Volume 16, Issue 14, Autumn 2005, Page 1-298

Development of the Humoral Immunity on Infection by Tuberculosis Using Guinea Pigs as Experimental Animals

Muhsin A. Al-Ogaidy; Subhi H. Al-Juboury

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43471

This study was carried to clarify the development of the humoral immunity due to infection by Tuberculosis through artificial infection with three Mycobacterium types using Guinea Pigs as experimental animals. Results indicate that the Humoral immunity (Antibodies Level), which measured by ELISA serology technique (Enzym-Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay), arise progressively and stimulated evidently during the third week of infection, and it found that quickness of passing over the Cut-Off Level (means Tuberculiosis infection is positive by the used ELISA technique) depends on the type of injected Tubercle bacilli and the quickest was the local isolate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (day 26) then M. bovis (day 29) and standard strain M. tuberculosis.

The Effects of Three Biological Agents Control on Khapra Beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts.) (Coleoptera : Dermastidae)

Rassmia O. Sultan; Sahhel K. Al-Jamil; Juhaina A. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 8-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43472

In the first part of this study the Khapra Beetle eggs were impacted to the corn seeds that treated with concentration 2×106 spore/ml of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) and 2×106 spore/ml of Trichoderma harizanum (Rifia) and 4×105 spore/ml of Beauveria bassiana (Vuill), they were highly effective, the mortality percentages of this insect were 92.5, 88 and 92.6% respectively.
In the second part of this study three kinds of sacks were treated with the same concentrations of the forenamed agents, the results showed that these agents can protect the corn seeds foon infestation by this insect for six months compared with that of untreated ones and the P.C.V. sack is the best.

Inhibitor Effect Physiology of Some Purine Analogs on Metabolism of Leishmania major Promastigotes

ma A. Ahmad; Asmaa A. Ali; Husain F. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 17-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43476

The capacity of purine analogues (pyrazolo (3,4-d) pyrimidine, pyrazolo (4,3-d) pyrimidine and deazapurine) to inhibit Leishmania major promastigotes metabolism was evaluated.
The observations reported here indicate that APP, HPP, FoA and FoB inhibited the synthesis of RNA, DNA and the activities of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and adenosine kinase in promastigotes of L. major. It has been postulated that Leishmania promastigotes have a unique ability to convert these analogs sequentially to their nucleoside triphosphates leading to their incorporation into RNA and cytotoxicity to the organism.

Isolation and Identification of Clostridium Difficile from Patients with Colitis and Diarrhae in Ninevah Governorate

Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43479

We report the isolation and identification of Clostridium difficile from infants having watery diarrhae at ages from after birth to 2 years old during the period from 5 to 12 days according to the clinical diagnosis and from colitis and diarrhoael cases caused by using antibiotics. Morphological and biochemical tests were used for the identification of this bacterium .
The isolation percent from infantile watery diarrhea was 17.3 % while it form 32 % and 68 % from diarrhea and colitis cases in adult respectively. In studying the effect of age on its isolation percent from infantile diarrhea, it was found that this percent increased with age it formed higher isolation percentage in 18-24 month ages while it could not be isolated from after birth to 6 months infants.

Study on Bacterial Species of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Urinary Tract of Maturated Infected Females in Mosul City.

Subhi H. Khalaf; Nadia M. Muhamed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 42-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43480

Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) was isolated from 16 out of 120 (13.3%) female urine samples of the age group (15-42 years) with urinary tract infection. Three different CNS species were diagnosed using number of physiological and biochemical tests.
The most prevailing CNS species were found to be Staphylococcus saprophyticus (10%), while S. epidermidis and S. xylosus were 2.5% and 0.8% respectively

Presence and Properties of Cytidine Deaminase Enzyme in Trichomonas vaginalis

Muna H. Janker; Zahra I. Dallal Bashi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 50-62
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43485

