Volume 29, Issue 1, Spring 2020


Effect of Leaf Extract of Melia azedarach L. on the Testis Tissue of Albino Mice Mus musculus

Alshaher Waad sabri

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164469

Melia azedarach L. Leaf extract (200mg /kg body weight) every other day for 3,5,7 weeks on the reproductive organs of male mice and the fertility index were studied.
The treatment had no significant effect on body weight of groups B,C and D. The study exhibited that the average of new born and fertility were reduced to 2.66 and 66.66% in treatment groups for 7 weeks respectively.
 The testes sections showed histopatholoical changes in all treated groups of male mice, and the degree of these changes ranged from medium to severe. The results indicated separated and necrotic of seminiferous tubules, testicular oedema, mixed and necrotic changes of spermatogenic cells, degeneration and loosing parts of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules, bleeding of interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules, clamping of spermatozoa in the seminiferous lumen,  mixed the spermatogenic cells and   thickness the sheath of tunica albuginea of the testis.
 
Keywords: Melia azedarch, Leaf extract, Testis, Fertility, Mice.

Detection of the Inhibitory Effect of the Leaves, Seed and Fruits of Cydonia oblonga on some Gram Positive and Negative Bacteria

Najlaa A. F. Al- Noamy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 10-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164470

Seventy six swab samples were collected from Otitis media and stool samples from gastroenteritis cases, were cultured on different culture media, gram positive and gram negative bacteria were isolated and identified. The highest prevalence was Staphylococcus aureus (25%) while Salmonella typhi formed the lowest isolate rate (3.9%) other bacterial isolates varied between these two and comparison was done between effect of the air part of Cydonia oblonga (Quince) plant (leaves, seeds, fruits) to determine the highest effective part on the isolated bacteria. As the inhibitory effect of Cydonia oblonga seed, leaves and fruit alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the isolated bacteria were studied. Alcoholic seed extract showed the highest inhibitory activity on two bacterial species Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterococcus faecalis (25 and 22 mm) respectively followed by Aeromona sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13 and 11 mm) respectively while alcoholic leaves extract showed antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus only  (15 mm), alcoholic fruit extract showed its effect on Enterococcus faecalis (12 mm), Klebsiella sp. (11 mm), Salmonella typhi (10 mm), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9 mm). the aqueous seed extract showed an effect on Enterococcus faecalis (11 mm), while the aqueous leaves extract showed the highest effect on Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm), followed by Bacillus subtilis (10 mm), and the aqueous fruit extract showed the highest effect on E.coli (10 mm) while on Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter aerogenes was less (9 mm) for all of them. The (MIC) value of the effective extracts revealed that the highest value of alcoholic seed extract on E.faecalis was (25 mg\ml), while the least (MIC) was (0.39 mg\ml) for Aeromona sp. with the remaining MIC values ranging between the two.

Comparison among Various Control Methods of Tomato Bacterial Spot Disease (Xanthomonas campestirs pv.vesicatoria)

Frishta Abdurrahman; Khalid M. Ahamed; Tahsein A. M. Amein

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 20-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164471

Two different plant extracts, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens L18 and Bacillus subtilis K3, one antibiotic (Streptomycin) and one bactericide (copper sulphate) were tested for their control efficacy against Tomato Bacterial Spot caused by the bacterium  Xanthomonas campestirs pv.vesicatoria under vitro and in vivo conditions.
          Two different concentrations of each extract was used, under lab and greenhouse conditions. The eucalyptus extract had better effect than the thyme extract in both conditions.  The inhibition zone in Petri dishes was 11.25 mm and 6.99 mm and the reduction of disease severity index in plants was 40.7% and 35.6% respectively.
The Pseudomonas fluorescens L18 strain had much better and was more effective than the Bacillus subtilis K3 strain in reduction the disease severity in plants. The disease severity index was reduced by 29.3% and 18.2% respectively.
       Streptomycin used as antibiotic   had a great effect on reduction of the disease severity index 83.5% and inhibition zone 22.5mm. Copper sulphate   reduced the disease severity index by 87% and had 38.1mm inhibition zone and had the best effect compared with other treatments.

