Volume 17, Issue 12, Autumn 2006, Page 1-139

The Sensitivity of Legionella pneumophila to Common Antibiotics

Amera M. Al-Rawi; May A. Al-Allaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43962

The study included sensitivity of 43 isolates of Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) isolated from 150 samples of different water sources. The bacterium was identified depending on morphological, cultural and biochemical tests.The results showed that these isolates exhibit different sensetivity for antibiotics that used in this study. It showed high sensitivity to Azithromycin (93%) which was higher than Erythromycin that used widely in treatment of the infections of this bacteria (81.4 %), while it showed sensitivity to Cephalothin and Vancomycin with respectively (7%, 14%). The isolates showed clear difference in the rate of their sensitivity and resistance to other antibiotics used in this study.

Determination of Copper and Zinc in Blood and Tissues of Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in the City of Mosul

Kusai A. Al-Chalabi; Huda Y. Al-Attar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 8-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44005

Eighty six blood samples and thirty two of female breast tissues had been collected (benign and malignancy) also twenty samples as control groups included. Samples had been obtained from Hazim Al-Hafed Hospital for Tumors and Al-Zahrawi Hospital (Breast Disease Center).
The study included also measurement of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Cu/Zn ratio. The results showed significant increase in concentration of Copper and decrease in Zinc concentration in the female serum samples with breast cancer and significant increase in Cu/Zn ratio.
The results show significant increase in Zn+2 and Cu+2 concentration in booth benign and malignant tumor. The ratio of Cu/Zn had been significantly increased in malignant tumor and significant increase in Zn+2 and Cu+2 in the third stage of the tumor.

Effect of Interaction Between Growth Regulators and Sulfanilamide on Stem Parts Callus Initiation and Suspension Culture of Almond Plants

Amjad A. Mohammad; Mutallib S. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 15-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44008

Callus growth was affected by the types and concentration of growth regulators used. The best medium sustained callus growth was MS medium supplemented with 10-4 molar NAA and 10-5 molar BA. The callus fresh weight in such medium reached about 3.73 gm after 60 days of subculture as compared with other medium used.
The growth of the cultures was affected by the type and concentration of growth regulator used as well as the sulfainlamide added. The best medium sustained suspension cultures growth was MS containing 10-8 molar NAA and 10-8 molar BA with cell density reaching about (53.5x105 Cell/Cm3) after 7 days of incubation. Callus initiation was about (%50.2) from the cells embedded in agar as compared with %80.31 by the addition 100 M sulfanilamide to MS medium containing 10-4 molar BA.

Isolation and Identification of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers

Amera M. Al-Rawi; May A. Al-Allaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 31-42
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44024

The study included isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling water during March 2004 –Septemper 2004. The bacterium was identified depending on ability to grow on selective media and microscopical examination which revealed that it is gram negative as well as biochemical tests were done and showed its variation reaction for oxidase and positive reactions for catalase, motility, gelatinase, hippurate hydrolysis and starch hydrolysis as well as it was positive for β -lactamase, DNase, Lipase and protease and it was negative for urease, carbohydrate fermentation, nitrate reductase and IMViC test .

Activity and Properties of Deoxyribonuclease in the Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Khansaa M. AL-Taee; Kusai A. AL-Chalabi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 43-57
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44030

The present research includes a study of the activity and properties of the extracellular enzyme DNase in the cultural supernatant of the growth of P.aeruginosa and in the cellular extract .
Maximum activity of the enzyme was obtained in a reaction mixture containing 18-24 μg of enzyme extract, 5 μl of 0.1 M CaCl2, 100 μl of substrate (0.18 mg/ml-1 DNA in 8 mM sodium borate (pH 8.4) containing 10 mM sodium chloride) and 100 μl of 8 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.4). The reaction mixture was incubated at 37ºC for 30 min. The enzyme activity was 4.52±0.32 units/cm3 in the cultural supernatant. The Michaelis constant (Km) value was 1.68×10-4 μM and the enzyme hydrolyzes RNA in addition to DNA. When RNA was used as a subtrate,the activity of DNase enzyme was 82% in culture supernatant and 75% in cell extract in comparison with the activity when DNA was the substrate.
The molecular weight obtained using gel filtration was 36000 and 48000 dalton for DNase and 17000 dalton for RNase.

The Inhibitory Effects of Volatile Oils and Flavonoids Extracted from Aerial Parts of Teucrium polium on the Growth of a Number of Pathogenic Microorganism

Wafaa M. Ali; Farah H. Al-Khafaf; Thekra S. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44033

This study include the determine the inhibitory effects of aqueous, alcoholic, volatile oils and flavonoids extracted from aerial parts of Teucrium polium on the growth of a number of pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes. The results indicated that the ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate extract of the Teucrium polium showed high inhibitory effect compared to other extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, using Erythromycin and Cephalexin as a standard antibiotics, while the volatile oil showed moderate inhibitory effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, in comparison with Cephalexin, while the water extract did not show any inhibitory effect against the bacteriaused in this study.