The investigation indicated the presence and the properties of cytidine deaminase(EC. activity in extract of the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis grown in Diamond’s TYM medium.
The optimum conditions for the enzyme activity was determined and enzyme activity was obtained in a reaction mixture of (400)M of Tris-HCl buffer at pH (7.2) containing (7) mM of cytidine as a substrate and an amount of the enzyme ranging from (200-250)g of the enzyme extract, and an incubation period of (10) min. at (37)C.
Under the optimum conditions, the specific activity was found to be (17.5) mM of cytidine deaminated per min/ mg protein in the supernatant of Trichomonas vaginalis extracts.
the investigated Results of the properties of the cytidine deaminase activity showed that cytidine monophosphatet(CMP)might function as alternative substrate for enzyme activity.

Some of Pathological Aspects of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Diarrhoeal Cases in Children

Amera M. Al-Rawe; Ghada A. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43488

The study aimed to elucidating some pathogenecity factors of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from sever diarrhoeal cases from children at age of less than two years old, due to the association between this bacterium and these cases .The factors studied included such its adherence to eucaryotic cells by using oral epithelial cells isolated from human. The bacterium showed ability of adherence on these cells. The ability to produce enterotoxin and its effect through injection intraperitoneally in the mice was also investigated. after three days the mice were killed and histological sections were prepared from small intestine , large intestine and liver .The microscopical results for these sections showed vascular degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and lymphocytic perivascular cuffing surrounded the centeral vein , as well as dilatation of the lumen, In small intestine there is atrophy of villi, severe coagulative necrosis in epithelial lining of the mucosal layer and infiltration of inflamentary cells while in large intestine there was elongation of some villi and atrophy in others. Infiltration of inflamentary cells was also noticed.

The Mutagenic Effect of Pesticide Cyfluthrin 10 WP in Conidia of the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Gehan M. Saeed; Rafia K. Gerges

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43489

Non-toxic concentrations of the pesticide Cyfluthrin 10 WP were tested for thier ability to induce forward point mutations resistant to the base analogue 8-azaguanine (8-Azg) in conidia of the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus amstelodami. It appeared that pesticide Cyfluthrin 10 WP was aweak mutagenic under our experimental conditions.

The Role of Housing Type and Drinking Water in Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among Pupils of A Number of Primary Schools in Rural Area of Al-Taamem Province-Iraq

Hider M. Al-Shirifi; Ibraheem A. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 83-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43513

The results of examining 806 pupils of 19 primary schools in rural regions of Al-Taamem province living in houses of variable buildings and drinking water from different sources revealed their infection with the following intestinal parasites: Protozoa ; Giardia lamblia 9.90% ; Entamoeba coli 5.30% ; E. histolytica 4.73% ; Iodamoeba butschlii 1.32% ; Endolimax nana 0.88% ; Chilomastix mesnili 0.50% and Trichomonas hominis 0.19% . Helminths ; Hymenolepis nana 4.03% ; Enterobius vermicularis 2.10% ; Ascaris lumbricoides 0.63% and Trichuris trichiura 0.38% with a total percent of infection 29.95%. The highest infection rate appeared in pupils inhabited muddy houses which differs significantly (P = 0.05) from all other types of houses and those using water from wells from other sources of water.

Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter jejuni from Diarrhoel Cases of Children in Mosul City

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Ghada A. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 90-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43514

The study include the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni (C.jejuni) from children (aging between after birth to two years) with watery or bloody diarrhea in the period from September 2002 to February 2003. The bacterium was identified depending on succession in growth on selective medium: Preston Campylobacter blood-free medium and microscopical examination which revealed that it is gram negative pleomorphic, curved bacillus, S-shaped and gull-winged. Biochemical tests showed its positive reaction for catalase, oxidase and its ability to hydrolyse hippurate and indoxyl acetate but it was negative for urease and lipase. This bacterium can grow at 42o C while it failed to grow at 25o C and it tolerates 1% glycine while it can not grow in 1.5 % NaCl. Additionally the bacterium was sensetive to Nalidixic acid but resistant to Cephalothin.