Association of Autoimmunity and Parvovirus B19 Infection among Spontaneous Miscarriage Women in Erbil / Iraq

Nyan J. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164472

The study was conducted from January 2016 to January 2017 at Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city/ Iraq. One hundred and forty women who experienced spontaneous abortions were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and forty normal pregnant women as a control group. Serum from patients and control group subjected for assessment of anticardiolipin IgM, antiphospholipid IgM, Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay technique. Prevalence of positive Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM, anticardiolipin IgM and antiphospholipid IgM, in aborted women was higher than that observed in non-aborted women (control group). Women with the highest frequency of spontaneous abortion found at age group 27–34 year. More frequent of previous spontaneous abortion was 1-2 abortion at the 1st trimester of gestational period. Anticardiolipin antibody and antiphospholipid antibody production trigged by viral infection, and have role in spontaneous abortion in pregnant women.
 
 

Effect of Melatonin on some Biochemical Parameters in D-galactose Induced Aging in Rats

Enas O. Al-babily; Fadwa KH. Tawfeeq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164473

The current research investigates the main physiological and potent antioxidant  roles of melatonin hormone in induced aging rats by D-galactose administration. This research includes 4 groups of male rat, Group 1:considered as a control group administered distilled water, Group 2: D-galactose induced aging by administration of (300mg/kg B.Wt .S.C.) for 15 weeks, Group 3: administered melatonin hormone (10 mg/kg B.wt. orally) for 15 weeks, Group 4: induced aging by D-galactose (300mg/kg B.wt .S.C.)+melatonin hormone (10 mg/kg B.wt. orally) for 15 weeks. Results Body and brain  weight  is decreased in the induced aging rats. Advanced glycation end products  (AGEs), Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) andthiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is increased  significantly in the D- galactose  aged rats compared with control group  accompanied with significant decrease  in Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione (GSH) level induced aging rats compared with control rat group. Melatonin hormone could effectively attenuates these alterations. conclusion: melatonin hormone administration counteracted the accelerated induced aging process by D-galactose in rats  which may be due to its effects on antioxidant enhancing activity and protect  the cell from lipid and protein   oxidation.
                                                                                                                         
Keywords: Aging, D- galactose, Melatonin hormone.

Study of Biochemistry and Analytical of Metformin as a Suggested Pro-drug for Phosphoamide

Rosal O. Mohammed; Firas Sh. Abdul-Razzaq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 48-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164474

The aim of this study is to prepare a new phosphoamide pro-drug derived from metformin to minimize the side effect and study the effect of this derivative Invivo. The prepared compound was diagnosed by (Fourier Transform Infrared Radiology FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance of the proton1H-NMR, Mass spectroscopy). The effect of the prepared derivative was studied on rabbits, Forty Local rabbits By weights (1000-1800) g and ages (6-8) months were divided randomly into four groups. The first group )G1( consisting of 10 rabbit is a healthy control group that has not been given any substance. The second group (G2) consisted of 10 rabbits which were injected with alloxane150mg / kg B.W intraperitoneally (positive control).
        The third group (G3) consists of 10 rabbits given 2ml of metformin at a concentration 0.0485M orally by agavage tube. The fourth group (G4) consists of 10 rabbits given 2ml of derivative  at a concentration 0.0623 M orally by agavage tube. Blood samples were withdrawn Method stab the24 hours heart after giving the last dose, which lasted for four days, which is the withdrawal on the fifth day and the serum was separated.
       The results of the statistical analysis of the effect of the compound showed a significant decrease in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase compared with the positive control, and a significant decrease in the concentration of each of  glucose, insulin as a result of the compound studied compared with the positive control, and no significant differences in the concentration of each of hormone C- peptide, urea, creatinine and the activity each of  dipeptidyl peptidase-4, basal phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase as a result of the effect compared with positive control. There were no significant differences of the effect of the compound  in the concentrations of glucose, insulin, hormone C- peptide, urea and creatinine, and the efficacy of the enzyme transporter aminotransferase and dipeptidyl betetidase-  4 and aminotransferase compared with the control group (negative control) except the basal phosphatase enzyme was observed a significant increase compared to negative control.
 
