samples of each of nasopharynx throat children of both sex with age between after birth - 12 years in Mosul city.
Isolation and identification of bacteria Hi were done by using morphological, cultural and biochemical tests Differentiation between capsulated and non- capsulated strains also were done. Then all isolates were identified with respect of serotyping to determine serotype b in both infection and carrier isolates. As well as biotyping of all isolates were done to determine predominant biotypes within all NCHi and CHi strains.
The results showed that 41 CSF bacteria cultures were positive, from those 63.4 % were H. influenzae while the positive isolates from carrier samples were 387 (27.3 %) from these 206 were nasopharynx isolates and 181 were throat isolates.
The results also showed that percent of CHi strains from infection and carrier isolates were 100 and 40.8 %.
Serotyping results pointed out that all of infection isolates were returned to serotype b, while 39.5 % of Hi carrier isolates were serotype .
The results of biotyping indicated that biotype I was predominant with 88.5 % in infection isolates, while biotypes II and I and were more frequent in carrier isolates with 25.9 and 25.3 % respectively. As well as the results indicated that biotype I was predominant in CHi strain while biotype II was more frequent in NCHi strains.

Detection of Some Virulence Factors of Enterobacter Cloacae Isolated from Children Diarrhea Cases in Mosul

Adeeba Y. Shareef; Sarab D. Sulayman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42488

Some virulence factors of Enterobacter cloacae which isolated from children diarrheal cases under six year of age were detected. Enterotoxins production were detected using the rapid and delayed skin permeability tests of rabbit and the suckling infant mouse. The rapid permeability and the suckling infant mouse test showed positive responses regarded as an index for the production of heat stable enterotoxin however the delayed permeability test was negative which was probably an indication for the absence of heat labile enterotoxin.
The production of alkaline phosphatase and protease were detected in both cell free supernatant and lysate supernatant. The specific activities of both were 2.120 , 0.120 unit/cm3/min/mg protein in cell free supernatant. No activity were seen in lysate supernatant. This indicates the ability of this bacteria to produce these enzymes extracellularly.

The Effect of Four Chemicals as Scolicides on The Hydatid Cyst of Echinococcus granulosus in Vivo

Zohair I. Rahemo; Rhedaa N. Al-Hammo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 32-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42490

Four chemicals were compared for their in vivo scolicidal action upon the hydatid scolices of Echinococcus granulosus both in intact cysts and after injection into albino mice. These chemicals are acetic acid, tartaric acid, ethyl alcohol and povidine-iodine. It could be concluded that acetic acid( 1%, 2% and 3%), tartaric acid (10 % and 15 %), povidine-iodine (10%) are good scolicidals and may be recommended for use in surgical operations, because after treatment of the scolices with these chemicals in the above concentrations, no secondary hydatid cysts were developed in the albinon mice.

The Role of Laboratory Techniques Diagnosis of Cryptosporidiosis in Children in Ninevah Governnorate

Muhson S. Daoud; Layan Y. Khalil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42492

The present study covered a diagnostic study by which the Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in 302 samples, taken from children, using five laboratory techniques (Iodine staining, sugar flotation, modified acid fast (hot) stain, modified acid fast (cold) stain (Kinyoun) and formalin sedimentation technique), the total infection reached 20.52% in children aged from 6 days till 5 years, maximum rate of infection was 40.90% in children more than 2 to 3 months, while it wasn’t found in more than 2-5 years.
The study showed an infection rate among females 64.52% and 35.48% in males.
The study recorded a higher rate of infection using iodine staining technique 20.52% followed by sugar flotatin 19.20% then modified acid fast (hot) stain 15.23% formalin sedimentation 13.91% and finally modified Kinyoun cold modified stain 9.27% in children. As such the best technique for diagnosis was iodine staining with a 100% efficiency and 39.61% for sugar flotation technique, 67.79% for formalin sedimentation, while the efficacy of modified acid fast (hot) stain was 74.22% and 45.18% for modified acid fast (Kinyoun) cold stain.
The average diameter measurement of Cryptosporidium of oocysts was 4.3 micron . More clinical sign appeared was diarrhea 100% and abdominal pain 14.50% is the less.
Among children with artificial feeding the infection rate was 67.47% and 19.40%, 12.90% in breast and mixed feeding respectively.

The Effect of Some Physical and Chemical Inhibitors on Growth of Legionella pneumophila

Amera M. Al-Rawi; May A. Al-Allaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 48-55
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42494

This study involved the effect of some physical inhibitors such as heat, ultraviolet light and microwave radiation as well as some chemical inhibitors such as ethyl alcohol, propanol alcohol, gluteraldehyde and formalin at different concentrations on inhibiting the bacterial growth of Legionella pneumophila which isolated from different water sources, cooling towers, waterbath showers water and sewage water and identified by using the primary and selective media.Then,the results showed that the bacteria can’t grow in those concentrations of inhibitors which were subjected to it.

