Volume 16, Issue 6, Spring 2005, Page 1-206

Assessment of Dibdibba Sand (Southern Iraq) for the Manufacturing of Semi Silica Bricks

Firas Faisal Al-Hamdani; Sattar Jabbar Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41577

Three different mixtures (sand:clay), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40), were formed in a cylindrical shape of 50×50 mm, using a semi–dry pressing with 300 kg/cm2 as forming pressure and then fired at 1430˚C.
The results showed that the produced semi silica bricks have apparent porosity ranging from 21.3-25% with specific gravity between 2.42-2.93 N/mm2 and having spelling resistance between 15 to 25 cycle.
The results show that it is possible to use a mixture of 60:40 sand:clay for the manufacture of semi silica bricks.

The Use of Local Lime as A Coagulant or A Coagulant Aid With Ferrous Sulfate For Synthetic Turbidity Remo val From Water

Mussab A. Al-Tamir; Mohammed S. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 14-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41581

The local lime has been used as a coagulant and a coagulant aid with ferrous sulfate in turbidity removal for deferent level of initial synthetic turbidity (25,100,500) ntu. The study revealed that the lime can effectively be used alone as a coagulant with medium and high initial turbidity levels (100and500) ntu, And it revealed a better result when it used as a coagulant aid with ferrous sulfate at low initial turbidity limit 25ntu with a dose of 20mg/l with 7.5mg/l of ferrous sulfate to get a removal of 93% of turbidity.
Regression analysis has been done and a mathematical model determined for the variables included in the study, and it found that the most important variable affect to turbidity removal is the initial turbidity followed by settling time then ferrous sulfate dose then lime dose.

Water Quality Index For A Group of Wells in Northwest of Mosul City

Mus’ab A. Al-Tamir

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 27-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41816

In this study The Water Quality Index (WQI) has been used to evaluate the ground water for a group of dug wells in northwest of Mosul city by using Multiplicative weighted mean method which known Geometric mean method; the study revealed the

badness of ground water in the area for both drinking and irrigation uses; where it fall in the group five for drinking water and group four and five for irrigation uses, In relating of stockyard uses the well water is more suitable for this use and it fall in the groups one, two, three and four for this use. From comparing the WQI of the wells in the area with the WQI of Tigris River it found that is no big interaction between the river and the wells.

Paleoecology of the Lower Miocene Sequence in Jambur well No.18 Northern Iraq

Hamed D. Hani; Tarik S. Abawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 41-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41820

The environmental conditions prevailing during sedimentation of the lower Miocene sequence, represented by the Serikagni Formation, the Serikagni/Euphrates intertonguing and the Euphrates Formation, in Jambur well No.18, Northern Iraq are revealed by the interpretation of its foraminiferal fauna. The environmental relationships of the foraminiferal assemblage indicate that the Serikagni Formation was deposited in upper/middle slope, the Serikagni/Euphrates intertonguing in outer shelf and the Euphrates Formation in inner shelf depths. The planktonic foraminiferal fauna recorded in this study is typical Tethyan in composition; its high diversity indicates tropical – subtropical climatic conditions.

Hydrogeomorphological Quantitative Study for Watershed of Wadi Al-Therthar North – West Iraq

Mohammed F. O. Khattab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 50-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41831

The twenty one variables (representing climatical, hudrological and geomorphological factors) of six sub basins forming Wadi Al- Therthar north – west Iraq was studied to found relation between these variables and amount of runoff.
The area is located geographically between (36˚30΄ - 35˚ 35΄) latitude and (43˚ 00΄ - 41˚ 55΄) longitude.

Statistical analysis of correlation and regression of these variables applied where amount of runoff from these basins as dependent variable and the other variables as independent.
Results led to the formulations of mathematical equations which can be use for the predication of the rate of flow other selected variables.

Dolomite Textures in the Upper Part of Jeribe Formation of Sherikh Ibrahim Area, Northwest Iraq

Zaid A. Al-Abbasi; Thamer A. Aghwan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.45543

The Jeribe Formation of Sheikh- Ibrahim area is divided into two parts of variable bedding characters. The lower bedded part comprises carbonated beds of chalky, massive and biogenic limestone. The massive upper part is constituted of hard limestone and dolomitic limestone associated with fringing dolomite breccia. The massive limestone is dominated by blue- green algal buildup, which has been highly dolomitized. Petrographic examination of dolomite in the upper part revealed the following textures: aphanotopic, limpid and mosaic dolomite textures. The inference gained from petrographic evidence point to dolomitization by the mixing zone model.

