Volume 17, Issue 11, Autumn 2006, Page 1-52

Genetics of Resistance to Itraconazole in Aspergillus amstelodami

Asia A. Mohammed; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43873

A sample of 24 spontaneous mutants resistant to the antifungal itraconazole were isolated in the brown strain A76 (18 mutants) and the white strain AZG131 (6 mutants) of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami . Dominance tests, in heterokaryons, have shown that all mutants are recessive to their respective wild type alleles. Complementation tests, also in heterokaryons, among the mutants indicated that all mutantions belong to a single gene given the gene symbol itzA as it was the first gene of its kind to be identified in this fungus. There are nine (1-IX) linkage groups so far recognized in this fungus and haploidization analyses of diploids between one of the mutants and suitable master stains put the gene itzA outside groups I-VII, but its relationship to groups VIII and IX was not determined as no master strains carrying markers on these two groups were available at the time. Also, the biochemical function of itzA in relation to the three genes cyp51A, cyp51B and MDR, recognized to confer resistance to itraconazole in Aspergillus could not be determined.

Determination of Transposition Property of Neomycin , Streptomycin and Trimethprim Resistance Genes in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis

Khalid D. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 8-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43897

Twenty bacterial isolates were collected from human diarrheal samples and then identified. Seven out of twenty isolates were E. coli and three P. mirabilis . These isolates were checked for their resistance to six antibiotics and two heavy metals ( HgCl2 and Cdcl2). The bacterial isolates showed variation in their resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals.and only one E. coli but all P. mirabilis isolates showed high level of resistance. Transposition induction of genes in the two chosen bacterial isolates was carried out.. Our results suggested that in E. coli isolate, neomycin resistance gene was induced to jump and insert itself into chloramphenicol and tetracyclin resistance genes causing them to mutate .in percents reaching 80% and 8% respectively. On the other hand, the streptomycin resistance gene transposition appear to be specific for generating mutations in the heavy metals resistance genes at rates 48% and 100 % respectively. In addition, transposition induction of the above genes in the chosen P. mirbilis isolate seemed to cause mutations in ampicilin, chloramphenicol and tetracyclin resistance genes ranging between 2 and 4 % .

Effect of Toxoplasma gondi Infestation on Lipid Peroxidation and Certain Antioxidants in Pregnant Women in Mosul City

Wasan K. Ali; Farah H. Umar; Bassam N. Aziz

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 16-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43908

In order to determine the effects of toxoplasmosis on the lipid peroxidation and the glutathione defense system against peroxides. Forty pregnant women with toxoplasmosis (acute and chronic) and twenty healthy pregnant women (control group) with age range of 18-45 years living in Mosul city were selected. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced form of glutathione (GSH) and gluthathione peroxidase activity (GSH-PX) were measured. The results showed a marked increased in MDA level (as an index of lipid peroxidation) in patients with toxoplasmosis in comparison with the control group. On the other hand, patients with toxoplasmosis had decreased GSH and increased GSH-PX level when compared with the control subjects.

Inert Dusts to Control Adults of Some Stored Product Insects in Stored Wheat

Salem Q. Al-Naqib; Riyad A. Al-Iraqi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 26-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43912

The use of natural mineral inert dusts is considered one of the methods for protection of stored grains from insect pests infestation.
Four local rocky dusts were evaluated against four storage insects. Ninivite dust proved to be the most effective of the tested dusts and gave LC50 of 0.12, 0.14, 0.06 and 0.08% for each of T. confusum, T. granarium, O. surinamensis and R. dominica while bentonite dust showed the lowest effect and gave LC50 of 0.74, 0.85, 0.13 and 0.20 for the insect species, respectively. The tested dusts arranged in the follwing order: ninivite< kaolinite< montorillonite< bentonite.
The effect of ninivite dust to O. surinamensis was 2.41, 2.0 and 1.4 times more than T.granarium , T. confusum , and R.dominica , respectively. The use of ninivite dust to prevent insect infestation in stored grains is a successful alternative to insecticides.

Effect of Alfatoxin and Ninivite on Total and Differentlal Leukoceyte Counts in Broiler Chicks

Nabela M. Shareef; Anwar Z. Al-Zubaedy; Akeel M. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 34-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43920

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of aflatoxin at a concentration 2,5 mg/kg diet alone or with different levels of Ninivite 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% on total, differential and absolute leukocyte counts in broiler chicks. The addition of aflatoxin (AF) in broilers diet at a concentration of 2.5 mg/kg did not significantly alter leukocyte counts when compared with the control group. The addition of Ninivite at all doses to the AF contaminated diet were resulted in a significant increase in the total circulating leukocytes when compared with the control group.
Differential leukocyte counts revealed a significant increase in the percentages of both monocytes and heterophils, and a reduction in lymphocytes when Ninivite was added at all doses to AF contaminated diet. The differential leucocyte counts of the remaining cells (Basophils and Eosinophils) show no significant changes when compared with AF and control group. The heterophils lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was significantly increased with each increase in the level of Ninivite addition to AF contaminated diet when compared with AF and control group .The picture of the absolute and differential leukocyte counts were identical except that, the lymphocytes were significantly reduced when Ninivite was added to AF contaminated diet at concentrations more than 1.5% when compared with AF and control group.

In Vitro Effects of Ethanolic Extract and Crude Alkaloids of Prosopis farcta Leaves on the Viability of Echinococcus granulosus Protoscolices in Comparison to Mebendazole

Ahmed A. Al-Daoody; Adeeba Y. Shareef; Marua H. Hammoshi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43931

The scolicidal effects of crude ethanolic extract and crude alkaloids of Prosopis farcta leaves on protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus were appraised in vitro, in comparison with mebendazole (the drug of choice in the treatment of echinococcosis) at 37C0 and 4C0 and at different time intervals.
Both extracts exerted higher effect at 37C0, and the crude alkaloids were more effective than ethanolic extract as it gave a scolicidal effect especially at the lower concentrations used (62.5, 31.2 mg/ml) within shorter periods (3 days and 13 days at 37C0 and 4C0 respectively)