 

Theoretical Study of the Effect of High Pressure on the Elastic and the Thermal Properties of MgO

Janan F. A. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 62-70
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164475

Elastic-Thermo properties of alkaline earth oxide MgO have been studied by using two types of Equation of State ( EOS ), Isothermal Shanker EOS and Modified Kumar EOS.
The elastic moduli, sound velocities and the pressure-compression relationship of MgO have been studied up to a pressure 150 GPa by using Shanker EOS which depends on volume short-range force constant of inter atomic potentials. The results show agreement with the researcher results Upadhyay and Sharma.
The relationship between the solid density and elastic moduli gave values both of compression and shear waves velocities, the theoretical results are below rate about 6% with the whole range of the experimental data.
The thermal properties at high( temperature and pressure) of MgO have been studied by applying unified theory of Kumar EOS, this theory based on thermodynamic analysis and to the thermal expansion,thus the inharmonic term is arising and used in the calculation of thermal properties of MgO.
The results which are obtained from the effect of high temperature and high pressure on MgO properties are fitting with an experimental data.
 
Keywords: MgO, elastic moduli, thermal properties under high pressure, equation of state (EOS).

Low Noise with Wide Band Transimpedance Amplifier for Nonlinear Fiber Optical Applications

Muhammed Subhi Hameed Alsheikhjader

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 71-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164476

A current-mirror based transimpedance amplifier with inductor feedback simulation is reported. A 90 nm channel length process technology was simulated using N-MOSFET and P-MOSFET transistors. A transimpedance gain of 43.92 dBΩ was achieved with a bandwidth of 10 GHz (from 5 GHz to 15 GHz). The whole process was simulated using 1V DC supply voltage. From simulated data, pole frequency was found to be around 19.25 GHz. At 35 ºC, the transimpedance amplifier circuit was simulated and it was found that the input referred noise current of the circuit is 14.14 pA/√Hz at 5 GHz, 10 pA/√Hz at 10 GHz and 16.32 pA/√Hz at 15 GHz to cover the entire bandwidth of the circuit.
 
Keywords: Optical Preamplifier, Front-End Preamplifier, Optical receiver, Transimpedance  Amplifier.

Allelopathic Effect of Three Weed Residues on Growth and Nodulation. of Visia faba and Lens culinaris Medik

Rawnaq Ahmed Ibrahim; Janan Abed Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164477

ABSTRACT
The present study has been made in University of Mosul/ College of Science/ Department of Biology to investigate the effect of adding the residues of Cephalaria sp.,  Brassica  sp. and Hordeum sp. weeds at concentration (0,2,4,6) % (w:v) in seed germination and seedling growth in Vicia faba L, and Lens culinaris medik, the adding of (2mg/kg) of (Brassica sp.) residues caused the highest percentage of seed germination (70%) in Vicia faba L. adding (4 mg/kg) of  (Cephalaria sp.) residues caused the highest percentage of stimulation  in length (32.7 and46.8 cm) of  the shoot and roots in Vicia faba L., the highest percentage of stimulation in dry weight for the vegetative in Lens culinaris medik at the adding of (4 mg/kg) of (Cephalaria sp.) residues, while the highest percentage of reduction in dry weight (5.5 mg) of the roots partin Vicia faba L. at the adding of             (6 mg/kg) of (Hordeum sp.) residues, and the highest percentage of stimulation in the number and dry weight of nodule in Vicia faba L(2.23)kg. at the adding of (4 mg/kg) of(Cephalaria sp.) residues.
 
 

The Effect of Salt Stress Conditions in Seed Germination Indicators, Seedlings Growth and Callus Initiation of Pisum sativum L. in Culture Media

Eman T. Yaseen; Sajida A. Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164478

The research included a study of the effect of sodium chloride salt with concentrations 0,50,100,150,200,250 and 300 mM in growth and development of seedlings and calli of Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The results showed that increasing salt concentration in culture medium led to decrease the percentage of seeds germination and increasing the duration of germination which  causing slow germination speed and decreasing in the lengths rate of each of the radical and coleoptile and their fresh and dry weights. Moreover the activity of α-amylase was decreased during different germination stages at 200 mM of NaCl according to the control. Salinity also caused a decrease in the rate of plant growth(plant height, root length, stem and root branches and  fresh and dry weights of plant).The enhancement of NaCl in a medium was accompanied with a gradual decrease in total chlorophyll of leaves at different concentrations of salt. The results also indicated a negative effect of salinity in fresh and dry weights of callus, membrane damage and viability of callus which developed on MS medium supplement with 1mg/l of BA and NAA. The present study demonstrated the effects of NaCl in increasing the amount of  total soluble carbohydrates ,level of proline in seedling leaf tissues at the age of 20 days  and callus is 21 days old while a clear decrease in the total amount of protein in those tissues occur.
 