Invitrogenesis of Renal Struvite Stone

Rasha N. AL-Sa’doon; Amera AL-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 56-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42498

The study aimed designation of a continuous culture of P. mirabilis which isolated from urine of patients with renal stones and Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) by using artificial urine and similar conditions to that of human urinary system, the bacteriaum exhibit ability to form struvite stone crystals. Then a number of chemical tests were done on a precipitate that formed and the results showed that it consists of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus in addition to investigation on bacteria in it. The effects of alkaline, acid and neutral materials were studied, the preciptates were soluble in acidic and neutral solutions but not in alkaline. A comparison was carried out on the quantity of preciptate with time and the ability of bacteria to stimulate crystallization in surplus urine from the continuous culture was tested in different pH values, the quantity of crystals formed depend on calcium and magenisium concentrations in urine.

Histopathological Effects of Alcohol on the Brain of Male White Mice

Ilham A. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 74-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42500

This study revealed the presence of histopathological changes of mice brain, through the treatment of alcohol. It is represented by increase in the number of glial cells and congestion of blood vessels of the choroid plexus or thickening of wall of others. Moreover there is infilteratron of monocytes, necrosis and vacculation in neurons and glial cells. In cerebellum the histopathological changes was represented by necrosis and vacculation of astrocytes in the molecular layer and atrophy in granular layer and purkinje's cells.

Genetical Analysis of variances for Early Generation in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Manal A. Abd AL-Hayale; Najeeb K. Yousif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 84-96
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42503

Six early generations (P1,P2 ,F1,F2,B1,and B2) of two crosses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pandas × Gemeney and S3- 69 × S6-S3 , were used to study components of variances for maturity time ,plant height ,flag leaf area, grain yield and its components. The phenotypic variance for the studied characters in six generations for each cross was analyzed to estimate : additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, additive – dominante genetic covariance, heritability and expected genetic advance from selection in F2 generation. Average degree of dominance revealed all the types of dominance for the studied traits. The dominant genes for most of the traits were found in pandas and S3-69. The values of narrow sense heritability was high and significant for : number of spikes and grain yield in the first cross,spike length , weight of 100 grains and number of grains per spike in the second cross : Dricet selection can be used to improve the spik length in the first cross. Recurrent selection can be used to increase the frequency of the desirable alleles for other traits.

Production of α­ Amylase by a local Isolate of the Fungus Aureobasidium pullulans

Shimal Y. Abdul-Hadi; Taha A. W. Khmis; Mohamad Bashir I. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 97-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42507

A local isolate of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was obtained from house ceilings in Mosul city . The isolate was identified as A. pullulans on the basis of appearance of polymorphism in the colonies , melanin pigment and pullulan production in flask cultures. α- Amylase production by the local isolate was compared with a standard isolate of the fungus A. pullulans ATCC 42023 . Production of α- Amylase by the local isolate slightly exceeded that produced by the standard isolate . Production of α- Amylase by the local and standard isolate was 4.4 and 4.08 unit / ml respectively after four days incubation .

Isolation and Identification of Plesiomonas Shigelloides and Study of Its Physiological Characteristics, Sensitivity of Antibiotics and Identifying Key

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Yousra Y. Agha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 105-118
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42510

In an attempt to isolate Plesiomonas shigelliodes a total of 257 various specimens were collected. These includes 127 diarrhoeal stools, 50 sewage water, 50 tap water and 30 appendices. A total of 28 isolates of this bacteria were identified. The numbers of isolates and their percentages were 21 (16.5 %) in diarrhoeal specimens, 5 (5.1 %) from sewage water and 2 (6.7 %) from appendices. Other specimens were negative for this bacteria. The isolates were characterized by using standard identification tests and were found to be all cytochrome - oxidase positive, motile, inositol fermenters and glucose oxidizing – fermenting and able of decarboxylation of amino acids. However, the isolates were negative to esculin, sheep blood haemolysis and production of Gelatinase, Lipase, DNase and Urease. They were ß- Lactamase positive. But sensitive to Gentamycin, Nalidixic acid and Ciprofloxacin. Through the project a most suitable transport and isolation media and flow sheet for the identification were suggested .

Effect of Equisetum arvense and Urtica piluifera plant extracts on growth of Leishmania tropica promastigotes In vitro

Hussain I. Arteen; Hussain F. Hassan; Balsam K. Al-Fahhady

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 119-132
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42513

The poisnous effect of each Equisetum arvense and Urtica piluifera extracts dissolved in cold and hot water, on Leishmania tropica. The results revealed, that these extracts were studied has inhibitory effect on L. tropica promastigotes number, the number of L. tropica decreased gradually by using 0.1 to 2.5 mg/cm3 concentrations of these extracts. Moreover, the extracts effect on number and time of generation, indicated that the generation number decreased. And generation time, increased by the extracts during the treatment period, where IC50 values were 1.5 mg/cm3 of Equisetum arvense extract and 1 mg/cm3 of Urtica piluifera extract dissolved in cold and hot water during the log phase.

