Volume 32, Issue 1, Winter 2023

Survey and Prevalence of Lice Infestation the Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Mohammed A. Al-badrani; Shamal A. Al-Muffti

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177282

Many parasite species may damage domestic pigeons, which are from the most essential birds for human populations in every corner of the world. Ectoparasites can be found in almost every bird. Birds can be impacted by a number of health problems, but parasitic illnesses play a crucial role influence. They are a significant source of disease infection and transmission. Although domestic pigeon lice are not known to spread any avian infections, they are hazardous to young birds in particular and typically accompany poor poultry health that is due to other factors. where a lot of lice could keep you up at night. They consume their bodily fluids, such as blood, and feathers. Since lice have a chewing mouthpart and feed on dry skin scales, scab tissues, and feather parts in addition to irritating the host's skin and sucking blood, the effects of louse parasitism on birds are frequently severe and include stunted growth and susceptibility to other infections. From October 2017 to July 2018, 200 domestic pigeons were checked for pigeons chewing lice. Three urban locations were chosen at random for each of the three main governorates in the study area—Duhok, Erbil, and Sulaymaniyah. Hands were picked clean of lice; Samples were kept in 96 percent ethanol-filled tubes before being examined and identified under a dissecting microscope. In the current study, 48% (96/200) of domestic pigeons were infected with one or more lice and three species of lice were recorded and identified by morphological characteristics: Companulatus compare, Columbicola columbae, and Hohorostilla lata.

Detection of Family Specialty for Microbacterium sp. AJ-Z Isolated from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Root Nodules

Zaid Qaddawi; Amjad A. Mohammed; William Onu

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177283

Microbacterium sp. AJ-Z was isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) root nodules on Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM) medium. Colonies of the bacteria isolates grown were rod shape, whitish, translucent, sticky nature. The results showed responded of the fenugreek seedlings grown on Nitrogen free medium (NF) to inoculated with Microbacterium sp. AJ-Z isolate at 30 min. and successful to form nodules its roots in the rate of 70% after 7 days with rate number of nodes/seedling was 2.9 superiority on the other which grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and 0.7% agar. Nodules produced have a spherical shape, pinkish and indeterminate in growth and after a few days, its shape becomes elongated.

Isolation and Identification of some Yeasts from some Plants

Maha B. Al-Taei; Badia Abd Al_Razzak Malla Obaeda

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 16-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177284

The present study included isolating 71 local isolates of yeasts during three months, starting from 1/10/2021 to 1/1/2022 from different plant sources, as the fruits were obtained from local markets in Mosul, Kirkuk, Erbil and Dohuk and from home gardens. The isolates were diagnosed after culturing on solid nutrient medium MEA (Malt Extract Agar Medium) based on phenotypic tests including colony color, shape, diameter, nature of its edges, height, texture, brightness, surface shape, culture and microscopy at 40X powers to observe the shape of yeast cells and measure their sizes Using (E 10X) ocular and biochemical including Diazonium Blue B (DBB) Color test, growth in 25˚C and 37˚C, assessing ability to utilize nitrate as a sole nitrogen source, assessing preservative resistance of glacial acetic acid, growth at reduced water activities in high carbohydrate levels, growth at reduced water activities and high level of sodium chloride and ability mycelium formation test. The results showed that it belongs to 17 different species of yeasts Debaromyces, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Kluyveromyces, Geotrichum, Kloeckera, Saccharomyces, Cryptococcus, Zygosaccharomyces and Trichosporon.

Biosynthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Using it to Support the Efficiency of Wastewater Filtration System

May Abdul-hafed Al-Allaf; Amera M. Al-Rawi; Kossay K. AL-Ahmadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 28-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177285

Nanoparticles biosynthesis has gained great importance as an active eco-friendly method with economic benefit which overcame on other chemical and physical methods.
This research involved green biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) using Escherichia coli (E.coli) isolated from wastewater in Mosul city. Characterization of nanoparticles was performed by using many techniques which included UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transforms Spectroscopy (FTIR).
Designing of a locally lab scale wastewater treatment plant was done by using IONPs adding to a dual water purification system, after tightly wrapping the filter with (1%) of IONPs solution up to saturation. Moreover, control filter was used. Sample of wastewater was passed through these filters to detect its effect on wastewater quality, the results showed that NPs filters improved physical, chemical and biological properties of wastewater including total plate count, coliform, fecal coliform and total fungi.

