Volume 17, Issue 10, Summer 2006, Page 1-277

The Effect of Methoxy Psoralen in Presence of UVA on the viability of conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Rafia K. Girges

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43728

In the present research we studied the effect of 8- methoxypsoralen ( 8-MOP) and long wave ultraviolet (UVA) light on the viability of conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami.
The conidial suspension was treated with 8-MOP(15 Mg/ml) for 5 min, and then exposed to UVA. Seven exposure times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 min) were tested and appropriate dilution of the conidial suspension for each treatment was plated on minimal medium to which Sodiumdeoxycholate(D) was added.
The plates were incubated for four days at 30 ْC. Viability of conidia was significantly reduced as the exposure time to NUV increased.

Determination of Serotype and Amplification of the Plasmid DNA Content for the Bacteria Salmonella Isolated from Various Sources

Zaid A. Aziz; Khalid D. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43724

Twenty three bacteria isolated of the genus Salmonella had been collected fromm general al salam hospital in Mosul ,and from different sources are blood, urine, stool and food. They were mivroscopally examined and diagnosed using biochemical and scrological tests.
The ability of Plasmid DNA Content to amplify its copy number in Bacteria isolated was studied in the presence of chloramephenicol at concentration 150 µg/ml. Three isolated among other showed real amplification where the concentration of the DNA content increased in the range of 3-13 folds. While only one isolate showed real amplification in its plasmid DNA content in the presence of spectinomycin, and no growth of any isolate in the nutrient media containing tetracycline at concentration (150 µg/ml), was observed.

Detection of outer Membrane Proteins Moraxella catarrhalis Isolated from Infections Respiratory System by Electrophoresis Technique

Subhi H. Al-Jobury; Isamail I. Al-Sanjari

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43726

The study was conducted for the detection of outer membrane proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis strains MD-1, MB-16, MC-10, MD-181, MA-68, isolated from infection respiratory system. OMPs were separated by electrophoresis technique. SDS-PAGE revealed that those strais were differences in the bacteril outer membrane proteins regarding membrane of proteins bands (4-10) and molecular weight (M-W) (20-140) kda. These proteins were identified as virulence factors of Moraxella catarrhalis which caused infections for human respiratory system.

Isolation and Identification of Listeria monocytogenes from Various Clinical Cases

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Mayada A. AL-Tace

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 27-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43730

The study involved the isolation and identification of bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (L .monocytogenes) from (132) placental and cervical swabs collected from women with abortions and preterm labour. The isolation of this bacterium were 20 out of 150 bacterial isolates (13.3 %). The 20 isolates distributed into 17 isolates from Cervix (12.87%) out of 132 and 3 isolates out of 18 placental isolates(16.7 %).
The results showed that (9) out of 20 (45 %) isolates were from abortion and 11 isolates out of 20 (55%) were from preterm labour. 2 isolated out of 26 isolates (7.69 %) of the bacterium were also abtained from Cerbero-Spinal Fluid (CSF) of neonates suspectedly infected with purulent meningitis. A Key for the identification of the genus Listeria and the species L .monocytogenes is suggested in this study.

Taxonomic Value of Flavonoids in the Species of the Genus Populus L .in Iraq

Talat Alramadhany; Amer M. AL-maathidy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 40-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43733

The work presented in this paper was undertaken to identify the Flavonoids with their glycosides in leaves and terminal flowering stems of five wild and cultivated Species of Populus L .in Iraq. Materials were collected from different habitat.
Thin layer chromatography (T.L.C) technique was used for identification. Seven Flavonoid compounds were identified then were: Myricetine, Lutcolin-7- glucoside, Quercetin-3- rhamnoside, kaempferol, Apigenin, kaempferol-3- glucoside and Quercetin-3- glucoside. Results revealed that flavonoid compounds could have a good taxonomic value in this genus. The Species P. deltoids L . and P. xeuamericana clearly distinguished from the others, by the production of Myricetine, Quercetin-3- rhamnoside and Kaempferol.