Propagation of Almond (Amygdalus communis L.) Plant by Tissue Culture

Sajida A. Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 100-112
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43515

The Study demonstrated the role of some growth regulators in the induction of growth and differentiation of almond (Amygdalus communis L.) callus. Benzyladenine (BA) was used as cyokinine at concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0) mg/L. While dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2.4-D), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Indolebutyric acid (IBA) for each were used as auxin at various concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.5) mg/L.
The results indicated that the best medium sustaining maximum callus growth was the MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BA and NAA as it increases the fresh weight as 2.555 g during 90 days of growth.
The result showed that BA at 1.0 mg/L and IBA at 0.1 mg/L were the most effective in shoot proliferation and elongation from almond stem explants, since these shoots developed at higher concentrations (0.5 mg/L IBA and 2 mg/L BA) showed a small amount of black callus at the base of the shoots.
Moreover, shoots development from callus when it was transferred to MS medium supplemented with 2mg/L of BA, after 30 days. Also addition of 4% of sucrose to MS medium stimulated the initiation of callus rather well. However, the addition of 5% of sucrose to MS medium enhanced the number of shoots formation from stem expants of almond, reaching 8 shoots.
The result indicated also that the addition of 2 mg/L BA only to regeneration medium stimulated roots formation at the base of shoots, when these shoots were cultured on that medium. The plant developed on this medium can be readily transferred to the soil after hardening.

Study of Regulation Lake’s Water Quality of Mosul Dam

Mohamad S. Hassan; Musa, b A. Al-Tamir; Faiza I. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 113-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43516

After impoundment in the main lake of Mosul dam, water quality for regulation lake have been evaluated in addition to the enumeration of phytoplankton through examination of water samples collected in seven successive month’s from January to July 2000 to give an idea about water quality.
Variation in parameter values were noticed in the studied period and the phytoplanktons were belongs to three divisions Bacillariophyta (60%), chlorophyta (30%) and pyrrophyta (10%). It was noticed also that the values of most studied parameters were higher than the results obtained by previous study carried out on the same lake in (1988). The data of all measured properties were within the limited of water quality criteria for Iraqi systems for water and river conservation (1967).

Interaction Effects of Drought Episode and Different Levels of Nitrogen on Growth, Chlorophyll, Proline and Leaf Relative Water Content

Faiza A. Mahmood; Hussein S. Mohamad; Faiq H. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 128-145
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43518

This study was conducted under glasshouse condition to indicate the effects of drought condition (0.0, 24, 48 and 72 hr. after temporary wilting point) and different levels of nitrogen on growth and some physiological aspects of five wheat cultivars (IPA 970082, VEE (S), IPA 970110, ACSAD 881, and ACSAD 907). The main results showed that applying nitrogen to the soil as urea has decreased negative effects of drought on plant growth and some physiological aspects. Treatment of 30 ppm nitrogen result in significant increase in shoot and root system dry weight, plant hight, root system length, chlorophyll content and relative water content of leaves tissue, while proline accumulation had significantly increased in the leaves of plants when nitrogen was applied at the level (60) ppm.

Study of Some Bacteria Causing Conjunctivitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Hiyam A. Al-Taee; Summaya A. Al-Hamdonee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 146-155
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43521

Fifty samples from patients wih conjunctivitis were obtianed from conjunctiva of visitors to Ophthalomology Department In Al-Zahrawi Hospital, the laboratory tests results showed that 2 samples in percent of (4%) were negative to bacterial growth and 48 samples in percent of (96%) were positive to bacterial growth clinically diagnosed to 26acute and 22chronic conjunctivitis. It was seem that Neisseria sp. was the most frequent in the percentage of 26.4% followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae 19.1% to both of them. Neisseiae sp. and H. influenzae break out the highest percent of acute conjunctivitis 38.4% to both of them while in chronic conjunctivitis Neisseria sp. recorded the highest percent 36.3%. There was 41.66% of cases had two pathogens. The sensitivity test results showed that Neisseria sp. isolated from acute infection was most sensitive to Ampicillin (90%) and most resistant to Amoxycillin and Erythromycin (75%), while in chronic infection was most sensitive to Ampicillin (75%) and most resistant to Clindamycin (100%). H. influenzae isolated from acute infections was most sensitive to Ampicillin (100%) and most resistant to Erythromycin (100%). The ratio of sensitivity and resistance of other isolated bacteria was different in acute and chronic infection

Isolation and Identification of Some Bacteria from Sinusitis Cases

Enas A. Al-Layla; Basima A. Abdulla

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 156-172
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43522

Microorganisms play an important role in causing diseases, sinusitis is one of these diseases which cause a health problems to many people. This study therefore was oriented to nominate the species of microorganisms isolated from Acute, Subacute and Chronic sinusitis.
The causative organisms were identified by biochemical and physiological tests, and their susceptibility to selective antibiotics were tested, the Colony Forming Unit (CFU/cm3) and the number of pus cells were also determined.
The following bacterial species were isolated from sinusitis patients:
Klebsiella pneumoniae (24%), Streptococcus viridans (9%), Staphylococcus aureus (8%), Bacillus spp. (6.7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.1%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.9%), Proteus vulgaris (4%), Escherichia coli (3%), Moraxella catarrhalis (2%), Streptomyces somaliensis (1.2%), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (0.6%), Coryn. Pseudodiphtheriticum (0.6%), Coryn. Haemolyticum (0.6%), Coryn. Pyogenes (0.6%), Nocardia asteroids (0.6%), Listeria monocytogenes (0.6%), Candida albicans (0.6%).
On the other hand Haemophilus influenzae could not be isolated. Chronic sinusitis dominated in male cases (11-15) years old and in female (16-20) years old.
The antibiotic biogram showed that Ciprofloxacin has an activity against all bacterial isolates which were resistant to Colxacillin, Penicillin G and Ampicillin and produced -lactamase.

Genetic Analysis of Combining Ability in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Diallel Crosses

Mohammed H. Ayoob; Ebtisam N. Hazim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 173-183
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43523

استعملت في هذه الدراسة خمسة اصناف من حنطة الخبز Triticum aestivum L. وهي (انتصار وربيعة وابو غريب –3 والعدنانية والعز) وهجنها التبادلية النصفية لتقدير كل من المقدرة الاتحادية العامة للاصناف الابوية والمقدرة الاتحادية الخاصة لهجنها التبادلية النصفية وللصفات الكمية الاتية:
ارتفاع النبات وعدد الاشطاء وعدد السنابل بالنبات وطول السنبلة وعدد الحبوب بالسنبلة ووزن 100 حبة وحاصل الحبوب بالنبات، حيث كان تباين المقدرتين الاتحاديتين العامة والخاصة عالي المعنوية لجميع الصفات المدروسة ماعدا حاصل الحبوب بالنبات فكان تباين المقدرة الاتحادية الخاصة له معنوية، وكانت النسبة بين مكونات تباين المقدرة الاتحادية العامة الى مكونات تباين المقدرة الاتحادية الخاصة اقل من الواحد الصحيح لجميع الصفات الكمية المدروسة عدا ارتفاع النبات حيث كانت النسبة اكبر من الواحد الصحيح وهذا يؤكد وجود التأثير الاضافي وغير الاضافي للجينات في الصفات المدروسة ولكن التأثير الجيني غير الاضافي له الدور الاكبر في تعيين هذه الصفات. كانت اعلى قيمة موجبة لتأثيرات المقدرة الاتحادية العامة في الاصناف الابوية الاتية: ابو غريب-3 لارتفاع النبات وعدد الحبوب بالسنبلة، العدنانية لعدد الاشطاء وطول السنبلة ووزن 100 حبة وربيعة لعدد السنابل وحاصل الحبوب بالنبات.

Adherence of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci to Human Uroepithelial Cells

Nadia M. Sultan; Soubhi H. Khalaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 184-190
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43524

The ability of Adhesion of Coagulase Negative staphylococci (CNS) to human uroepithlial was studied. There was statistically significant difference between the species of (CNS) in their adhesions ability. The highest rate of adhesion was for S. saprophyticus followed by S. xylosus and the lowest was for S. epidermidis, It was also found that the nutritional media had a significant effect on the adhesion rate when using broth in comparison with nutrient agar.

Curing of Serratia marcescens Plasmid by High Temperature and by Acridine Orange and Urea

Bayda Gh. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 191-199
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43526

The present study was conducted on five isolates of S. marcescens from septicemic patients in Al-Salam Hospital in Mosul. Isolates were identified by using cultural and biochemical characteristics as well as the Api 20E system Resistance of the isolates to Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Erythromycin and Gentamycin was checked. Curing the Isolates of their plasmids was performed by using high temperature (45c), acridine orange (40 g/ml) and urea (100 g/ml). When S. marcescens isolates were grown at 45C cured and sensitive bacterial colonies were observed at a frequency of 10–94%. These, however, were resistant to Erythromycin. Treating the isolates with Acridine orange cured them of all them resistance except Erythromycin at 10–92% .Urea treatment cured their of all resistance phenotypes except Ampicline and Chloramphenicol , also at a frequency of 10–93%.

Efficiency of Some Chalcone Derivatives in the Growth and Differentiation of Lettuce Callus: I–Initiation and Growth

Manahil F. Polis; Abdul Mutalib S. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 200-210
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43527

The effect of four chalcones derivatives prepared locally on callus initiation and growth of lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Longiflora) were carried out. These compounds were added to the basal medium at concentration of 10-4, 10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M alone or in combination with the addition of NAA and BA at concentration of 3X10-6 M and 4X10-6 M respectively. The results indicated that the addition of chalcones derivatives alone to MS medium induced shoots, roots and callus from explant to certain extent. It was found that the addition of NAA along with the compounds used enhanced greatly callus, shoots and roots formation particularly at concentration of 10-6 and 10-8 M. Also, the addition of BA instead of NAA, stimulated greatly the callus formation similar to that grown on standard medium, during growth period (60 days). However, the addition of BA to all media containing chalcone compounds induced greatly shoot formation only as compared with NAA

Role of Interaction of BA and 2,4 – D in the Growth and Differentiation of the Callus of (Nigella sativa L.) Plants and Their Relation with the Level of Its Effective Compounds

Rehab A. Al-Baker; Hana S. Al-Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 211-224
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43530

This study demonstrated the role of some standard growth regulators in the induction, growth and differentiation of callus of Nigella sativa L.. Benzyl Adenine (BA) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were used with concentrations (10-3, 10-4 , 10-6 , 10-8 , 10-10 ) molar for each separately on one hand and their interference’s. The results show that the best media for the induction and growth of callus are those which contain 2,4-D (10-6)M as the fresh weight of the growing callus reached (3.58), (12.89) gm at 45,75 days respectively. Also best differentiation among shoots was with the media supplying 2,4-D (10-10)M with BA (10-6)M. But, the root growth was not observed before the callus reached the age of 100 days on the media which contain 2,4-D alone. This study explored the content of the callus of black seed plant like the active compounds and their comparison with the seeds contents. This was carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic technique HPLC. This technique proved that the callus content of active compounds almost equal or higher than those in the seeds bearing in mind that callus content differs according to the used growth regulator,it was found that compounds separated according to their Retention time which ranged between 4to 14 mint ,these compounds were closely similar ( according to the separated peaks) those compounds separated from the seed extract (Alcohol soluble phase).

The Role of Fingernails in Trasmitting The Infection With Intestinal Parasites Among Pupils of Primary Schools in Al-Taamem Province-Iraq

Ibraheem A. Abdullah; Hider M. Al-Shirifi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 225-229
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43532

Results of examining 235 fingernails from pupils of a number of primary schools in urban and rural regions of Al-Taamem province, by floatation in zinc sulphate solution, revealed the presence of infective stages of the following intestinal parasites:
cysts of Giardia lamblia 3.83% , Entamoeba coli 2.98% , E. histolytica 2.13% , eggs of Enterobius vermicularis 4.68% and Hymenolepis nana 2.13% . The total percentage of infection was 15.74%, emphasing the role of fingernail in trasmission of parasitic infection , which requires its continous cleaning and cutting.

Preparation of a New Medium for the Isolation of Viridans Streptococci

Soubhi H. Khalaf; Ghada Y. Abdul-Rahman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 230-236
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43534

Three types of media were prepared from the crude extract of pumpkin fruit, the first medium was prepared from the crude extract alone (Medium A1), the second was made by the addition of peptone to the crude (Medium A2) and the third was made by the addition of trypan blue, crystal violet and potassium tellurite (Medium A3) as selective agents for the isolation of S. mutans, these three types of media was examined for the growth and isolation of the Viridans Streptococci and S. mutans, all of them were good and there was no need to the addition of peptone (M. A1), the growth of S. Salivarius and S. mutans was differentiated from other Viridans Streptococci from saliva sample, by their large colonies, the A3 was selective for S. mutans by gummy, large and smooth colonies.

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Contaminating the Operating Theatres

Hanan S. Noore; Adeeba Y. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 237-250
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43535

The study aimed to isolate and identify the types of bacteria
contaminating the environment of operating theaters of three hospitals in Mosul (AL-Khansa’, AL-Zahrawi and Saddam General). (802) different environmental hospital specimens were taken, (531) samples were positive and 600 bacterial isolates were isolated and diagnosed using morphological and biochemical tests into (310) isolates (51.68%) of Gram negative bacilli, which included:

1. Klebsiella (15%)
2. Enterobacter (11.33%)
3. Pseudomonas (6%)
4. Escherichia (4.66%)
5. Serratia (4%)
6. Alcaligenes (3.33%)
7. Proteus (2.33%)
8. Citrobacter (2%)
9. Hafnia (1.33%)
10. Providenciae (1%)
11. Morganella (0.66%)

(190) isolates (31.66 %) of Gram positive Cocci which included Staphylococcus (29.16%) which were divided into seven species with Staph. aureus being the dominant (9.5%), while the Streptococci comprised (2.5%) which included Streptococcus faecalis (1.5%) and Streptococcus agalactiae and (100) isolates (16.66%) of Gram positive bacilli which included three species B. subtilis (8.16%), B. cereus (5.33%) and B. coagulans (3.16%).

Study on Selectivity of Acriflavine Dye Added to Some Culture Media for Cultivation of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolated from Different Sources

Soubhi H. Khalaf; Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 251-257
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43536

Four culture media were prepared and tested for their ability to support the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae . The tested media were violet red bile agar , orange leaf agar , essential salts agar and date extract agar. Acriflavine dye was added to all media in 0.01% as a selective material for this bacterium. Seven isolates of K . pneumoniae for different pathogenic cases were used and compared their growth and recovery percentages on the tested media in comparison with nutrient agar, other bacterial species were also cultured for comparison. The results indicated that acriflavine violet red bile agar is the best of the tested media for the cultivation of K .pneumoniae then come acriflavine orange leaf agar.Also acriflavine violet red bile agar showed a good selectivity for this bacterium in comparison with the other species used in the study.

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths Among Pupils of a Number of Primary Schoolchildren in Mosul City.

Ibraheem A. Abdullah; Asma I. Al-Abbadie

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 258-264
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43538

The results of examining 1617 fecal samples from pupils of 24 primary schoolchildren at the right side of Mosul city by direct and floatation methods in concentrated brine solution and zinc sulphate solution, on which the results of this study are depended, revealed the presence of the following intestinal helminths:Hymenolepis nana 8.47%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.40%, H. diminuta and Ascaris lumbricoides 0.49%.The total percentage infection was 14.10, while the percentage of single, double, triple and more than triple infections were 7.48, 4.27, 1.92 and 0.43 respectively. Indicating their occurrence together and may be with other intestinal parasites in the pupils of this city. Statistical analysis, using Chi-square (P=0.05), shows significant differences between the direct method and both floatation methods.

Resistance of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolated From Different Infections to Antibiotics

Soubhi H. Khalaf; Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 265-278
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43539

During the period (September, 1998-March, 1999), 95 isolates of Klebsiella from respiratory tract, urinary tract, middle ear, intestinal tract, wound and blood infections were collected.. Morphological studies and biochemical tests were used for the identification of this bacterium. (50) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected and used in the study. It was found that all isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotic and that Amikacin was the most active antibiotic against this species as all isolates were susceptible to it. Also Ciprfloxacin and Norfloxacin were very active with resistance rates of (8 %) and (14 %) respectively. Middle ear isolates were found to be more susceptible to antibiotics whereas blood and intestinal tract isolates were highly resistant to them.
The study indicated that this bacterium has a high ability to produce -lactamase enzymes with total production rate of (88 %). The production rate of extended spectrum -lactamases was (36 %) where blood and intestinal tract isolates gave rates of (100 %) and (66.7 %) respectively, whilst urinary tract isolates gave rate of (55.6 %), whereas the production rate of respiratory tract and wound isolates was (25 %) for each. Middle ear isolates didn’t produce these enzymes

Allelopathic Effects of Wheat Plant Roots (Intisar) Treated with Gibberellin under Different Age on Germination ,Seedling Growth of two Wheat Cultivars (Abu-Graib 3, Mexipack) Triticum aestivum L.

Mohamed S.Faysel; Kasim M.Al-Hamdani; Hassen M.Kathim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 279-289
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43570

Laboratory, Greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the root aqueous extract effect of wheat (Intisar) that the shoot system of wheat was treated with four concentrations of Gibberellic acid (0,1,5,10) mg/L under three growth stages (20,40,60) days. The effect of soil previously was swon with the wheat (Intisar) with the same treatment on germination and seedling growth of two wheat cultivars (Abu-Graib 3,Mexipack).The results showed that the cultivar Mexipack was better than Abu-Graib 3 in the most characters studied (germination percentage, length and dry weight of coleoptile and radical) ,also the results indicated that the Gibberellin caused a significant increase in the most of the characters when compared with the control such as (germination, length, seedling-leaf area, longest root length). On the other hand aqueous extract of roots and soil previously sown caused inhibition germination and seedling growth of two wheat cultivars but the inhibition percentage decrease with increasing plant age.

Activity of Adenylate Cyclase in Embryonic Cell

Saad G. Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 14, Pages 290-298
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43576

A total of 10 normal cases for each pregnancy month, from the fifth month, were randomly selected, in Mosul Albatool hospital. Also 3 cases of abnormal embryos were chosen for each month, from the seventh month of pregnancy. Amniotic fluids was collected, by trans-vaginal method amniocentesis. The embryonic cells were separated and extracted; the resulted pellets were used for adenylate cyclase determination. While cyclic AMP measured in both cell filtrate and the amniotic fluids. The result yield that cyclic AMP decreases, from 50 μg /l. to 17 μg/l. in amniotic fluid, and from 32μg/l. to 16 μg/l. in embryonic cell through the last three month of pregnancy. Also the results showed an increase in cyclic AMP, in abnormal pregnancy comparing with the normal cases while a decreases through pregnancy advancing in the last three month in both amniotic fluid and embryonic cell from 62μg/l to 59μg/l and from 44μg/l to 42μg/l respectively. While the activity of adenylate cyclase decrease in relative to the cyclic AMP level, yielding 32.234 μmol/min/mg enzyme to 11,231μmol/min/mg enzyme, in normal embryonic cell and from 22.245 μmol/min/mg to 21.231 μmol/min/mg enzyme in abnormal embryonic cell. While protein did not change significantly in embryonic cell in both normal and abnormal cases.