The Investigations of Gypsum Rocks Outcrops in Sheikh-Ibrahim Anticline by Ratio Images

Abeer A. Al-Alaf; Rayan Gh. Al-Banaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 77-90
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41841

To display the significance of the remotely sensed data in geological exploration, ratio images were used to allocate the prospected area of gypsum rocks. Ratioing operation removes the albedo information and enhances the reflectivity of the cover type .A combination of ratio images based on the spectral characteristics of gypsum rocks was selected. This combination consists of (Band4/Ban3), (Band7/Ban1) and (Band7/Ban4). Gypsum rocks are expected to appears in white tone in ratio images (Band4/Ban3), while it expected to appears in dark tone in the ratio images (Band7/Ban1) and (Band7/Ban4) . However, to exploit the capability of ratio images for better discrimination, these ratio images were combined into a false colors composites which reflect the gypsum rocks in blue color in ratio images ((Band 4 / Band 3)G, (Band 7 / Band 1)B and (Band 7 /
Band 4)R)). To avoid the false ratio value which appears as result of scattering effective images portrayed in short wavelength, the raw images were subjected to methods of image correction. Finally, all the operations of correction and ratioing were programmed in C++ language. The software is adaptive so that it can be used for any cover type discriminating using any sensor type.

Lithostratigraphy of Turonian-Santonian Unit in Sfaya Oil Field Northwest Iraq

Farhan H.Al-Ajeli; Abdul-Aziz M.Al-Hamdani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 91-103
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41845

The Stratigraphy and facies analyses of the unknown calcareous conglomerate unit, which has recently been brought up by bore holes in Sfaya oil field at north western Iraq, have been shown that this unit is of “Turonian-Santonian” age. Lithologically, conglomerate and embedded mudstone lenses at the western and centeral parts of the field represent the unit. On the other hand, it is represented by conglomerate, which is interfingering with lagoonal carbonates at the southeastern parts and by thick typical lagoonal carbonate facies, which overlay a tongue of conglomerate extending towards Ain-Zala oil field. Stratigraphic and facies analyses have indicated that this unit was deposited in a limited lagoonal environment.

Variation of Characteristic Quality with Depth of Water of Mosul Dam Lake

Mohammed F. O. Khatab; Adil A.B. Al-Hamadani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 104-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41851

The variation of quality characteristic of Mosul lake, was studied by monitoring the changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of water through two periods. The two periods have been chosen during July and November respectively. The changes of several samples, taken at different depths, were monitored. The changes included, temperature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), bicarbonate (HCO ), phosphate (PO ), nitrate (NO ), chloride (Cl) and sulphate (SO ), Cross-sections that represent the changes in the characteristics were shown graphically.
The results have shown that for the July period the changes in temperature has greater effects on some of the specific characteristics such as pH, DO, (HCO ), and PO than the others. The effects have produced three strata-zones of different specific characteristics that synchronize with three strata-zones of different temperatures.
For the November periods the study has shown that the lake is at the beginning of autumn turnover state. Besides, the study has shown that concentration of (DO) does not show the overturning process clearly. Also the decrease in the amount of oxygen in the lake, which in turn, lead to the formation for a reducing environment that increases the biological pollution inside the lake. In addition, the concentration of dissolved ions will increase as result of the absence of the self-treatment inside the lake

Geomorphology and Hydrogeology of Hadramout Area South of Yemen Using Remote Sensing and Field Data

Abdullatif A. Al-munaifi; Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 115-131
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41855

The state of Hadramout Governorate South of Yemen is facing serious water crises as a result of its limited natural water resources, and the over-abstraction from the Shihr, Tawilah and Quaternary deposit aquifer systems. The aquifer heads have fallen, giving rise to the problem of seawater intrusion and resulting in the loss of the fresh ground water resources.
A hydrological map showing the spatial distribution and characteristics of three different types of ground water aquifer systems associated with the nature of rock types and permeability in the study area. The physical and chemical analysis from the water resources (AL-Naqaá-Adhibah-Thilah and Fowah) which supply Mukalla and Gail Ba Wazeer zones were tested during the period 17/11/2001 to 27/3/2002. Laboratory analysis showed clear high concentration almost in all the water constitutions. These results are above the values set by the World Organization of Health (WHO) and exceed the Yemeni guidelines for drinking water. The high results are in total dissolved solids (total alkalinity, total hardness, sulphates, manganese and fluorine).
Techniques of water harvesting which was appropriate for this application using remote sensing satellite, taken in 2001, has been analyzed in both descriptive and quantitative geomorphic methods to improve water quality in the area of study a whole, which suffers from high concentration of water constitutions, ending with the adoption of the concept of water harvesting using flash flood in the main drainage basins. So, there is great necessity to give these water resources the superior priority in the future decision planning, to improve ground water aquifer systems in the study area.

