Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 17, Issue 13

Volume 17, Issue 13, Autumn 2006, Page 1-244

Oil and Aqueous Extracts of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Its Cake on Blood Lipid Profile in Rats treated with Hydrogen Peroxide, Saturated Animal Fats and Cholesterol

Khalid H. Hameed; Maan S. Kallo

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 1-16

Forty-two albino male adult rats with atherosclerosis induced by 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, 4.69% saturated animal fats and 0.26% cholesterol added to the diet, were used in this study as experimental and biological model. Their body weights ranged between 250-275g and aged 3-4 months. They were divided into seven equal number and identical body weights groups. The first group was a negative control, second group was a positive control (standard group), orally treated with 0.57% Flavostatin /Kg body weight, third and forth groups were orally treated with 300 and 600mg peanut oil extracts/Kg body weight respectively, fifth and sixth groups were orally treated with 120 and 240mg peanut aqueous extracts/Kg body weight respectively, seventh group fed the atherogenic diet containing 10% peanut cake. All groups were fed atherogenic diet (containing animal fats and cholesterol) and treated with 0.5%H2O2 in freshly prepared drinking water daily ad libitum. The experimental period was continued for 15days, in addition to 30days during which the rats were prepared for induction of atherosclerosis by 0.5% H2O2 with drinking water and atherogenic diet. Analysis of variance and Duncan multiple tests showed that, the peanut aqueous extract/Kg rat body weight and 10% peanut cake exerted a significant (p<0.05) decreasing effect on serum total lipids (TL), cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and the undesirable very low density (VLDL-c) and low density (LDL-c) lipoproteins, atherogenic indices and malondialdehyde content of liver, heart and kidney. On the other hand, they caused increased levels of the desirable high density lipoprotein, while the peanut oil extract caused undesirable increase in serum VLDL-c and LDL-c lipoproteins, TC and TG.

Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extract for Althea rosea Flowers Against Many Gram Positive and Negative Bacteria

Rana W. Younis; Muhsin A. Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 17-26

This research aim to study antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Althea rose flowers which belong to Malvaceae family against some pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that aqueous in its wet state was more active than the dried aqueous extract and the alcoholic extract were more active than aqueoues extract, and it was found that there were differences in the sensitivity of studied bacteria towards that extract. Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella species were the most sensitive. Besides, it was shown the superiority of that extract activity upon some of those antibiotics according to the type of studied bacteria, which may indicate the capability of using this extract to control pathogens which are sensitive to it.

Record of New Race of Ascochyta rabiei on Chickpea in Against Ninevah Province

Ali k. Al Taae

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 27-38

Field survey carried out in certain regions of Ninevah Province during April and may 2002. showed that the Ascochuta blight disease incidence ranged between 10-75 %while disease score range between 2-8 using 1-9 scale, Ascochuta blight of Chickpea caused by Ascochyta rabiei (pass.) Laber.,14th isolates of A. rabiei collected in 2002 were inoculated onto 13th differential chickpea cultivars for pathogenicity testing, results indicated five races A, B, C, D and E Race E was highly virulent while race A was the lowest, and this is first record of the E race in Iraq.

Teratogenic Effects of Cyclophosphamide in Mice

Najlaa Kh. Fathy; Hamad J. Jumaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 39-55

In this study, various types of fetal malformations, including cleft palate were induced by the intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide to pregnant mice. The dose 75 mg/kg b.w. when given at the 12th day of gestation has lead to multiple defects including cleft palate, flat head, curved head, exencephaly, shortening of the extermities, and smaller size of the fetus. When the same dose was given at the 13th day of gestation, the malformations included curved head, exencephaly, shortening of the extermities and a lower percentage of cleft palate. When given at the 14th, 15th, or 16th days of gestation, it lead to curving of the head and small size of the fetus. Cleft palate was confirmed histologically as the palatine shelves were quite apart. Additionally, there were thickening and vacuolar degeneration of the epithelial element of the shelves. The core of the shelve consisted of pleomorphic mesenchymal cells with foci of chondroblastic proliferation.