Role of Some Growth Regulators and Triazole Derivatives in Growth and Differentiation of Radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) callus

Hana S. Assaleh; Azhar H. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 50-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43734

This study include detecting the role of some standard , growth regulators and one of the recently synthesized triazole derivatives, a compound that is classified to be growth regulator in initiation and growth of callus from stem segments of radish seedlings and the establishment of shoots and roots.
Cytokinine benzyl adenine (BA) is used with Auxins 2,4 –Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,-D) and Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
BA, 2,4,-D, NAA were used at several concentrations either alone or with growth regulators to select the ideal one which enhances initiation of callus and its growth. As for Triazole compound, it had been added to the nutritional medium at the concentration of 6- 10 molar either alone or with NAA, 2,4,-D, BA.
The results showed that adding BA alone to the medium stimulated shoot formation, whereas addition of BA with NAA stimulated the formation of shoot and roots.
Adding NAA to the nutritional medium alone stimulated the establishment of roots from the cultured explants, whereas addition of 2,4,-D alone to MS medium stimulated the initiation of callus.
The results showed that adding triazole compound with a concentration of (6- 10) molar alone to MS medium did not stimulate callus initiation, while shoots formed by this treatment.

Some Physiological Aspects of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Differint Clinical Cases

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Mayada A. AL-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 64-69
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43735

The Physiological aspects of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes were studied on the isolates of the of bacterium isolation from placental and cervical swabs collected from women with abortions and preterm labours and from Cerbero-Spinal Fluid (CSF) of neonates suspectedly infected with purulent meningitis.
The results reveated that all isolates have the ability to grow at different temperatures 4, 37 and 45 ˚C and tolerate two different concentrations of salt 6.5 % and 10% . the effect of different concentration of chemicals on its growth were also tested.
The isolates showed ability to grow in 0.1 % KNO2,0.02 ,0.05 % of sodium azide but failed to grow in (3.75 ,5.0 %) of KCN. As well as isolates were able to grow and reduce potassium tellurite and tetrazolium chloride with concentrations 0.1 ,0.5 % and 0.01 , 0.1 % respectively.

Genetic architecture of yield and its Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (

Najeeb K. Yousif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 70-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43737

A half diallel cross consisting of six parents was used to study the genetic architecture of yield and its components in bread wheat. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Additive and nonadditive gene effects were detected on the studied traits. Desirable and significant heterosis, measured as departure of F1 from the respective mid- parent value, was observed for most hybrids.

Isolation and Identification of Geotrichum candidum From its Different Sources

Saleh E. Mohammed; Hadeel A. Al-Ameri

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 79-91
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43752

In this study, the fungus Geotrichum candidum was isolated and identified from its different sources. It was isolated from sputum samples of patients who were referred from consultant clinics to the mycology iaboratory in AL –Razi General Hospital in Mosul City. It was also isolated from infected tomato fruits which were available in local markets in Mosul city for human consumption. The fungus was also isolated from tomato paste and from air of some clinical and colleges laboratories.
The study showed that Sabouraud’s Glucose Agar (SGA) medium at pH 5.6 and 28˚C was the best one for the fungus growth.

An Efficient Technique for Obtaining Solanum nigrum L. Plants Via Transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601

Shifa M. Salih; Maozahim k. AL-Mallah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 92-107
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43755

The aim of this work is to improve the medicinal plant Solanum nigrum which is distributed in Iraq and increase its alkaloid content. The present study succeeded in finding an efficient technique for regenerating a transformed plants via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. This bacteria acts as natural vector for genetic transformation. Obviously, this Technique is considered the first one which has found a scheme for genetic Transformation of S. nigrum plants.

Effect of Triazoles and Pentadienoic Acid on Callus Initiation and Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plant Part one: Effect on stem segment with one node

Halia A. Hassan; Abdul Mutalib S. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 108-125
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43756

The effect of six compounds derived from di-phenylmethy 1,2,4-triazol locally prepared on callus initiation, growth and differentiation of lettuce were carried out. The results indicated that the addition of triazole compounds with PDA to ms medium stimulates callus initiation, shoot and root formation depending on the type and concentration of the compound.
It was found that the addition of 10-5 M PDA with compound B at 10-5 M stimulated shoot and root formation to great extent as compared with other compounds used. Moreover the addition of PDA at 10-5 M with compound B at 10-5 M to MS medium showed the best stimulation of callus initiation compared to other triazole derivative compound used in the study.