New Contribution to the Geology of Mosul Area from Geoelectric Investigations

Zuhair D. Al-Shaikh; Marwan M. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 132-147
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41860

In the present geoelectric investigations, the Mosul depression, which lies between the structures of Fadhliya, Bashiqa and Ain Safra in the northeast and Allan and Atshan in the southwest, has been carefully investigated. The Investigation envolved eighty eight depth electric sounding measurements using collinear symmetrical Schlumberger electrode arrangement with maximum C1C2 distance of 1500m.These measurements were distributed over an approximately regular grid covering an area of about 1000 sq.km. Continuous correlation of the layer models with the lithological logs of numerous wells in the area are made.
Detailed analyses of the geoelectrical data and their accurate interpretations showed the existence of a number of folded structures that were unknown previously. Various other, previously suggested structures were affirmed. A number of strike-slip faults were delineated, with oblique slip movement, which is not known previously. A number of block faults (Zagroside and Tauroside blocks) have also been recognized. Therefore, the Mosul depression is a graben created by system of block reverse faulting.

Quantitative Hydrogeomorphology Study for Watershed of Wadi Al–Meleh, North-Iraq

Basman Y. Al-Ta; Mohammed F. Omer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 148-157
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41863

The hydrogeomorphology of Wadi Al-Meleh basin studied quantitatively using remote sensing data .The studied area is located at northern part of Iraq.
The stages of the study included a preparation of geomorphological maps, followed by morphometric analysis of twenty-two variables.
These variables represent climatical, hydrogeological and geomorphological factors for five major sub basins that form Wadi Al-Meleh.
The statistical analysis of correlation and regression of these variables applied where amount of runoff from these basins as dependent variable and the other variables as independent.
Results shown models, which can be used for the prediction of the rate of flow of this basin from other selected variables.

Petrographic Characteristics of Injana Formation in Borehole (KH 8/9), and Their Climatic-Tectonic Implications, on Sinjar Area, NW Iraq

Ahmad N. Al-Fattah; Thamer A. Aghwan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 158-175
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41865

Petrographic study of the sandstones of Injana Formation in the well (KH8/9) revealed them to consist dominantly of carbonate rock fragments with subordinate monopoly crystalline quartz, K-Na feldspars fragments, igneous–metamorphic rock fragments and mica, in addition to matrix and cement of variable composition (carbonate, iron oxide, silica and sulphates). This suits of components can be related to provenance overwhelmed by sedimentary rocks with lesser contribution of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
This sandstone is mineralogically and texturally immature and of calclithite variety originated from source rock under colder conditions compared to their semi-arid environment of deposition. The tectonic setting of back – arc attributes as a consequence of plate – collision and overthrusting played a dominate role in sourcing the sediments.

Using GMS to Formulate the Geological Sections for Hamdania Region, North Iraq

Yousif F. Eklemis; Abdulghani A. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 176-190
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41867

Predicting Three dimention solid model for aquifers in any region is one of the most important aims for hydrologists to reach. The Electrical investigation data have been used for Hamdania region. This data represent the aquifers thickness in electrical sounding points. AThree dimention computerized solid model was build using the groundwater modeling system (GMS). This has been done by connecting the aquifer upper points to make triangular irregular network (TIN), which is repeated for all aquifers in the study region to make four TINs. By filling between these TINs a 3D solid model was build for geological aquifers in the study region. The size and the dimentions for all aquifers were calculated from this model. The volume for Bi Hasan Formation is (21 x 109) m3 while the volume for Injanah Formation is (136 x 109) m3.

Diagnostic Reef Pattern Within Sediments of Sinjar Formation (Paleocene-Early Eocene) of Sinjar Anticline

Mohammed A. Al-Haj; Abdul-Aziz M.Al-Hamdani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 191-206
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41873

Carbonates of Sinjar Formation (Paleocene-Early Eocene) have been studied along two exposed sections situated at both limbs of Sinjar anticline. Facies analysis shows the presence of twenty microfacies, including four facies of boundstone type. The delineated microfacies indicate that the succession of Sinjar Formation represents a complete reef system zone. The succession of Sinjar Formation consists of two sedimentary subcycles. The lower one represented by sandy lime facies of reef slope facies. This reef system is characterized by a very narrow lagoon and reef zones and limited reef slope zones. This refers to remnant facies of previous regressive phase, which occurred at the end of Danian period. The second subcycle represented by the rest of the succession of the formation. This subcycle is believed to be deposited through regional transgressive phase during Paleocene to Early Eocene period. This led to the development of reef system with all reefal environmental zones.