Volume 16, Issue 12, Autumn 2005, Page 1-214

Behavior of Some Triazoles Derivatives as Synthysised Cytokinins in the Presence of New Growth Regulator (PDA) in the Initiation Growth and Differentiation of Lettuce callus (Lactuca sativa L.)

Abdul Mutalib S. Mohammad; Amera E. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43650

The addition of PDA compound (10-6, 10-7, 10-8 M) with (10-6 M) triazoles compounds stimulates callus formation from stem segments depending on the types of derivative and PDA concentration used. Moreover, the addition of most triazoles compounds (10-6 M) with PDA (10-8 M) induced the shoots regeneration in greater numbers as compared with the presence of NAA. Most compounds added enhanced growth of the callus similar to that grown on the standard medium or more especially in the case of G, H and D compounds. The fresh weights of callus grown on medium containing G and PDA were 27.5 g as compared with other compounds used.
Interestingly, protein content of callus increased with the lapses of growth period in the same pattern as the changes in fresh weight.
The conclusion is that triazoles compounds behave in the same way as cytokinins in the culture medium.
These compounds were more effective than the standard growth regulators in growth and differentiation of lettuce plant.
However, the use of PDA instead of standard auxins enables to exclude the use of imported growth regulators, which has great economic importance. This study is regarded for the first time an attempt to use locally prepared auxins and cytokinins in Lettuce tissue culture system.

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Amongest Foodhandlers in Kirkuk City, Al-Taam’em Province, Iraq

Hider M. Al-Shirifi; Ibraheem A. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43654

Results of examining 325 foodhandlers and foodsellers in Kirkuk city, Al-Taam’em province, by direct and floatation methods in zinc sulphate and in brine salt solutions revealed their infection with the following parasites: Protozoa, Giardia lamblia 12.31%, Entamoeba coli 5.54%, E. histolytica 3.69%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.92% and Chilomastix mesnili 0.62%. Helminths: Hymenolepis nana 5.85%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.38%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1.85%, Trichuris trichiura 0.92% and Taenia saginata 0.62%. The highest infection 12.00% was among restaurateurs, while grocers show the lowest infection 0.92%, emphasing their role in dispersion the infection among the community, which require the efforts of public health agencies to take their role to cure them from these parasites.

Isolation and Identification of Proteus Species from Urinary Tract Infection and Study of Its Response to Antibiotics

Harith Sh. Yihia; Subhi H. Khalaf; Thikra S. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 22-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43661

Three bacterial species of Proteus bacteria have been isolated from various age groups (males and females) suffering from urinary tract infection. Subsequently, the isolates were diagnosed through observation of three morphological, cultural and biochemical features. Twenty isolates out of 80 patients have been diagnosed.
The study revealed that the highest infection was caused by Pr. mirabilis which was 70%, while infection with Pr. vulgaris was only 20%. These two kinds of bacteria are widely spread specially in urinary tract infections which have rather become complex due to abnormal function and composition and patiens who received catheterization. As for species Pr. penneri it came up to from 10%. This species is rather limited in the number of isolation and only appears in certain pathological cases.
The response of antibiotic sensitivity tests has shown that the isolates were sensitive to Tobramycin, Ciprofloxacin and resistance to Ampicillin, Trimethoprim.

Biotyping Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates and Their Sensitivity to Common Antibiotics

Amera M. Al-Rawe; Ghada A. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43665

The study involved the biotyping of 9 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni (C.jejuni) isolated from 152 fecal samples from children with sever diarrhea. These isolates were identified depending on morphological and cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. The study also aimed at checking the sensitivity and resistance of this bacterium to some common antibiotics. Biotyping was done depending on three biochemical tests, Hydrolysis of hippurate, Hydrolysis of DNA and ability of growth on Charcaol Yeast Extract (CYE).This biotyping system includes eight biotypes. The results showed that all isolates belonged to two biotypes, the third and seventh. The third was the dominant comparising 77.78 % while the seventh contained only 22.22 % of the isolates. The study also showed that All isolates were sensetive to Neomycin, Tetracycin , Rifampicin but fully resistante to Co-Trimoxazole and Ampicillin. However, the isolates avariable sensetivity or resistance to Chloramphenicole, Gentamycine, Erythromycine and Ciprofloxacin.