Antibiotics Resistance of Moraxella catarrhalis from Proteins With Respiratory System Infections

Subhi H. Al-Jobury; Isamail I. Al-Sanjari

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 126-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43759

Moraxella catarrhalis was isolated from sputum and swabs taken from patients with respiratory tract infections. 54 strains were used to determinate the susceptibility against (24) Antibiotics, and (17) strains for detecting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of (11) Antibiotics. Beta- Lactamase producing strains were (92.6%) which was correlated with resistance to penicillins and the first generation of cephalosporins. Results showed ahigh percentage of resistance for Cloxacillin, Penicillin G, Ampicillin and Amoxicllin and less to Cephalothin, cephalexin, and Ampiclox and intermediate resistance to Erythromycin, co-trimethoxazol and Tetracycline. High sensitivity against Tobramycin, Clarithromycin, Cefotaxim, Ceftrixon and Amoxi-clav. All strains showed absolute sensitivity (100%) to Neomycin, Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Refampicin. Gentamycin, Chloramphenicol, Nitrofurantion and Nalidixic acid.
Results showed a high c values for Ampicillin and Amoxicillin which was (17.6%) and (5.8%) at a concentration (4) and (1) Mg/ml respectively. MIC values for Erythromycin was (5.8%) in (0.5) Mg/ml. low MIC for Azithromycin, Ceftrixon, Cefotaxim, Co-trimethoxazol, Ciprofloxacin Chloramphenicol and Amoxi-clav in (0.03-0.015) Mg/ml. best antibiotics for treatment are those mixed with substance that inhibit Beta lactamase such as Amoxi–clav.

Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Alcaligenes spp. in Diabetic Patients

Adeba Y. Al-Shareef; Zeyad T. Al-Rassam

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 137-146
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43761

The study includes the isolation and indentification of the bacteria Alcaligenes from urinary tract infections for (372) insulin and non- insulin dependent patients, (125) of them were males and (247) were famales. Their ages ranged between (11-71) year. The study also includes (95) cases of non- diabetic urinary tract infections as control subjects. The bacteria Alcaligenes constitutes (4.07 %) of urinary tract infections among the diabetic Patients in the study and this genus was not isolated from non- diabetics. The isolates of the bacteria Alcaligenes were isolated and identified as A. faecalis with a frequency of (30%), the subspecies A . xylosoxidans denitrificans at the same percent and A. xylosoxidans xylosoxidans (40%). These differences in the infections with Alcaligenes was without clinical syndromes. the study showed that (50%) of was no correlation between the treatment of diabetes and the rate of isolation of the three species of bacteria under study.

Study on Adherence of Pathogenicity of Moraxella catarrhalis in the Respiratory Tract of Patients

Subhi H. Al-Jobury; Isamail I. Al-Sanjari

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 147-158
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43762

The study was conducted to isolate Moraxella catarrhalis form clinical specimens of Patients with Respiratory tract infection and to diagnose the strains by biochemical tests and API-NH system. Oroepithelial cells from human buccal cavity as in vitro adherence, mice trachea and lung as invivo adherence were used. The result showed that there was significant difference (p<0.0001) in adherence from one strain to another.
The statistical analysis revealed that high levels adhesion rate of strains isolated from the sputum, throat, and nose in comparison to lower levels of strain from the ear with otitis media. It is found that the adherence has a correlation with the structural proteins on the outer surface of bacteria which may play a role in adherenceto be associated with occurrence of disease. Histopathological examination showed the high ability of M. catarrhalis to adhere and colonised to form bacteria aggregation on the epithelial cells of trachea and bronchoalveolar of mice. The influence adherence showed a negative result under physical and chemical factors :trypsin. Formalin (0.4%) temp. at 70C ْ and less than that at 60 C ْ compared with those non treatment.

