Main Subjects : Microbiology


The Effect of Diode Laser on Growth of some Gram-Negative Bacteria

Mohammad Tarish; Ghada Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167313

The Laser is distinguished of it’s the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacterial cells and spores, the effect of laser with (650 nm wavelength and a capacity of 50 mw/cmand a distance of 10 cm) were studied on the growth of four species of gram-negative bacteria: Shigella spp., Entereobacter cloacae,  Morganella morganii, and  Entereobacter hormaechei, All of them isolated from an eradicated gallbladder were diagnosed with conventional methods. After isolation and identification, the bacterial suspensions were prepared separately for each bacterium understudy, then were exposure to the laser beam for a period of (0,2,5) minutes, respectively, after that 0.1 ml of bacterial suspension for timings (0,2,5) min. were transported to the Muller-Hinton agar with triplicate.
After incubation, the results showed a clear decrease in the number of developing colonies, and the intensity of the killing was associated with direct relationship with increasing the time of exposure. The results also showed a variation in the bacterial sensitivity under study to killing by laser, Where the isolate E.cloacae recorded decreasing  in the number of its colonies from 144 before exposure to 80 and 28 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with a killing percentage of 45% and 81% respectively, E.hormaechei isolates also recorded decreasing in the number of its colonies from109 before exposure to 62 and 25 colonies, with a killing percentage reaching 43% and 77% respectively after (2 and 5) of exposure, as well as the number of Shigella spp colonies decreased from 180 before exposure to 134 and 97 colonies  with a killing percentage of 26% and 64% after (2 and 5) exposure respectively, in addition, M.morganii isolates witnessed decreasing in the number of its developing colonies after exposure to the laser beam from 233 colonies before exposure to 148 and 120 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with percentage of killing reaching 37% and 48% respectively.

Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Extracted from Enterobacter cloacae on some Pathogenic Bacteria

Rawaa Ahmed AL Aswad; Hiyam Adel Altaii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167308

A 106 different specimen were collected to isolate and diagnose some gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, as it was performed for the period from 15 August to 30 November 2019 from AL-Salam and Al-Khansaa educational hospitals in Mosul. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted from Enterobacter cloacae by using the Methanol - Chloroform method. extract was diagnosed, using some biochemical tests such as the Molisch test to detect carbohydrate content and Folin reagent in order to determine proteins concentration, lipid solubility in organic solvent and Bio drop technique as well as to detect nucleic acid concentration. The extraction methods showed its efficiency with low protein and nucleic acids concentration in the extract. Lipopolysaccharide demonstrated its efficiency inhibiting microbial growth on all test isolates at concentrations 1100, 1000 µg\ ml while its lipopolysaccharide showed its inhibition of Proteus mirabilis at all concentrations used. LPS showed possibility used as inhibitory, antimicrobial growth

Detection of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in some Pathogenic Samples and Medical Devices and Determining Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

Ahmed A. Hammadi; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167312

This study was conducted to detection of bacterial types belonged to (CoNS) group from pathogenic sources and medical devices and studying the pattern of their resistance to different antibiotics. 120 samples (pathogenic samples, surgical instruments and tools) were collected from some hospitals in Mosul city for the period from August 2019 until January 2020, Various diagnostic methods were used, which included phenotypic methods (Cultural, microscopic and biochemical) and the use of the Api Staph system, and Vitek system. The sensitivity of the isolated bacteria to (12) antibiotics was tested.
 The CoNS bacterium group was isolated from all studied sources and (37) isolates were obtained, at a rate of (52.8%) of the total staphylococci, and it prevailed on Staphylococcus aureus in many cases, and the isolated species included Staphylococcus epidermidis (12 isolates 32.4%) followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (8 isolates 21.6%), then Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis (6 isolates 16.2%) for each of them, then Staphylococcus lentus (3 isolates 8.1%) Finally, Staphylococcus sciuri (2 isolates 5.4%).
 Antibiotic sensitivity results of CoNS isolates showed high resistance to Tetracyclin 89.1% (%), Penicillin (86.4%), Erythromycin 81%), and Oxacillin 78.3%), respectively, and in lower percentage to the rest of the studied antibiotics. Isolates are absolutely sensitive (100%) to the Vancomycin and high sensitivity for Ofloxacin (89.1%) and Novobiocin (72.9%). These results confirm the prevalence of different bacteria belonging to the CoNS group in the various pathogenic sources, and their health importance and severity associated with their high resistance to antibiotics.