Chemical Contorl of Pathogenic Sunflower( Helianthus annuus L) Seed Borne Fungi

Abeer A. Mahmod; Nadeem A. Ramadan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 39-48
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43671

Effectiveness of five fungicides (benlate , captan , dithane M-45 , rhizolex , tecto ) which were used in seed treatment and foliar application showed that tecto and rhizolex were the most effective In Vitro studies to control the studied fungi , while tecto and captan at the rate 2000 mg /l were the most effective in controlling damping – off sunflower ( as seed dressing ) .All the fungicides showed effectivness in protection sunflower plants from leaf spotting caused by A. alternata , A. dianthi and M. phaseolina i.e. captan , tecto the rate 1000 mg/L were most effective against A. alternata and benlate , dithane M-45 at the rate 1000 mg/l against A. dianthi while benlate and tecto at rate 100 mg/l were the best fungicides agains M. phaseolina .

Effect The Mixture of Savlon on Bacterial Resistance of Antibiotics

Adeeba Y. Shareef; Hanan S. Noore

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 49-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43676

The mixture of Savlon with seven chemical disinfectants (Hibitane, Formalin, Septicin, Savlon, Dettol , Iodine and Biotic) was tested. it appeared that Hibitane had the highest effect at (88.23, 88.88 and 100%) concentrations on Gram negative bacilli, Gram positive cocci and Gram positive bacilli. The effect of disinfectant on bacterial resistance of antibiotic, so bacteria treated with Sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of savlon mixed with other disinfectants which lead to an increase of resistance of some and the sensitivity of others.

Microscopical Study of Internal Symptoms of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus in Infected Faba Bean Plants

Mohamed S. Al-Sama; Nadeem A. Ramadan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 62-68
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43684

Amorphous granular inclusion bodies were detected in the epidermal cells of infected faba bean plants with BYMV. Electron microscopic examination of thin sections of infected faba bean leaves showed pinwheels , lamellae , crystals and different components in the cytoplasm of infected cells , as well as satellite bodies in the nucleoli .
Also , electron microscopic studies reveald the degradation of some plastids , hypertrophied and malformated mitochondria, and membranous protrusions in the internal membrane of the infected cells .

Effect of Experimental Infection with Two Serotypes of Salmonella on Immune Response Against Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Broilers

Fanar A. Danail; Safwan Y. Al Baroodi; Shehab A. Yassin

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 69-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.47152

This study was designed to show the effect of experimental infection with two serotypes of salmonella on immune response in chickens. Four groups of broilers were used. First group infected by S.typhimurium orally with 2 x 106 cfu/ml at 5 day age, and the second group infected orally by S.enteritidis with 1 x 108 cfu/ml at the same age. While the third group don't exposed to salmonella and considered as positive control . the forth group was considered as negative control .Then the first three groups vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine at 7 day of age. After that all the groups exposed to challenging with virulent Newcastle disease virus at 22 days post vaccination. The results showed significantly high level of antibodies in the 3rd group when compared with 1st and 2nd groups, and the protection ratio in the 3rd group is 85% while it is 70%, 60% only in the 1st and 2nd groups respectively.

Pathological Changes in Lungs of Rabbits Exposed to Passive Smoking

Ali M. Redah; Intesar R. Al-Kenani; Kusai M. Hamed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 77-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43691

This study revealed the presence of gross and histopathological changes in rabbit lungs exposed to passive smoking lesions, have represented squamous metaplasia in epithelial cells lining alveoli and bronchioles with infiltration of inflammatory cells around bronchus and bronchioles as well as deposition of lipid droplets in tuinca intema and tunica media of pulmonary alveolar wall with fibroelastosis.

Laboratory Evaluation of Four Plants Powders Against Some Stored Products Insects

Riyad A. Al-Iraqi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 84-92
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43694

The effect of the leaves of Petrosxlinum sativum, Datura stramonium, the seeds of Thymas syriacus and Pimpinella anisum were mixed with grain wheat at 0.2 and 0.4 % w/w concenration. They were evaluated against adults Tribolium confusum, Trogoderma granarium, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Rhizopertha dominica.
O. surinamensis was the most susceptible to plant powders. The mean percent mortality was 65.38, 6.93, 1.87 and 0.55 % for O. surinamensis R. dominica, T. granarium and T. confusum respectively. Powders of all plants showed repellent effect to the four insect species except T.spicta L. powder which attracted adult of T. granarium at 27.33 %.
Rearing of T. granarium on wheat grains treated with the plant powders at 0.4 % effect the biology of the insects. The adults gave a progeny of 3.33, 12, 28 and 36.66 individuals from two pairs of insects respectively in comparison to 60 individuals in the control treatment.