 

Identitying The Absorbtion Range of Chara sp. Algae for Different Concentrations of Cadmium

Abdul Sattar J. Z. Al- Hayani; Abdulmoneim Kannah; HIba Khaleel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 26-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164479

        The adsorption of the cadmium element ion was used by the Chara sp., where it was dried and the effective groups of algae responsible for adsorption using infrared (FTIR) were COOH , (C=O)   and aliphatic nexus (C-H), in addition to the presence of groups with a negative charge such as (OH), (P = O), (CO3), (CH2), (Cl) and (Br) on the surface of the algae, and taking them at a weight of 2 g and treated with a series of different concentrations (0,5,10,20,40,100) mg.L-1 of Cadmium ion where incubation coefficients at (298°) Kelvin,
        After the incubation period, the stabilizers were extracted and Cadmium was quantified with mathematical description according to the equations of the single-surface (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin and Polani) respectively for Cadmium, It was found that the values of the coefficient of determination were effective for all equations, which gives a clear indication of the possibility of using any of these six equations. However, the two-sided Langmuir equation is the most efficient in the mathematical description of adsorption. Moreover, this equation showed a very large correlation between the actual adsorption values ​​and the calculated values ​​of this equation because they have the lowest standard error (SE) (0.0001) and the highest coefficient of determination (R2) (1.00), which gains the advantage in the mathematical description on the rest of the equations. The maximum adsorption capacity (Xm) on the first and second surfaces (1.28) and (169.49) mg. Kg -1 respectively, while the binding capacity (K) on the first and second surfaces (186.62) and (29.50) L.mg-1 respectively.
 
 

Investigation of Toxicity of some Plant Extracts on Mosquito Larvae Culex pipiens molestus

Khalida A. Sulayman; Aulfat T. Yassn

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 41-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164480

The current study was conducted to find  out the effect of lethal concentrations of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of three powders are Murraya koenigii L., Syzygium aromaticum and Capisicum annum of the 3rd instar of mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (1-7 days) after treatment, using different concentrations of those extracts. The results showed that all the extracts used had deadly effects on mosquito larvae. The concentrations 400 ppm of alcoholic extract of Murraya koenigii and 200 ppm of aqueous extract of the same extract caused 100% mortality of larvae after four days of treatment. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Capisicum annum of the concentrations 500, 1000 ppm respectively caused 100% mortality after six days of treatment. While when using the alcoholic extract of Syzygium aromaticum the concentration 1000 ppm caused 100% mortality of larvae after five days of treatment and the concentration 1500 ppm of aqueous extract of the same extract caused 100% mortality of larvae after six days of treatment.
                                                                                                              
          

Role of Diode Laser Radiation Pretreatments in Growth of Pisum sativum L. Plant Seedlings and Callus under Salinity Stress

Eman T. Yaseen; Sajida Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 50-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164481

The research included a study of the effect of the red diode laser radiation at wave length 650 nm and power 50 mw/cm2 for different periods of time 2,4,6,8 and 10 minutes in the growth and development of seedlings and callus of Pisum sativum L. plant under salt stress at 200mM. The results showed that seeds exposed to laser radiation for different periods of time caused a clear increased in all studied growth indicators compared with the control treatment. Seeds treated with laser radiation for 10 minutes showed superiority on the other treatments in stimulation of  germination speed, rate of the radical and coleoptile lengths and their fresh and dry weights  with an increase in  the rate of fresh and dry weight of plant. The results showed also that exposing callus segments to the laser radiation for different periods of time caused an increase in the rate of their fresh and dry weights after 21 days of growth on MS medium supplement with 1.0 mg/l of BA and NAA for each one. The present study proved possibility of treating the negative effects of sodium chloride at the concentration 200mM on the growth indicators of seedlings and callus of Pisum sativum by treatment seeds and callus with laser radiation for 10 minutes before salinity treatment at 200 Mm. This led to increase in the speed of seeds germination, the activity of α-amylase enzyme during different  germination stages and increasing in plant growth rates (the lengths rate of each of the radical and coleoptile and their fresh and dry weights, plant height, root length, number of stem and root branches, fresh and dry weights of plant with an increase in the leaves content of chlorophyll. Also the results indicated a positive effect of laser radiation for10 min. in the  increasing  the fresh and dry weights of callus and return its viability after 21 days  of growth and reduce  the damage of cellular  membranes  with an  increase in  the amount of  total soluble carbohydrates, level of proline and protein content  in the  tissues of seedling leaves and callus according to salinity treatment only.  
                                                                                               