Investigation of the Ability of some Bacteria Isolated from Intravenous Catheters to form Biofilms and the Effectiveness Ability of some Substances in Removing them

Raad M. Mahmmod; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 14-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166315

The research included investigating some of the contaminated bacteria of the Cervical Vein Catheter (CVC) devices in patients with dialysis in  Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital (alternative site), then testing the ability of the isolated bacteria to form the biofilms in two ways, the  congo red agar and the tube method, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of some substances to remove the biofilms                       
   The results showed that the contaminated bacteria of the cervical venous catheter apparatus included: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Burkholderia cepacia. The current study also showed that the ability of the pathogenic bacteria above to form the biofilms by Tube Method came at 3,2 and 0, bacteria respectively, and its ability to the composition of the biofilms by the Congo Red Agar Method came at 2,2 and 0, bacteria respectively. The results also showed the high ability of Vancomycin and Meropemen 10% for each one, and Alum 20% as well as natural lemon juice undiluted to remove the biofims formed by the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium. As for the other materials that were used, they did not show any ability to remove the biofilms.                                                                                                

Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus and its Roles in Cytokines Stimulation in Immunocompromised Patients in Mosul City, Iraq

Nawal Shahir Mahmood; Abdulrhem Thonnon AL-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 17-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166308

Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) cause different infections in humans all over the world with a prevalence exceeds 70% in adults and 90% in poorer communities and developing countries. Two hundred immunocompromised patients (cancer, dialysis, thyroid gland, and thalassemia) infected with CMV were subjected to determine CMV seroprevalence and its effect on cytokines expression using advance molecular test (Real time PCR) and Serological ELISA test.  The results showed high CMV seroprevalence rate in immunocompromised patients but in low rate in thalassemia patients in Mosul city compared with other cities near Iraq. CMV stimulates upregulation in expression (mRNA transcripts) of three cytokines genes (IL-10, TNF, and CCL2) which affect four key immune pathways which in turn may cause severe complication on patients such as asthma and cytokine storm.

Relationship of some Risk Factors and Bacterial Contamination Associated with Dialysis to Patients in some Mosul Hospital

Raad M. Mahmmod; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 30-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165362

The research was conducted on dialysis patients at Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital                        (alternative site) in Mosul / Nineveh Governorate. Where the study included 90 blood samples from the patients as well as swabs from the washing machine with recording information related to chronic diseases and the age and gender of all patients under study. Isolation and identification of the accompanying and contaminating bacteria was done using morphological and biochemical tests then by using Vitek device.                                                                                  
The results of the current study showed that age group 56-46 years are more likely to suffer from kidney failure at a rate of 26.66%, while the age group with the lowest infection was 76-85 year, with a rate of 1.11%. Males are more likely to have renal failure at 57.77% compared to 42.22% for females. High blood pressure may be the leading cause of kidney failure, and 50% of all patients. Bacteremia was appeared in hemodialysis patients in 11.11. Staphylococcus aureus came in at 44.44%, Burkholderia cepacia complex was isolated by 33.33%, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus was isolated by 22.22%. Contamination of dialysis devices reached 40%, and the causative bacteria, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, reached 100%.                                           

Elevation of the Inhibitory Action of Standard Antimicrobials (Ciprofloxacin and Chlorhexidine) by some Natural Materials against Three Periodontal Pathogens

Sumaya A.S.M. Al-Hamdoni; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165354

Maintaining the level of periodontal bacteria under control represents the basis for reducing periodontal infections. Therapeutic therapy along with scaling aids to prevent the causative agent from recolonizing the treated surface. As natural substitutes, this study aimed to verify the validity of two natural products, olibanum and alum as inhibitors of periodontal pathogens and also as supporting agents to elevate the anti-action of the pre- validated antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine. The study chose three periodontal bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola as representative taxa because they are considered the more virulent with high proteolytic activity. The antimicrobial activity was studied to find out the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values using resazurin- based microdilution assay. The cooperative interaction between reagents was studied by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values, analyzing the statistical difference between the single and combinational use and comparing the inhibition zone by agar diffusion. The results proved the inhibitory activity of olibanum and alum against the three pathogens and their high efficacy in improving the inhibitory action of the two standard drugs which was evidenced by the lowered MIC values, calculated FIC values, enlarged inhibition zone and statistical significance of the combinational use. The study concluded the successful use of olibanum and alum in reducing the red complex pathogens either in a single use or in combination as a pure natural preparation and also raising the anti- action of lower concentrations of ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidin.
 

Association of Autoimmunity and Parvovirus B19 Infection among Spontaneous Miscarriage Women in Erbil / Iraq

Nyan J. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164472

The study was conducted from January 2016 to January 2017 at Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city/ Iraq. One hundred and forty women who experienced spontaneous abortions were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and forty normal pregnant women as a control group. Serum from patients and control group subjected for assessment of anticardiolipin IgM, antiphospholipid IgM, Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay technique. Prevalence of positive Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM, anticardiolipin IgM and antiphospholipid IgM, in aborted women was higher than that observed in non-aborted women (control group). Women with the highest frequency of spontaneous abortion found at age group 27–34 year. More frequent of previous spontaneous abortion was 1-2 abortion at the 1st trimester of gestational period. Anticardiolipin antibody and antiphospholipid antibody production trigged by viral infection, and have role in spontaneous abortion in pregnant women.
 