Estimation of the Levels of some Immunological Markers in Aborted Women Infected with Toxoplasma gondii at Baghdad City

Sanaa S. Ahmed; Hiba Y. Khalaf; Nihad A. Jafar; Bashar S. Noomi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 40-44
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177286

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites among humans worldwide, as serological studies indicate that more than one third of the population of the world is infected with this parasite. This parasite is one of the main causes of abortion in pregnant women which mainly occur in the acute phase of infection and in early pregnancy. The present study aimed to detect toxoplasma among pregnant women and its relationship with some immunological markers. Fifty blood samples (5ml) were collected from aborted woman (within 15 days after abortion) and 10 blood samples collected from healthy woman as control. The serums were used to evaluate IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ. The results showed that toxoplasma caused abortion in the first trimester in rate of 68%. The majority of aborted women (76%) were at age group 25-30 years. As for immunological parameters, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ significantly increased in woman aborted with toxoplasmosis in compare with healthy woman. The parameters were also higher among toxoplasma positive patients when compared with aborted women with other cause but these increases in the immunological parameters were not significant. The study conclude that toxoplasma is still the main causes of abortion in women and it associated with significant increase in immunological markers represented by IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ.

Effect of Lubanum and Potash Alum on Co-aggregation and Biofilm Formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia

Sumaya A. Al-Hamdoni; Amera M. Al-Rawi; Emeka Henry Oparaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 45-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177287

Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia can co- aggregate in a more stable and resistant multispecies biofilm. Therefore, the current study aimed to test the effectiveness of lubanum and potash alum solutions, as a natural rinse, to affect the attachment between the cells and the multispecies biofilm of these periodontitis pathogens, and also to enhance the action of the chemical rinse, BioFresh K (chlorhexidine (CHX)). The results revealed that the solutions of 12 mg/ ml of both natural substances can prevent bacterial co- aggregation, and the solutions of 40 mg/ ml of natural substances and 1.2 mg/ml of CHX can affect the cells in their polymicrobial population after 1hr exposure. The results also revealed that increasing the concentration of lubanum made it possible to affect the resistant preformed multispecies biofilm and the effect became more maxima when it was used in combination with other agents. This combination is benefit in controlling the chronic periodontitis caused by these pathogens as it can reinforce the effect of antibacterial agents on multispecies biofilm and prevent the attachment of new cells without the need of increasing the concentration or combination between chemical therapies. 

Physiological Effects of Biological Control Aureobasidium pullulans on Barley Varieties Infected with Rhizoctonia solani

Thuraya T. Al-zubaidy; Hadeel Ahmed Al-Ameri

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177288

In a greenhouse experiment, barley varieties infected with R. solani showed a significant decrease in plant height, number of leaves, spike number, and number of grains in spike while the treatment of these varieties with biological control Aureobasidium pullulans showed a significant increase in plant height, number of leaves, number of spikes, and number of grains in spike compared to untreated one. moreover, of biological control A. pullulans to R. solani induced a significant improvement in vegetative growth,
  In the treatment with biological control A. pullulans  inaddition to R. solani, the highest rate of plant height was found in Aswad two rows variety and reaching 38.81cm. in the second reading, up from 16.52 cm. in the first reading. Among Rehan white six rows that received the treatment with R. solani alone, the lowest plant height, reached 22.08 cm. in the second reading, and it increased from the first reading. Ebaa 265 White six rows variety produced the most number in the treatment with biological control A. pullulans added to R. solani, reaching 8.66 leaves per plant., In the Nour white two rows variety, the lowest leaf rate was 6.6 leaves in the treatment R. solani alone.
Aswad two rows variety exhibited the highest spike of barley when treated with biological control A. pullulans alone, reaching 5 spikes in the first, second, and third readings. Among the three readings, there were no spikes in Samir White variety when treated with R. solani alone. the average grains number in spikes, the highest rate was in the treatment of sterilized soil with formalin (control) in Aswad two rows variety which amounted to 7.67 grains in the second reading, up from 7.2 grains in the four reading. Biological control A. pullulans were added to R. solani in the variety Ebaa 265 White six rows, as it, and increased from 4.6 grains in the first to 9.8 in the second reading.     