 

Effect of Plant Seeds Peganum harmala L- Evaporation on Liver and Heart Enzymes Activity and Total Protein in Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Treated with Chlorpromazine

Thaer M. Al-Mushhadani; Hussien E. Arteen; Hamed J. Jumaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 68-79
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164482

This study was conducted on (60) of male white rats aged 3-4 months and weighing                   (300-200)g were divided into two groups first: negative control group and includes 10 males dosed with distilled water, and the remaining animals dosed with chlorpromazine drug (2 mg / kg) B.W daily for six weeks, Then the treated animals divided into five groups, each group consisting of 10 rats, a positive control group treated with chlorpromazine only and the second group evaporated with peganum harmala seeds for 7 days, third evaporated for 14 days and fifth group evaporated for 21 days, and final group dosed with chlorpromazine and let for 30 days without evaporation with peganum harmala seeds. The positive group results showed a significant increase in the activity of ALT, AST and significant decrease in the activity of ALP, ACP and LDH as well as significant decrease in serum total protein concentration, while the results of the evaporated groups with  peganum harmala seeds showed a significant decrease in the activity of ALT and AST enzyme and significantly increased in the activity of ALP, ACP and LDH enzymes in in addition to a significant increase in total serum protein concentration. Finally, the groups that let for 30 days without evaporation showed the continued negative effect of the drug. The enzymatic activity and the concentration of total protein did not return to normal level.

Measurement of the Electrical Conductivity of Equivalent A number of Aspartic Acid Complexes in Different Percentages of Water Mixture with Methanol at 310 Absolute Temperature

Fanar M. Al-Healy; Yaser Hameed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 80-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164483

The aim of this work is to measure the electrical conductivity of some  complex of asparitic acid with (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) at 310k in different methanol-water mixture, using Lee Wheaton equation of unsymmetrical electrolytes (1:2) to calculate the conductivity parameters (Λº) equivalent conductance at infinite dilution, (ºλ)  ionic conductivity, (Κα ( association constant and(Ř)  the main distance between ion in solution at best fit values and calculate the walden products (Λºŋº) have also been calculated for each solvent composition to understand the solvation phenomena.
 
 

Extraction of Silymarin Complex from Milk Thistle (Silybummarianaum) Seeds and Study its Effect on the Liver Functions and some Antioxidants in Rats

Samera Alkatib; Alaa H. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 95-110
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164484

This study included extraction of silymarin complex from milk thistle seeds and study the effect of different concentrations of this complex on the liver functions and levels of some antioxidants in rats exposed to liver injury induced byethanol, then study the effect of these concentrations on the repair of liver injury induced by ethanol by evaluating the hepatic pathology of different animal  groups. Sixty male rats with the age of 3-4 months were divided into 6 groups: Group (1) control which received drinking tap water, group (2) treated with  5% ethanol  in drinking water, group (3) treated with 5% ethanol  and 1 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, group (4) treated with  5% ethanol  and 2 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, group (5) treated with  5% ethanol  and 4 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, group (6) treated with 5% ethanol and 8 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, by the end of the experimental period of 3 weeks all animals groups were killed and collection of blood samples and liver tissues for the measuring of liver functions parameters and some antioxidants in blood, and processing the histological examination of liver.
Treatment with ethanol revealed a significant prolongation of the coagulation time and a significant increase of Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate  transaminase (AST) enzymes activity, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, peroxynitrite radical and xanthine oxidase activity and a significant decrease of albumin, Vit. C, Vit. E, glutathione and ceruloplasmin levels in serum comparing with the control group (P < 0.05).
Different concentrations of silymarin complex have different effects on the protection from the liver injury induced by ethanol, and return these parameters to about normal ranges. Concentrations of 1 and 2 mg of silymarin complex can reduce the fatty changes induced by ethanol, while the concentrations of 4 and 8 mg led to reduce the necrosis and inflammation  in addition to fatty changes.