Effect of BA and 2,4 – D on growth of nodes of Melissa officinalis L. in vitro

Rehab A. AL – Baker; Hana S. Al – Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 133-143
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42516

Melissa officinalis L. has been used for in vitro culture to study the effect of ethanol,sodium hypochlorite and Mercury Chloride ( with different concentrations ) on the viability of explant , controlling contamination and effect of addition 10 -3 , 10-5 , 10-7 molar BA and 2,4 – D to MS medium , each was added to the culture medium alone or with interaction between them. The results showed that using Mercury Chloride as sterilant at 0.025 g/100ml for 1.5 min was the most effective , also the results showed that addition of BA and 2,4 – D to MS medium at different concentrations , affect variably the response of explants to initiate callus or to regenerate shoots , which was noticed at 25 and 50 days after culture . It was shown that 10-3 and 10 -5 Molar of both BA and 2,4–D causes death of explants after 25 days of culture . Addition of 10 -7 Molar of 2,4–D to the culture medium alone or with 10-7 Molar BA was effective in stimulating the explants to regenerate shoots with wellgrown leaves , shoots reached to 3.7 and 3.9 cm respectively represented by the mean of length, number of leaves grown were 9.0 on both treatments , It was observed that explants grown on medium with 10-7 and 10-5 Molar of 2,4 – D and BA respectively were able to regenerate few roots after 50 days of culture . The optimum treatment for callus production was 10-5 Molar of 2,4 – D .

Effect of Experimental Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Eyes of Embryos and Newborns of White Mice

Hamad J. Jumaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 144-160
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42518

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathological changes that occur in the eyes of fetuses of female mice, infected, experimentally, with Toxoplasma gondii. Placentas of women aborted due to Toxoplasma gondii constituted the source of the parasite used in this study. Propagation of the parasite was done in White Swiss Balb/C mice. Following mating of these mice, suspensions of placentas were prepared and used for experimental infection of mice at 10, 15 and 20 days of pregnancy. Additionally, 1-2 days old new borne mice from experimentally infected mothers were also examined.
Histopahtological examination of the eyes of fetuses from mice that were given the inoculum at the 10th day of pregnancy revealed hemorrhages and necrosis of the optic nerve tissue, thinning of the retina, necrosis and sloughing of internal layer of the retina. The parasite was not seen in the eyes sections. When the inoculum was given at the 15th day of pregnancy, focal necrosis and sloughing of the internal layer of the retina as well as detachment of the retina were seen. Toxoplasma gondii organisms were not detected. Giving the inoculum on the 20th day of pregnancy has caused fragmentation of the eye lense and the accumulation of tissue debris near the lense. Vacular degeneration of the various layers of the retina. The parasite was not seen in the eye sections. Histopathological examination of eyes of 2 days old new borne mice from mothers that have been given the placental suspension before mating revealed focal necrosis of the internal layer of the retina and detachment of the necrotic foci. Detachment of the retina and the presence of forms of Toxoplasma gondii in the retina were also noticed.

Isolation and Identification of Moraxella Catarrhalis From Cases of Eye Infections

wy Rana I. AL- Sabaa; Rana I. AL- Sabaa; Adeba Y. AL-Nomaan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 161-167
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42519

The study included isolation and identification of Moraxella catarrhalis which causes eye infection.
Samples were collected from 200 patients (105 Male, 95 Female) at Al-Zahrawi and Al-Salam general hospitals, their ages range from 15 days-80 years.
The samples were taken from different parts of the eye including (conjunctiva, cornea, eye lids, sclera and lacrimal duct). And the percentages found to be of bacterial infection of the eye was 48% infection of conjunctiva from the majority of them 90.5% of these infection, eye lids 5.5%, cornea 3%, sclera 0.5% and lacrimal duct 0.5% ,the other percentage 52%(104 samples) it is either viral, fungal, parasitcal or allergical cause.
Moraxella forms 11.5% of all bacterial infection of the eye and it was diagnosed as Moraxella catarrhalis by tributyrin test which differentiates it from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Effect of passive smoking on the number of Clara cells in respiratory bronchiols of domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus

Qussay M. Al-Dakheel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 168-181
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42520

The study investigated the effect of the length of periods of exposure / months to passive smoking on the numbers of Clara cells in the epithelial tissues of terminal bronchiols of rabbit lungs.
Results showed significant increase in the numbers of Clara cells in rabbits exposed for two hours (10 cig./day) to passive smoking during six months.

Effect of Different Concentrations of Ammonium Nitrate and Potassium Nitrate in Growth and Differentiation of Lettuce Plant (Lactuca sativa L.) and Protein content

Amjad A. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 182-195
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42521

The results indicated that addition of (82.5 and 95) g/L NH4NO3 and KNO3 respectively to MS medium enhanced greatly shoot formation after (60) days of growth. The MS medium supplemented with (16.5 and 19) g/L NH4NO3 and KNO3 respectively greatly promote the formation of large number of roots. The best medium sustained callus growth was MS medium supplemented with (16.5 and 285)g/L NH4NO3 and KNO3 respectively. Moreover fresh weight reached (18.76)g compared with (15.33)g that on standard medium, with increase in protein in the latter medium reach 0.550 mg/g as compared with 0.520 mg/g on standard medium after (60) days of growth. It can be concluded that the addition of potassium nitrate to standard nutrient medium at different concentrations enhanced the growth and differentiation of lettuce plant callus compared with ammonium nitrate.