New Host for the Pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis by Experimental Infection

Ibraheem A. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 56-67

This study proved, for the first time, the infection of the mouse, Mus musculus with the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis of human origin experimentally. The pinworm matured in the mice that founded in the house, in time ranged from 33-35 days. The eggs that yielded from this infection, infects new other mice and matured in the same time above. Hence, the mice that found in the houses has a susceptibility to infection with the pinworm of human origin, and may play a role in perpetuating the infection with pinworm in human population, from cryptic end, especially those in which pinworms and the mice are common.

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Nerium oleander and Melia azedarach Plants on the Morphology and Osmolarity of Leishmania tropica Promastigotes In Vitro

Hussain I. Al-khan; Haitham L. Al-Hayali; Thaer M. Al -Mushhadani

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 68-79

The study investigated the effect of LC50 and LC85 aqueous extract of Nerium oleander and Melia azedarach plants on the morphology and osmolarity of Leishmania tropica promastigotes grown on Tobie's medium, using the technique of determining of acid phosphatase activity and the potassium ion concentration in the medium at the log phase and the measurement of parasite lengths on the same day.
The results showed that the Leishmania tropica promastigotes treated with
LC85 of Nerium oleander had an increase in potassium ions which led to osmotic changes. The results also indicated that the Leishmania tropica promastigotes treated with LC50 and LC85 aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach changed the osmolarity which led to a noticeable swelling in the parasites.

Partial Purification of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Callus of Stems of )Nigella sativa L.) in the Presence of 2,4- D or PDA

Abid Mutalib S. Mohammad; Nihal E. Jumma

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 80-93

The study included initiation and growth of callus from stem Nigella sativa L. using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 106- 1010 molar 2,4 -dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) or pentadienoic acid (PDA). Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was partially isolated from the initiated callus on the nutrient medium containing variable concentrations of potassium and ammonium nitrates. In addition, a comparative study of the enzyme activity was performed in the presence of 2,4-D or PDA.
The results revealed that best medium for initiation and growth of callus was obtained in the presence of 106- M of 2,4-D or PDA. The fresh weight of the callus grown on MS medium in the presence of 2,4-D or PDA was 5.72 gm and 2.81 gm respectively after 45 days of culturing. However, the protein content of the callus was 1.050 and 1.116 mg / gm fresh weight grown on media containing 2,4 –D or PDA, respectively.
The results also predicted that the specific activity of GDH was increased by 23 folds after partial purification. The optimum conditions for GDH activity were obtained using: 100 mmole of Tris – HCl buffer, at 35º, pH of 8.6, 1 µmole of NAD, 20 µg of protein as a source for the enzyme and 30 µmole of glutamate as a substrate. Using Linweaver – Burk plot, the value of Michaelis – Menten constant (km) was 27 µmole. The results also revealed that the specific activity of GDH isolated from the callus where 2,4–D or PDA was added is 21.3 and 22.3 µmole / min / mg protein, respectively using the optimum conditions.
The comparative molecular weight of GDH was determined using gel filtration chromatography and found to be in the range of 302000 dalton.
Based on the results from the current study it was concluded that PDA could be used instead of 2,4-D in plant tissue culture of Nigella sativa L. Its action is similar somehow to the standard auxin. Therefore, PDA could be considered as a synthetic auxin and used in plant tissue culture for several plants.

Histopathological Effects Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Brain Tissue of Albino Mice Mus musculus