Tissue Culture Study of Ruta graveolens L. and Comparison of Dictamine Alkaloid in its Extracts

Mira A. AL-Katib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 68-81
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44036

The study showed a variety in the production speed of callus of Ruta graveolens L. from different explants (stems, leaves and petioles), the better and fast in initiation and growth of callus were the stems then petioles and finally the leaves, the best media for initiation and production of callus with plentiful shoots was MS with (0.5,2.0)mg/L from BA and NAA respectively approach in results the best initiation media of stem callus (1.0,1.0) and the best initiation media of leaves callus (2.0,2.0) from BA and NAA respectively, whole plant was produced by rooting the shoots that formed from callus by using MS media with 0.5 mg/ L of NAA during 20 day, different extracts from (natural plant, callus and shoots regenerated from callus) varied in Dictamin alkaloid purity wich is noticed by measurement of IR , the best appearance was in callus and shoots extracts, bacterial sensitivity test proved by recording (13, 7mm) inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus induced by shoots extract callus extract respectively while the plant extract gave negative test

The Effect of Aqueous Extract of some Plants on Alternaria alternata

Anfal M. Jalal; Najlaa T. Tkrity; Nidal T. Younis

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 82-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44042

The inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of fresh and dry leaves of myrthle; olive; orange. and fresh and dry fruits of pomegranate. on the growth of Alternaria alternata isolated from broad been leaves, were studied. Results showed that two aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of orange was highly active at concentrations 20, 40 mg/ml (93.33%) and at 10 mg/ml (87.77%). The other extracts, showed partial inhibition of growth of the test fungus. The aqueas extract of dry olive leaves inhibited the growth of A. alternaia (73.33%) at concentration 40 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of myrtle dry leaves gave no significant inhibition on the growth of the fungus

Study of Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants Against Geotrichum candidum

Hadeel A. Al-Ameri; Saleh E. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 90-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44045

Study of inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of (garlic, thyme, black seed, myrtle and peppermint) used separately or mixed with garlic against G. candidum isolated from sputum samples and growing on Sabouraud’s Glucose Agar (SGA) medium at pH 5.6 and 28oC showed that all aqueous extracts had variable inhibitory effects against the fungus growth. It was found that the extract of black seed alone had the highest activity inhibiting the fungal growth. The inhibition percentage was (91.4%) obtained at concentration of (25) mg/ml, followed by the extract of thyme (88.5%) at concentration of (25) mg/ml, followed by the extract of peppermint (86.5%) at concentration (25) mg/ml and then the extract of garlic with (80.5%) at concentration (25) mg/ml; finally the extract of myrtle inhibited that fungus growth (73.8%) at concentration (25) mg/ml.
It was also shown, by study of the effect of combination between garlic extract and other extracts, that there were different degrees of inhibition of fungal growth; The combination of garlic and myrtle extract showed complete growth inhibition of G. candidum at concentration of (25) mg/ml and (20) mg/ml, followed by the combination of garlic and peppermint extract at concentration (25) mg/ml, followed by the combination between garlic and thyme extract (89.1%) at concentration (25) mg/ml, then the combination between garlic and black seed extract (65.2%) at concentration (25) mg/ml.

Asystematic study of the genus Rhus L. (Anacardiaceae)in Iraq

Amer M.M.AL-Maa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 100-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44048

The present study includes asystematic study of the genus Rhus L. that represented in Iraq by one species namely R. coriaria L. Which growth widley and cultivated near the villages in the north of Iraq . Macro and micro characteristics of plant, pollen grain, and anatomical characters of epidermis, venation, wood and indumentum were studied. According to the information of survey field and some herbarium specimens are utilized to elucidate the ecology and distribution of the species belong to the genus.

Some Pathogenic Aspects , Biotyping and Antibiotics Sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes

Mayada Ahmad Al-Taee; Amera Mahmood Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 115-126
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44053

The ability of 22 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from different clinical cases including abortion, preterm labours and from cases of neonates meningitis were tested for the production slime layer and adherence on the human epithelial mouth cells .
The results showed that all isolates were capable of producing slime layer and able to adhere to the human epithelial cells. Enzymatic activites were studied. The results revealed that the bacteria can produce: Protease, Lipase, Lecithinase, DNase and Esterase Depending on its enzymatic activity, three different enzymatic tests were chosen for biotyping of isolates , the results indicated the predomination of the first biotype followed by the third then the second and the fifth biotypes. The sensitivity to antibiotics was also tested. The isolates exhibited complete sensitivity to Ampicillin and chloramphenicol while it was completely resistant to Nalidixic acid and variable sensitivity to other antibiotics.

The Mutagenic Effect of Garlic Extracts in Condia of Aspergillus amstelodami

Rafi’a K. Girges; Rafi’ K. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 127-139
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44054

Four sublethal concentrations ( 2.5 , 5 , 7.5 and 10 mg / ml ) of the aqueous extract and four sublethal concentrations ( 0.5 , 1 , 1.5 and 2 mg / ml ) of alcoholic extract of garlic were tested for their ability to induce forward mutations in conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami using the pretreatment protocol. None of the concentrations tested were found mutagenic within the experimental protocol used. The concentrations above were also tested to act as photosensitizers with UVA or as synergestic effect with 8-MOP to induce similar mutations. None of these concentrations exhibited any of these two effects.