Mutagenicity of some Antifungals in Aspergillus amstelodami

Sumaia Y. Al-Dabagh; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 159-167
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43763

For different sublethal concentrations of the antifungals Griseofulvin, Fluconazole and Itraconazole were tested for their mutagenicity in conidia of the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus amstelodami. Using three protocols : pretreatment, plate incorporation and growth mediation, Griseofulvin was effective only at its highest concentrations and in the plate incorporation and growth mediation methods. Fluconazole was inconsistent in its effect in the pretreatment and plate incorporation methods but consistently was positive at all it s concentrations in the growth mediation method. Itraconazole was consistently negative at all concentrations tested and in all three protocols used.

Mxtimation of Some Genetic Parameters for Grain Yield and its Components by the Genetic Analysis of the F4 Generation in Barley

Najeeb K. Yousif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 168-178
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43764

Eight groups of the F4 Generation for two crosses in a six –row barley (Jezera-1X Benedict and Baraka X Arivate), each group with ten families in addition to their parents were used to estimate to components of genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability and expected genetic advance from selection for grain yield and its Components. Narrow sense heritability was (1) high rot maturity time, plant height and number of spikes in crosses, spike length in the first cross and grain yield in the second cross. (2) medium for grain yield weight of 100 grains and number of spikes in the first cross and spike length in the second cross. (3) low for weight of 100 grains and number of grains per spike in the second cross. The results indicated that selection will be effective to obtain pure lines with superior characters in the two crosses for plant height, number of spikes, spikes length and grain yield. Recurrent selection will be suggested to improve the other characters.

Mutagenicity of Trisoralen (TMP) and NUV in Aspergillus amstelodami

Rafia K. Girges; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 179-195
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43765

The combined mutagenic action of five snbinhibitory concentrations(0,1.6,3.2,4.8 and 6.4 µg/ml) of trisoralen (4,5,8- Trimethylpsoralen, TMP) and five exposure times (0,10,20,30,and 40 min) to the long wave (UVA,365 nm) light was tested in conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami. The drug was incorporated together with the selective agent (8-azaguaninc) into the growth plates. The plates were inoculated with conidia, left for one hour and then exposed to UVA and incubated for the growth of the resistant mutants. Neither trisoralen by itself nor UVA alone appeard mutagenic under our experimental condition. Combination of the drug and UVA, however, all produced mutant frequencies significantly higher than the spontaneous one. 8-MOP used as a positive control and it induces frequency of mutation about 87.5 times that of the spontaneous one by plate incorporation method. The solvent, ethanol by itself or in combination with UVA , induced non mutant frequency greater than the spontaneous one.

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Catheterized Patients

Shafak T. Burhan; Sahera A. Hamed; Amera M. Mohamad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 196-205
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43767

The role of urinary catheters in Causing Urinary Tract Infections(UTIs) was investigated. Fifty seven Urine samples were collected from inpatients using Urinary catheters in AL- Zahrawi and AL- Khansaa hospital in mosul city. these samples were subjected to various tests, physical microscopical examination and culturing on various differential media diagnose the microorganism . the results showed that E. coil was the most frequent bacteria (30.61 %) while St. faecalis was the least frequent (2.04%). The study also included the relation between (UTI) and the duration of catheterization. The results revealed that the chance of UTI increased with prolonged catheterization.

Effect of Drought and Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth of Bread Wheat Cultivars Triticum aestivium L.

Hussein S. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 206-224
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43771

The study was conducted in the glass house in order to study some physiological responses of five wheat cultivars (IPA 970082,VEE(s), IPA970110, ACSAD881 and ACSAD907). Exposed to drought and reirrigation condition and grown under different leaels of nitrogen.
The results showed that the exposure of treated plants with nitrogen especially at the concentration (30 ppm) to drought episode (which induced by holding irrigation water from the soil for 30 days to obtain wilting point) led to improve plant growth by increasing the dry weight of shoot, root systems, its carbohydrate, calcium and magnesium content. Increasing the concentration of nitrogen treatment up to (60ppm) led to increase protein content of wheat plant in comparison to untreatment plants which nitrogen and exposed to drought period. Reirrigation of of wheat plants which had been exposed to drought period led to increase plant growth and its content carbohydrate and mineral elements comparison to the plant without irrigation.