Biological Control of some Weeds with Aqueous Extract of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Wasan Salih Hussain; Mahmmod M. Abbas; Raid S. Al-Safar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 63-69
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177289

Allelopathic effects of wheat aqueous extract were studied on seeds germination and seedling growth of four weeds  Canary grass (Phalaris minor L.), Mallow                  (Malva rotundifolia L.), Sweet clover (Mililotus indica Mill), and Wild oats (Avena fatua), that shown seeds germination and  seedlings growth of all weed species were  inhibited with in all treatment of Wheat                        (Triticum aestivum L.) residues  at concentration 5, 10, 15% on germination and early seedling growth of weeds, results showed the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of wheat was hat higher 5% of EWC (%). from results that Mallow was more sensitive for treatments, While the less sensitive was Canary.

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Nigella sativa Callus and Cellular Suspension Cultures with Different pH Values

Sawsan J. A. Al-Allaf; Rehab A. ALbaker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 70-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177290

The current study included an extensive protocol for the first time globally. This protocol was concerned with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Nigella sativa callus and cellular suspended cultures. The results confirmed the success of the process of green synthesis of AgNPs from Nigella sativa callus by the color change in the reaction solution from colorless to brown and reddish-brown as a result of the reduction of Ag ions in the extract after addition of AgNO3 solution (1:1 v/v). UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to initially prove the existence of AgNPs, which showed an absorption peak ranging between (420-440 nm) caused by the phenomenon of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) of AgNPs. (SEM) showed nanoparticle objects ranging from (18.341 - 40.932) nm for standard extracts and (17.261 - 29.13) nm for suspended cultures extracts. (EDX) proved the success of producing AgNPs in different proportions depending on the type of tissue cultures used and the difference in the pH value of the extracts (6, 9, 12), as the highest % of AgNPs production reached 4.46% in suspended cultures extracts from pH 12, followed by callus extracts, which reached 4.12% at pH 12. biologically prepared AgNPs proved their effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of Gram+ and Gram- bacteria, as the inhibition zone ranged (19– 35 mm) depending on the type of extract and the degree of acidity (pH) applied to the extract.                          

Biodiversity of some Species of Alternaria Fungi Causing Spotting in Ornamental Plants

Noor A. Al-healy; Warka saeed Qassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 90-101
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177291

The pathogenic fungi causing leaf spotting of several species of ornamental plants were isolated, diagnosed and purified. (229) fungal isolates belonging to several fungal genera was obtained and the species belonging to the genus Alternaria were selected to conduct experiments on them. Where (89) isolates of the fungal type Alternaria dianthi and (68) isolates of the type A.alternata were obtained in addition to three isolates of the type A.longipes and one isolate of the type A.radicine. The phenotypic qualities represented by the forms of colonies, which are considered evidence in classification and innate diagnosis, have also been studied, and the colors of colonies belonging to this genus ranged from dark olive to pale in addition to some other phenotypic qualities such as the emergence of the phenomenon of sectors characterized by some fungal isolates.

Isolation and Identification of Xylella fastidiosa that Cause Oleander Leaf Scorch

Muhammed Z. Bakir; Khalid M. Ahmed; Ramadan Y. Mohamed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 102-109
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177292

During spring of 2022, leaf scorchsymptom was observed in Nerium oleander plant in Erbil city. Surveys were carried out in three main Erbil streets (60-meter, 120 meter and Qasmlo) to determine the occurrence and distribution of oleander leaf scorch.
Oleander leaf scorch (OLS) is a disease caused by xylem limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The percentage of plants with Oleander leaf scorch infection ranged usually between 23-91%, and the disease was assessed the highest disease rate based on disease rating scale was recorded in 60-meter street is 91.95%, Qasmlo street is 89.07% and the lowest disease rate was observed in 120-meter street is 23.17%. In this study the bacterium was detected after isolated in laboratory as Gram stain test was performed and the isolated bacterium was Gram negative, rod shaped, non-flagellate and non-motile also identified by PCR were performed with two primers forward primer 16S (AGAG TTTG ATCC TGGC TCAG) and reverse primer 16S (GGCT ACCT TGTT ACGA CTT), amplified a 1200 bp fragment from the isolated OLS. The Analysis of BLAST revealed that the highest identity number query sequences were (100%) identified and submitted in GenBank and have taken accession number Xylella fastidiosa subsp. Sandyi (ON131099) and Xylella fastidiosa subsp. Sandyi (ON131100) also the phylogenetic results show the each identified bacteria are grouped in one clade with other sequences were stored in NCBI GenBank. This is a first report of a ‘Xylella fastidiosa.in Erbil city.