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Sheep in Different Localities of Ninevah Province, Iraq

Ibraheem A. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 93-101
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43696

The examination of fecal samples of 180 sheep, by using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, sugar solution and Lugol’s iodine, revealed 26.66% of the infection with Cryptosporidium. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain proved to be more efficient revealing (13.33%) followed by sugar solution (7.77%,) then iodine stain (5.55%.) .The highest percent of infection was observed among sheep of younger ages.

Correlation Between Sinusitis and Allergy

Enas A. Al-Layla; Basima A. Abdulla

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 102-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.47145

Nasal allergy and sinusitis are common disease which cause main health problem to many people in the world especially on our country after the embargo. The increase of pollutants in the last period due to severe condition and the complicated life which lead to spread and increase of allergy and sinusitis. Therefore, this study was conducted planed incited to determine the relationship between allergy and sinusitis and shed light on some important data which cause nasal allergy and sinusitis.
The results showed that sinusitis was dominated in house wives (70.4%) and in students males (43.4%). High incidence of headache was in females (80.2%) and in males (61.4%). Also the percentage of Allergy in patients without asthma were in males (15.2%) and in females (10.3%), whereas in patients with allergy and asthma were (3.6%) in male and (6.0%) in females. The percentage of nasal polyps which considered to be one of the complication of sinusitis due to allergy was in females (13.6%) and the males (15.7%).

Screening Local Milk Products for Fungi

Nihal Y. Al-Murad; Aytham .S. Al-Dabbagh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 115-124
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43703

Mycological investigation of (135) samples of milk products collected from various stores in Mosul city. Results revealed that Aspergillus niger and Pencillium spp were found in 8.69%, 60.9% of home–made milk products, while they were observed in 2.5%, 82.08% in canned milk products respectively. Also 8.96% of canned milk product samples had Cladosporium spp, while other fungi were less common. The yeasts candida albicans and Rhodotrula spp occurred in 98.78%, 0.22% of home–made products, while they were found at 98.58% and 1.42% in canned-milk products, respectively. Geotrichium candidum was found in 1.0% of home-made dairy products. The results showed that the isolated fungi have the ability of hydrolysing milk lipids due to the production of lipase.

Adhesion Ability of Aeromonas caviae to Vero Cells

Thikra S. Ali; Subhi H. Khalaf; Sahi J. Dhahi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 125-133
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43706

To investigate factors contributing to pathogencity of the Aeromonas caviae isolated from diarrhoeal children, the persent work was hosted in Ibn-Al-Athir’s Hospital and Al-Salam Hospital in Mosul city. The clinical isolates proved incapable of producing enterotoxin, but able to cause cytopathic effect (CPE) in cultured Vero cells. Furthermore, they were able to establish a diffusable adhesion to the host cells.

The Mutagenic Effect of Sunlight on the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Gehan M. Saeed; Rafia K. Girges

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 134-144
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43711

In the present research the mutagenic action of direct sunlight at the mid-day of summer had been tested on the conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami and its effect was compared to that from far-ultraviolet (FUV) and from 8 – methoxypsoralen plus near -ultraviolet (8–MOP + NUV). The conididal suspension of A.amstelodami was exposed to sunlight at four exposure times (20, 40, 60 and 90 min) were tested, and then plating on selective media which contain 8–azaguanine to select azaguanine resistant mutant.
All the four treatments had produced mutant frequencies significantly higher than the spontaneous one, which represented the negative control (zero-min.).
The effect of the direct sunlight for 60 min. and 90 min. exposure time resembled that of 8–MOP plus NUV. This was used as positive control.

Seasonal Distribution of Damping–off and Root Rot Pathogens of Sugar Beet and Their Chemical Control

Khalie H. Taha; Nidhal Y. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 145-158
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43718

The Seasonal distribution of damping off and Root rot pathogens in different regions from Ninavaha province showed the existence of Pythium debaryanum Hesse and P. ultimum Trow during November until the end of February, while the existence of the last species extende to march and April. Another two isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn were found during the months of March, April, May and June while the second isolates Phoma betae (Oud.) Fr noticed during February, March, April, May and June. Fusarium solani Mart. was also found during the period extended from October until June, While the Macrophomina phaseolina Tassi appeared during Feb. until June. The Sugar beet variety Trible and Desprez were less Susceptible to previous Pathogens in comparison to Semirave and Ovata Variety. The chemical control showed that Tecto, Rovrin, Rhizolex and Benomyl exhibit a good inhibition effect on mentioned pathogens where as Ridomil-5G worked only effective on Pythium sp. The mixture of Ridomil and Benomyl showed also a superia effect in controlling the sugar beet pathogens.