Genetics of Resistance to the Fungicide Hymexazol in Aspergillus amstelodami

Fadeya M. AL-Hyaly; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 225-235
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43772

A samle of 84 mutants resistant to the fungicide Hymexazol were isolated in the parental strains A76 (bwA nicA) brown conidia, nicotinic acid requiring and AZG131 (wA lysA azgA) white conidia, lysine requiring and resistant to 8-azaguaninc of the ascomycetour fungus Aspergillus amstelodami. All mutants exhibited partial dominance to their respective wild type alleles and complementation tests in heterokaryons put them all into a single gene designated hymA as the first gene of its kind to be identified in this species. Haploidization analyses failed to locate hymA on any of the seven (I-VII) linkage groups recognized in this fungus although its linkage to the other two recognized groups(VIII and IX) was not tested due to inavailability of suitable master strains at the time.

Detection of Proteins Antigens of Pathogenic Enterococci by Electrophoresis

Goerget N. Hanno

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 236-242
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43773

The study was conducted to investigate proteinal antigens of Enterococcus faecalis strains which isolated from Endocarditic and urinary tract infection, as wellas standard strain was used for comparison. sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used for separation of these proteins after preparation of proteinal antigens suspensions from clinical and standard strain.
Many protein bands were emerged in the protein suspension of Endocarditic strain with
Molecular weight 68000, 65000, 50000, and 44000 dalton, while one band was shown in UTI strain molecular weight 3000 dalton. As well as one protein band was shown in standard strain suspension with molecular weight 22000.

Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Children Blood Affected by Major β - Thalassaemia in Nenava Governerate

Wala A. AL-Jawadi; Saad G. Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 243-250
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43774

Adenosine deaminase (EC : activity in serum of(20) cases of untreated β - thalassaemia major, aged six month to one year of the both sexes, and (52) children of treated β- thalassaemia major, aged 1.5 to11 years of the both sexes, and (50) normal children, aged six month to 12 years of both sexes also.
In the present investigation the activity adenosine deaminase in blood of untreated and treated cases of β - thalassaemia major was compared with that in normal children. The results obtained showed adenosine deaminase specific activity in haemolysate of red cells and serum of untreated children was (164.14±5.6) and (35.1±0.9) n. mole of adenosine deaminase /min/mg protein respectively, while the mean value of activity in treated children was (86.4±2.53) and (25.06±0.46) in the haemolysate and serum respectively compared with (62.80±1.26) and (16.66± 0.3) n. Mole. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase of activity in both cases.

Numerical Classification by Cluster Analysis of Gram Negative Non- Fermentative Aerobic Bacillifrom Clinical Specimens

Issra G.AL Sammak; Nada F.AL-Rawi; Basima A. Abdulla

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 251-262
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43776

The study includes isolation, diagnosis and classification of non- fermentative gram negative bacilli from clinical Specimens(pus, urine, sputum).
Classification based upon the morphological, biochemical ,physiological and molecular biological characteristics using conventional Numerical taxonomy, cluster analysis and nearest neighbour single linkage method (NNSLM).
The similarity levels betwee3n genera were determined and compared using (NNSLM) and simple matching coefficient (Ssm).
The study distinguishes 5 clusters (A, B, C, D, E ). The isolates belong to each genus are linked and determined at similarity level as follows: Achromobcter (92%), Alcaligenes (92%), Moraxella (92%), Pseudomonas(88%), Acinctobacter (88%).

A Pathogical Syudy of Coagulase –Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection of Females

Thikra S. Ali; Intisar R. Al-Kinany; Subhi H. Al-Jobury

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 263-277
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43777

The present study tackles the isolation coagulase –negative staphylococci and diagnosing them using morphological , cultural and biochemical characteristics.
Isolated 16 were isolated from 100 urine samples (16%). The results emerged indicate the existence of three species, these are S. saprophyticus (75%). S. epidermidis (18.7%)and S. xylosus (2.3%).
The histopathological study showed coagulative necrosis as a focal necrosis around central vien with hypertrophy of kuffer cells in the liver, in lung the study indicated bronchopneumonia with serous exudate in bronchio lumen and hypertrophy of the cells. In heart coagulative necrosis in muscular fiber with oedema and infiltration of inflammatory cells of lymphocytes, neutrophiles in liver, lung and heart.