Rasha A. Al- Sabawy; Hamad J. Al Jumaily

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 94-107

The study was conducted to determine the histopathological alternation induced by Cyclophosphamide in brain tissue of albino Mice Mus musculus, tow experiments were carried out, 76 mice were used in the first experiment and 40 mice were used in the second experiments. The concentrations 75,150,225 mg/kg were applied for 1-6 weeks. Current study has been done to demonstrate the histopathological effects causes by Cyclophosphamide on the brain
tissue of albino mice Mus musculus for this, two experiments were carried out, various doses were applied for 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 weeks.
The 1 st experiments included the following concentrations 75,150,225 mg/kg then after, histological examination of the dissected animals revealed on infiltration of monocytes. These were accumulated around the blood vessels. Besides microglial cells appeared in the blood vessels. The latter was centrally located in choroids plexus. Moreover, there was vacculation of astrocytes and nerve cells for the latter, various enlargements were revealed in the cortex neurons cerebellum.
The three Concentrations above were applied the second experimentsfor six successive days. Then after the animals were dissected 7,10 and 14 day after the treatment histological views revealed vacculation of nerve fibers and neurons cells. This was seen in the white matter, Also, conjession of blood vessels was elucidated in the choroids plexus. Moreover, there was increase in the size and number of microglial cells. Respectively. This was mainly observed at the outer surface, accompanied by thickeningof purkenji layer as well as vaculation in the brain was seen.
It is obvious that the pathological effects were correlated with the dose of drug and action of dosing as well as with the duration of exposure to the drug.

Assessment of Developmental Toxic Effects in Rats Exposed to Oxfendazole Prenatally

Ligia E. Shemiss; Mohammad K. Shindala

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 108-125

Pregnant albino rats were treated with oxfendazole at doses(7, 5, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, orally) during organogenesis (on day 6-15 of pregnancy) which produced dose- dependent embryotoxicity. The doses of (30 and 60 mg/kg)caused a high percentage of resorption of embryos (83,33% and 100%), respectively, as well as the dose of (30) mg/kg a significant decreased in the numbers, weights and lenghs of fetuses, and placental weights and diameters. Whereas the dose of (7,5) mg/kg did , not produced embryotoxic effects. The effects of oxfendazole on pregnant rats of a dose (60) mg/kg (orally) on differents stages of gestation: preimplantation, organogenesis and histogenesis and function maturation were depend on the stage of embryonic development. The effects were high on the stage of organogenesis where oxfendazole caused full resorption of embryos. While the effect of oxfendazole on 3 rd stage of gestation manifested by significant decreased in the weights and lengths of fetuses. Pregnant rats were treated with oxfendazole at doses(15 and 30) mg/kg (orally) during organogenesis significantly increased the percentage of neonatal mortality on postnatal day (PND1) (36%, 95%) respectively, these effects were dose dependent, as well as oxfendazole at dose (30) mg/kg caused significant decreased in the litter size, the body weight of the progeny (PND1), as sharply reduced the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning to (0%) on the (PND2). The doses at (15and 30) mg/kg were teratogenic causing extermal anomalies (tail deformity) were found in 1 offspring of each group.

Culture of Different Densities of Cell Suspensions Derived from Stem Callus of Broadbean (Vicia faba) in Agar Sector and Regeneration of Intact Plants

Sahal M. Zeadan Sahal M. Zeadan; Mozahim K. Al Mallah

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 126-138

The study succeeded in establish cell suspension derived from stem callus of the local variety of axenic broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings. Different densisties (5.6, 4.8, 4.2, 3.7, 3.4, 3.3, 3.2, 3.0, 2.9 ×103 cell/ml) of these suspensions were cultured by embedding them in sectors of agar-solidified MS medium in the presence of different levels of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyl adenine (BA). This method of culture promote division of embedded cells and enhance colony formation to reach up to 67%. They developed to form callus primordia, varied in their formation ratio between 30-50% depending upon culture density.
The produced calli showed a groth pattern superior the growth pattern of calli stimulated from stem explant. Moreover, the callus express its capability to regenerate plants. Number of shoots ranged between 5-7 shoots per piece of callus.

Genetical Analysis of Means for Early Generation in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Najeeb K.Yousif; Manal A.Al-Hayale

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 139-148

Six early generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, B1, B2) of tow crosses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The first cross between Pandas and Gemeney, The second cross between S3-69 and S6-35, were used to study components of means for: maturity time, plant height, flag leaf area, grain yiely and its component. Tow models were applied in analyzing the component of the generation means for the studied characters in six generations. The results showed that the three parameters genetic model was adequate for the inheritance of spike length in the first cross and there were additive, dominance and epistatic effects on the other character.