Study of Exotoxin Production Ability of Aeromonas species Isolated from Children Diarrhea in Mosul

Thikra S. Ali; Sahi J. Dhahi; Subhi H. Khalaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 159-170
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43725

Diarrhoeal stool samples of (850) infants and children under six years of age were examined. Those children were hosted in Ibn-Al-Athir's Hospital and Al-Salam Hospital in the city of Mosul in order to investigate the existence of Aeromonas by using microscopic, cultural and biochemical characteristics.
Three species of Aeromonas were detected in (21) children, that’s (2.47%), arranged as follows: Aeromonas sobria (71.42%), Aeromonas hydrophila (19.05%), Aeromonas caviae (9.52%).
Aeromonas species possess various virulence factors such as toxin production for it has been found by suckling infants mouse assay that the A. sobria and A. hydrophila have a marked ability to produce toxins and that A. hydrophila is much more pathogenic (0.083-0.10) than A. sobria (0.083-0.096). A. caviae was incapable of toxin producing (0.075-0.077).

Genetical Analysis of Diallel Crosses in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Shekir M. Ramo; Najeeb K. Yousif

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 171-179
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43729

Six varieties of bread wheat (Panalas, Gemeney, Saberbeg, 69-S3, 35-S6, Kvz/cgn) and their half diallel crosses were used to estimate general combining ability, specific combining ability and heterosis for the following traits: heading time, flag leaf area, maturity time, resistance to lodging, plant height, number of tillers and biological yeild. Seeds of parents and their hybrids were grown during the growing season 2001-2002 at the plant experimental station, college of Education, Mosul University, using randomized complete block design with four replications, depending on rainfall under natural conditions. Significant differences among the genotypes and significant variance for both general and specific combining abilities for all studied traits were detected. Most of hybrids had significant desirable heterosis for studied traits.

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Causing Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women in Mosul City

Sahar L. Al-Saliem; Amera M. Al-Rawy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 180-190
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43731

In this study, 220 vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women in three trimesters infected with bacterial vaginosis in Mosul city. They were diagnosed by the gynecologists. The isolation and identification of some bacterial species causing (B.V.) were done especially Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B. streptococci) (GBS). Different species of gram positive and negative bacteria were isolated from vaginal swabs in different percentage with predominance of GBS (18.2%) followed by Gardnerella vaginalis and Escherichia coli 11.8% and 11.4% respectively, while the lowest percentage (4.5%) in Haemophilus influenzae.

Epidemiological Study of Diarrhoea in Al-Rashedia Village in Ninava in Iraq

Bushra H. Saeed; Farah M. Gazal; Hanan S. Nori

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 191-206
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43749

The present study include a general survey of the reason of diarrhea of the patients visited the Health center of Al-Rashidia village. We have collected 754 samples from patients between 1-69 years old. The result prove that Salmonella sp. And kinds of parasites such as Entamoeba coli , Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are the main reasons of diarrhea.
For Salmonella sp. the recorded percentage of infection is 44.04% whereas the highest percentage of infection among those whose is between 20-29 years is 17.3%. We should mentioned that the females are more exposed to infection than males (29% ♀, 15% ♂). This study showed that there is a direct relation between the infection and the months of the year. The highest percentage (4%) of infection in female is during September, whereas the lowest percentage (0.7%) of infection in male during February and July.
As for the parasites causing diarrhea the percentage of infection is (20.9%) for E. coli, (20%) for E. histolytica and (14%) for G. lamblia . We have also noted that the people between (1-10) years old are more exposed to infection and their percentage is (24%.3). The results indicated that the infection with males is higher than that of females (39.6% ♀, 23.1 ♂). Moreover, this study shows that there is a close relation between the infection and the month of the year. The highest percentage of infection in July is (8.1%) whereas the lowest on is (2.7%) in January.

Study on Sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis to Different Antibiotics

Subhi H. Khalaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 12, Pages 207-214
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43750

Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out to (6) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis in Mosul city. The test was carried out to (15) antibiotics by disc method , the isolates were sensitive to Tobramycin and Amikacin (100%) , followed by Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin (83.3%), while they were resistant to the rest of the antibiotics tested. Two-fold dilutions were prepared from Tobramycin , Amikacin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs). Tobramycin and Amikacin had (MICs) values in the range of (20-25) μg/ml,while (MICs) values for gentamicin were in the range of (12.5-80) μg/ml and for Ciprofloxacin in the range of (12.5-320) μg/ml.