Synthesis, Characterization of Substituted 1,3-Oxazepine, Thiazolidine-4-one and Azetidine-2-one Using Benzimidazole as a Synthon

Muhammed Kh. Muhammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 110-120
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177293

Starting from benzimidazole moiety, several heterocyclic compounds (1,3-Oxazepine, thiazolidin-4-one, azetidin-2-one) were synthesized, thus the Ethyl Benzimidazole acetate (1) was synthesized from the reaction of benzimidazole with ethylchloroacetate on treatment with hydrazine hydrate is giving the corresponding hydrazide (2). The reaction of this hydrazide with, 4-substituted acetophenone afforded hydrazones which on reaction with some reagents to produce synthesized compounds, (4a-c), (5a-c), (6a-c), (7a-c), (8a-c) and (9a-c). All the synthesized products were confirmed by physical and spectral methods.

The Identification and Synthesis of Barium-Substituted Lead Hydroxyapatite Structure (Pb10-x Bax (PO4)6(OH)2) by Ceramic Method

Mohammed A. B. Abdul Jabar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 121-126
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177294

The substitution of barium ion (Ba2+) with lead ion (Pb2+) in the following composition: Pb10-x Bax (PO4)6(OH)2 has been investigated by an X-ray diffractometer. Samples with the range x=0 up to x=5 were calcined at 800 ºC for 25 hours, and the samples with the range from x=6 up to x=10 were calcined at 1100 ºC for 15 hours. The solid solutions hydroxyapatite samples are synthesized by the ceramic method. It was established that the sample with x=0 showed only reflections of composition Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2, while the sample with x=10 showed only reflections of composition Ba10(PO4)6(OH)2.The Samples with x = 1–9 showed more reflections called "unknown phase" besides those of pure hydroxyapatite.

Synthesis, Characterization of some new Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Chalcones Containing Schiff Bases

tharee Ghanim; Adnan O. Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 127-137
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177295


The present work involves the new chalcones containing Schiff bases, In this study, firstly, reaction of 3-acetylcoumarin with terephthaldehyde to prepared chalcones which contains a free aldehyde group which has been reacted with (4-Aminoantipyrine) to prepare Schiff bases, which was reacted (sodiumazide) as precursor to form (Tetrazole) followed by condensation of these chalcones with some compounds (hydroxylamine, aminophenol, phenylenediamine, hydrazine, semicar- bazide, thiosemicarbazide, urea, thiourea and quanidine) as precursor to form Isoxazole, oxazepane, diazepine, pyrazoles and pyrimidine derivatives in basic medium using classical and ultrasonic technique. The comparison of the classical methods with ultrasonic methods. Was achieved. The compositions of the prepared compounds were confirmed by FT- IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

Synthesis and Spectral Study of some New α, β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds and Pyrazole Derivatives

Rahma A. Hassan; Ammar H. Al-Sabawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 138-148
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2023.177296

        This work includes the synthesis of some new pyrazole derivatives from the reaction of new a,b- unsaturated carbonyl derivatives with hydrazine hydrate. a,b- Unsaturated carbonyl derivatives which are prepared in several ways by reaction of hydrazide-hydrazone A2 with substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of triethylamine as a base, and also prepared by reaction of hydrazide-hydrazone A2 with phenylisothiocyanate and (ethyl chloro acetate or dimethyl sulfate) or A2 with carbon disulfide and (ethyl chloro acetate or dimethyl sulfate) in the presence of potassium hydroxide in dry dimethyl formamide. The structures of these new synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR).