Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Volume 16, Issue 1

Volume 16, Issue 1, Winter 2005, Page 1-64


Microfacies and Paleoenvironment of Sinjar Formation (Paleocene-Early Eocene), Sinjar Area, Northern Ir

Thanoon A. Thanoon; Majid M. Al-Mutwali; Mumtaz A. Amin

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 1-20

Micofacies analysis and faunal evidence from the stratigraphic sequence of Sinjar Limestone Formation (Paleocene-Early Eocene) integrate three units accumulated in different zones on an isolated platform with bank-ramp depositional profile. These include: (1) a bank-rim buildup composed of red algae with subordinate coral boundstones, and interior bank dominated by nummulitic shoal-bar grainstone, (2) a backbank lagoon-bay of finer-grained carbonates punctuated by miliolids-alveolinids shoal bar and green algae, and (3) forebank rudstones-grainstones of red algal-coral and Nummulites. Paleoecological deduction point to a warm-temperate climate with colder periods during the overgrowth of red-algal bank which had not acted as effective barrier to water circulation. The genesis of the Sinjar carbonate bank can be expressed by alveolinids, miliolids and Nummulites as inner-middle ramp deposits of euphotic-mesophotic zone comprising foram shoals-lagoon-bay behind the domain of coralgal bank in meso-oligophotic zone.

The Effect of Submergence on the Distribution of Some Trace Elements within the Recent Sediments at Mosul Lake

Hazim. A. Al-Kawaz; Zeki. A. Aljubouri

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 21-31

Sixty five samples were collected from the eastern and western banks of Mosul lake at submergence levels of (305) and (327) (m.a.s.l) and analyzed for ten trace-elements (V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo and Pb).
Four trends of variation in the concentrations of trace elements in the sediments of the lake and at both banks were observed. These are: (a) Increase at both (305) and (327)(m.a.s.l.) levels; the increase being more at the (305) level (V, Co, Zr, and Pb at the eastern bank). (b) Increase at both levels, the increase being less at (305) level (Zn). (c) Increase at both levels at equal or almost equal amounts, (Ni, Cu, Rb, Mo, Pb at the western bank) and (d) Decrease at both levels (Sr).
From the trends of variation, it may be envisaged that four factors were affecting the variation in concentrations of these elements within the sediments: dissolution of the relatively soluble mineral phases (carbonates and sulphates); mechanical removal of clay size particles (clay minerals); addition of organic matter and fourthly the slope of the banks.

Determination of the Locations of Ground Water Table Anomalies by the Ring and Central Point Method Study of Three Areas in Iraq

Hassan A. Hassan; Ahmed S. Al-Banna; Sabbar A. Salih

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 32-44

The groundwater table is observed in three areas in Iraq. Many wells are used to construct the ground water table maps in these areas. These maps are reflecting the irregularity in the water table.
The observed values of groundwater table are converted to a regular grid of water table points, with different spacing interval from area to another. The regional groundwater table is calculated, using the ring and central point method, in each observation point. The residual (local) anomalies in the ground water table values for the grid points are obtained by the subtracting of the regional (average values) of ground water table from the observed values. The griding of water table and the calculations of regional and residual anomalies are done using QBASIC computer program build for this purpose. The regional ground water table and residual anomaly of groundwater table are mapped, the regional maps show the main water table level in the studied areas. The residual maps show many positive and negative anomalies of groundwater table. These maps reflect that the positive anomalies related to the leakage of water from the subsurface pipelines and drainage channels in the studied areas, while the negative anomaly related to the high pumping or discharge rate. This method can be used to determine the locations of leakage from pipelines and drainage channels

Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments of the Euphrates Formation Between Fuhaimi and Al-Qaim Valleys, in Western Desert-Iraq

Kotayba T. Al-Youzbaki; Salim Q. Al-Naqib; Aziz M. Al-Hammdani; Abdul

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 44-45

The study involves the Euphrates Formation in the area between Fuhaimi and Al-Qaim valleys in the western desert of Iraq. The Formation was divided into six informal units depending on various lithological properties. Facies analysis reveals the presence of the following microfacies, from bottom to top respectively; pelletal lime packstone, pellitoidal lime grainstone, oolitic lime grainstone, benthonic lime packstone and dolomitized lime mudstone microfacies. These microfacies, in addition to some geochemical properties were used to interpret the depositional environments, which are ranging from shelf, low water energy restricted and lagoonal environment to relatively high water energy open marine.

Application of Factor Analysis as a Tool for Water Quality Management of Tigris River within Mosul City

Abdulmuhsin S. Shihab; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 56-64

This paper focuses on the utilization of factor analysis as a tool for water quality management. Factor analysis has the ability to reduce a large number of variables and identify a set of dimensions, which can not be easily observed in a large set of variables. Bimonthly water samples were collected along Tigris river within Mosul city from Sept 1999 to Aug 2000. Samples were tested for (16) chemical, physical and biochemical parameters. Factor analysis extracted five factors, which explain more than 83% of the variation in water quality. The results of the rotated factor loadings showed that rock dissolution has the maximum contribution in water quality variation. The other sources, which were noticed from the results of the analysis, were runoff, seasonal variations, industrial and domestic discharges. They contributed -at variable degrees- to such variation. The study also concluded that factor analysis technique is an efficient tool for water quality management agencies.