Volume 17, Issue 6, Spring 2006, Page 1-61

Determination of Radioactive Contamination of Plant Fertilizers Using CR-39

Mohsin M. Al-Badrani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43352

The aim of this research is to study the fertilizers that are widely used due to what they can cause of an increment in natural radioactive level of soil, and due to what will affect the increase in the environmental contamination level with radiation.
The concentrations of (Rn-222) and (U-238) of seven kinds of local and imported fertilizers are calculated.
In the present work an investigation has been performed using nuclear track detectors (CR-39) technique with the use of test tubes (2.0-2.1 cm) in diameter. The chemical etching is utilized by NaOH with normality (6.25 N) at (70 oC  1oC) temperature and (4hrs) etching time.
The obtained results indicate that there is a remarkable increase in Radon and Uranium concentrations especially, the Iraqi fertilizers with both kinds of compound and compound -27, while the concentrations of Radon and Uranium for other types are approximately the same, except that of Sulphar fertilizer which shows a lower concentration.

Refractive Index of Oils Measurement by Using Fiber Optics

Watfa Kh. Younis

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 11-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43353

In this research, fiber optics (FO) of type Plastic Clad Plastic (PSP) is used as sensor to measure refractive index of oils, lens oil and machine oil. Hadrolic and automobiles oils are not used because the impurities they have. Fiber optics is used to measure the change of refractive index of lens oil and machine oil with the temperature variations and compared the results with those measured by Abbe Refractometer the results were in good agreement .The fiber - fiber coupling technique is used in this project as a sensor to measure the change of refractive index of lens oil and machine oil with the change of temperature.

Using of Nickel Oxide NiO as a Diffusion Barrier in Aluminide Coating on Austinitic Stainless Steel AISI 321

Yahya A. Al-Salman; Moayad A. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 22-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43355

Aluminum compounds are the most effective to resist the oxidation and corrosion at high temperature, because it has a good ductility and its capability to form a protective oxide scale Al2O3, such Alumina scale is known as thermally and electrically insulator and characterized with slow gowning rate. In this research we tried to prepare aluminide coating on austinitic stainless steel AISI 321, using a pack-cementation technique. The alloy surfaces were doped with a thin nickel oxide layer before aluminising using an adhesive materials. The coating produced was subjected to a cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion tests. The coating structure and coating behaviour after the treatment were studied using X-rays and optical microscope. The coatings produced were posses a high resistance to oxidation under atmospheric pressure at 900°C, but not in presence of a molten salt Na2SO4 at 884°C.

Electrical Properties of Thin Film Capacitors of Polymeric Alloys

Rana Z. Al-Flayh; Yahya N. Al-Jammal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 33-44
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43359

In this work, a parallel plate capacitor with insulating polymeric thin film from pure material of long chain Poly Metheyl Meth Acrylates (PMMA) and short chain of Poly Carbonates (PC) and Poly Methylene (PM) as well as of alloys (PMMA + PM). In order to get a good thickness, we used rotating technique.
The current-voltage characteristic for these capacitor of a thickness (2000 oA) had been studied at room temperature. The breakdown voltage value were found for pure polymer of (PMMA), (PC) and (PM) equal to (1700 V), (2800 V) and (2000 V) respectively. But the breakdown voltage for alloys (75% PMMA + 25% PM), (50% PMMA + 50% PM), (25% PMMA + 75% PM), (75% PC + 25% PM),
(50% PC + 50% PM), (25% PC + 75% PM) and (33.3% PMMA + 33.3% PC + 33.3% PM) are (2000 V), (1850 V), (1750 V), (2500 V), (1950 V), (1800 V) and (1500 V) respectively. The results have shown the behavior sequence breakdown in those capacitor.
Finally, loading time for the thin capacitor which is consisted of (PMMA + PC), (PC + PM) and (PMMA + PC + PM) as a function of the numbers of breakdown has been studied, where it is found that the loading time increases with breakdown numbers increasing, and according to the results we have closed the best fabricated capacitor from (50% PMMA + 50% PM) alloy which we have found it to have a high loading time.

Molecular Reform of Hydrocarbonic Liquid by Microwaves

Hazim S. Al-Hadidi; Anwar M. Al-Faydhi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 45-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43361

In this work, the effect of microwaves on the hydrocarbonic liquid was studied. Small amounts of hydrocarbonic liquid were irradiated by microwave with different applied powers (220, 360, 600) Watt. Through tests and physical calculations of the irradiated samples of the hydrocarbonic liquid with different surface area, a major difference was found compared with the control samples. Carbon sediments were also noticed. The most important result is that each test revealed major differences that the octane No.(R+m/2). change from (43.6) to (93) at (600) Watt operated power. This indicates that molecular reform of hydrocarbonic liquid using microwave is a new and original method to enhance the octane No. This scientific fact which is not mentioned in any previous researches was explained throughout former researches dealing with the effect of microwaves, keeping in mind that the expected heat effect was studied by repetition of all the measurements under heat effect only.