Partial Characterization of Extracelullar Polysaccharide of Alternaria alternata Isolated Locally from Tomato Fruits

Esam D.Al - Rawachi; Mohammed B. Ismail

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 149-160

An extracellular hetropolysaccharide was obtained from the fungus Alternaria alternata isolated locally from tomato fruits using a synthetic medium and certain cultural conditions. The fungus produced (4.99 gm) Polysaccharide and (5,87 gm) biomass per liter of the medium after (8 days) of incubation in shaken cultures. Studying of the physical. Chemical properties and chemical composition of the Polysaccharide was achieved using periodate oxidation and complete smith degradation with application of descending paper chromatography technique. The results showed that the fundimental units were glucose, galactose and mannose, also the presence of β(1- 3)and β(1-6) glycosidic linkages.

Determination of the Best Transport and culture Media for First Isolation of Helicobacter pylori

Subhi H.Al-Jubouri; Saba A.Al-Sultan

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 161-168

The study sample consisted of 295 patients attending endoscopy unit of ibn-Sena teaching hospital in Mosul. These patients were complaining from epigastric pain, dyspepsia, acidity vomiting, flatulence and melena. Biopsies were taken from patients undergoing endoscopy and Transport, cultured Helicobacter pylori identification to evaluate the best transporting medium, listed as follows:(stuart’s transport medium, normal saline (0.9%) and glucose solution (2%)) and evaluate the best transporting medium for the first isolation, listed as follows: (Brucella agar, Blood agar, Chocolate agar, Muller-Hintion agar, Eugon agar, Trypcase soy agar, Colombia agar base, Cystein trypcase agar, Wilkin’s Chalgren agar, Brain-Heart Infusion agar). It was found that the best media for biopsy transporting, the Stuart’s transport medium. Its proportion in the term of isolation and growth was 85% with statistically significant difference (p<0.001). whereas Brucclla agar found to be the best medium for primary isolation with a statistically significant difference of 0.01 and 0.05 using F- test.

The Effect of Mepiquat Chloride (Pix) and Soil Moisture on Growth and Yield of Two Cultivars Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Ala; a H. Ali; Mohammmed S. Faysal

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 169-184

The study has been done in the greenhouse. It investigated the effect of two cultivars of wheat (Al-Iz and Eratom) shoots spraying with three concentrations of growth retardants (zero,500,100 ppm)during tillering stage under three levels of soil moisture (25,50,75% field capacity )on some physiological characteristics, and yield. The experiment have been designed on the basis that it is factorial experiment and over completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the results obtained showed: growth retardants highly effective in reducing plant height, length of base interned and leaf area. The treatment of growth retardants reduced negative effect of soil moisture levels (25,50,75%) on (relative water content, chlorophyll, proline)and increasing appeared in the number of grains in spike which reflected in increasing of grains yield. on the other hand Al-Iz cultivar showed agood results in some of the important characteristics (relative water content, chlorophyll, number of grains /spike).

Study on Outer Cell of Moraxella catarrhalis Isolated from Respiratory System Infections by Transmission Electron Microscopy

Subhi H. Al-Jobury; Ismail I. Al-Sanjari

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 185-192

This study use numbers of Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated from sputum and swab samples from both sexes of different age patients infected with respiratory system diseases. Aims of study were determine the virulence factors of adherence structures on the outer cell wall of bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by phosphotungstate pigment showed that bacteria posses capsules in 26(86.6%) of strains and most of strains have fimbrae on outer bacterial cell wall but no found in some other strains were detected. Also TEM showed tack-spicules like structure on outer surface of the strains.

Isolation and Identification the Bacteria of Potato Blackleg disease

Zahraa S. Al- Mashhadany; Nadeem A. Ramadam

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 193-203

Isolation potato with blackleg disease were collected from different fields of Nenava province fifty two isolates of Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica, 16 isolates of Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora, 21 isolates of Erwinia chrysanthemi Were identified. The results showed that the main cause of blackleg disease of potato in this province was Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica. The bacteria that cause this disease were isolates from potato tubers, shoots, soil and water. The mother tubers were found to be the major source of inoculum for blackleg disease. The best growth medium for this bacteria at constant temperature (27ْ C) and incubation period for 48 hours, was potato dextrose agar media, while the best medium at varying temperature was nutrient agar medium.

The Correlation ; Path Coefficient Analysis and Selection Indices for Grain Yield and its Components in Bread Wheat

Mohammed H. Ayoob

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 204-216

Eleven varieties of bread wheat were grown for two seasons(2000-2001)and (2001-2002). The results revealed that phenotypic and genotypic variances were highly significant for plant hight, number of spikes / m2, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield. Genetic correlation was positive and highly significant between grain yield and each of number of spikes / m2 and grains per spike. the phenotypic and genotypic path coefficient analysis showed that number of per spike and number of spikes / m2 had the direct effects on grain yield. Broad sense heritability was (1) high for plant heigh; number of spikes / m2 and grain yield (2) medium for number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight, more over phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation ranged between medium for grain yield and number of spikes / m2 and low for number of grains per spike, spike length and 1000 grain weight. Four superior varieties were. Selected according to their mean performance and selection indices.

Some Biochemical Effects of Quince and Sun Flower Leaves Boiled Extracts in the Blood and Tissues of Male Rabbit

Muntaha M. Al-Kattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 217-225

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of boiled extract of leaves of quince Cydonia oblonga and sun flower Helianthus annus L. in blood glucose and cholesterol level in male rabbits, as well as , some hematological parameters and tissues chemical composition. Rabbits (3-4) months old were divided into 3 groups of six animals each. The rabbits of first group treated daily for 28 days with sun flower leaves boiled extract (1000 mg L Kg B. wt orally). The second group was treated with quince seed leaves boiled extract (1000 mg L Kg B. wt orally). The third group served as control. The results revealed that treatment with sun flower leaves and quince seed leaves boiled extract causes a significant decease in blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared with the control group, also, the protein percentage in the thigh and liver increased significantly as well as the fat percentage in the liver. Treatment also causes a significantly decrease in the total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration. The sun flower boiled extract also causes a significant decease in the total Leucocyte count.

Utilization of the Urea and Temperature for Curing the Plasmid Content of the Porteus mirabilis Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Diana N. Mustafa; Khalid D. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 225-236

Twenty fife Isolated of Porteus mirabilis were collected taken from different human infection and diagnosed by API 20E TEST. These isolated tested for their resistance to Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Cepfaloexin, Naldixic acid and Trimethoprime, then classified into 6 groups according to antibiotics resistance. In order to remove their antibiotics resistance in these studied isolated, the chemical substance urea and physical agent heat at 44 ْC were used. Then combined the effects to these to agents also used the results revealed that the urea cause remarkable curing of most antibiotics resistance at concentration 400 µg/ml, were the percent of colonies that lose their antibiotics resistance range (18-92). In addition, curing by heat at temperature 44 ْC was carried out and the results showed that this agent appear to be more efficient than urea in curing the Amp and Cm resistance. The combined effects of urea and heat at 44 ْC does not show any increasing in curing percents. Finally no curing for the resistance of Streptomycin and Trimethoprime which may indicate that gene for conferring these resistance located on the bacterial chromosome of P. mirabilis isolated and this leads that no effects of the used of curing agents on antibiotics resistance genes located on chromosome.

Effect of Thyme Leaves Extracts in Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Level and other Parameters in Local Male Rabbits

Muna H. Janker; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan; Rahman; Saeb Y. Abdul

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 237-244

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of boiled extract of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on blood glucose and cholesterol level, and some blood parameters and body weight in local male rabbits (3-4 months old). Rabbits were divided into 2 groups (6 rabbits each). The first group received orally the boiled extract of thyme at a dose of 100 mg L Kg B. wt daily for 28 days. The second group was treated with distilled water (control group). The results revealed a significant reduction in blood glucose and cholesterol level, total leukocyte and erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration. The results also showed a significant increase in body weight and an improvement in relative growth rate of treated animals as compared with the control group.