 

Detection of the Inhibitory Effect of the Leaves, Seed and Fruits of Cydonia oblonga on some Gram Positive and Negative Bacteria

Najlaa A. F. Al- Noamy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 10-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164470

Seventy six swab samples were collected from Otitis media and stool samples from gastroenteritis cases, were cultured on different culture media, gram positive and gram negative bacteria were isolated and identified. The highest prevalence was Staphylococcus aureus (25%) while Salmonella typhi formed the lowest isolate rate (3.9%) other bacterial isolates varied between these two and comparison was done between effect of the air part of Cydonia oblonga (Quince) plant (leaves, seeds, fruits) to determine the highest effective part on the isolated bacteria. As the inhibitory effect of Cydonia oblonga seed, leaves and fruit alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the isolated bacteria were studied. Alcoholic seed extract showed the highest inhibitory activity on two bacterial species Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterococcus faecalis (25 and 22 mm) respectively followed by Aeromona sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13 and 11 mm) respectively while alcoholic leaves extract showed antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus only  (15 mm), alcoholic fruit extract showed its effect on Enterococcus faecalis (12 mm), Klebsiella sp. (11 mm), Salmonella typhi (10 mm), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9 mm). the aqueous seed extract showed an effect on Enterococcus faecalis (11 mm), while the aqueous leaves extract showed the highest effect on Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm), followed by Bacillus subtilis (10 mm), and the aqueous fruit extract showed the highest effect on E.coli (10 mm) while on Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter aerogenes was less (9 mm) for all of them. The (MIC) value of the effective extracts revealed that the highest value of alcoholic seed extract on E.faecalis was (25 mg\ml), while the least (MIC) was (0.39 mg\ml) for Aeromona sp. with the remaining MIC values ranging between the two.

Serological and Molecular Comparison Study for Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infection in aborted Pregnant Women in Iraq

Anmar A. Al-Taie; Basim A. Abdullah; Mozahim Y. Al-Attar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 81-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159336

This study was conducted to investigate the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections of pregnant women. The samples were collected from Mosul and Baghdad hospitals in Iraq for two years and the tested women within the age category of under 20 to above 39 years. One thousand five hundred samples were taken as serum, to use in ELISA (IgM, IgG). EDTA blood, Heparin blood and cervical swabs were used in molecular tests. Three hundred positive samples demonstrating the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies using ELISA test. IgM antibodies were positive in 146 (48.7%) CMV, IgG antibodies were positive in 189 (63%) for CMV. DNA was extracted and Real-Time PCR indicates positive in only four samples (1.3%) in CMV from all 300 positive samples in ELISA tests. CMV

Isolation and Biofilm Forming Ability of Bacteria Attached to Urinary Catheter Undergoing Long-Term Bladder Catheterization

Khansa M. Younis

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 51-59
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159334

Catheter associated urinary tract infections are one of the most common nosocomial infections. This study aims to isolate, identify and biofilm forming ability of bacteria attached to urinary catheters particularly catheters that had been in place for prolonged periods in preventing catheter-associated infections caused by hospitalized ICU patients. Urinary catheters from (Clinical center of University Kebangsaan Malaysia) were used, one from Acute Vascular Rejection patient (Urinary catheter B), and two from Benign Prostate Hyperplasia patient (Urinary Catheter C and D).The urinary catheters and urine evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively used colony-forming unit and bacteriological assessment, respectively for each portions of urinary catheter for identifying infections. Bacterial population on agar plates showed varying density for all parts of three urinary catheters and urine samples. Altogether 100 isolates including 96 bacterial isolates and 4 yeast isolates have been successfully obtained from the three urinary catheters. Pathogens were Proteus 22 isolates followed by E.coli 5 isolates, Enterobacter 4 isolates, Klebsiella 3 isolates, Pseudomonas 1 isolates For UC(B), while in UC(C and D) which represent the catheters to same diseases were Pseudomonas 23 isolates showed the highest isolates followed by E.coli 16 isolate, Proteus 10 isolates, Enterobacter 7 isolates, Klebsiella 4 isolates, Candida 4 isolates, Bacillus 1 isolate. Results of biofilm forming on microtiter plate and sterile Foley catheter revealed that these isolates possess a high capacity for biofilm formation on the both surfaces at different degrees with delay in the initiation of biofilm formation on silicone coated Foley catheter compared to polystyrene microtiter plate. It is concluded that Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for UTI infections in our patients and almost all of the isolates have the abilities to form visible growing biofilms on both surfaces.

Detection of Biofilm Genes (IcaA and IcaD) in Staphylococcus spp.

Aws I. Sulaiman; Basima A. Abdulla

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 60-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159338

One hundred thirty one clinical bacterial samples were collected from skin, pus, urine and blood from patients at Al-Salam General Teaching Hospital in Mosul city during March until July/ 2012, The present study included identification using API ID 32 STAPH system to the species Staphylococcus. aureus, Staph. lugdunensis, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. hominis, Staph. auricularis and Staph. haemolyticus, Biofilm formation genes at icaA (188 bp.) were found in 35.7% of Staph. aureus, Staph. hominis, and Staph. xylosus but 42.8 % of Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. hominis, and Staph. xylosus contained icaD (198 bp.) gene only.

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Detection of Human Bocavirus Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory

Qasim Sh. Al-Mayah; Areej A. Hussein; Duraid A. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 64-74
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159335

Background: Respiratory tract diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children, and a great variety of viruses are responsible of these infection.
Objectives: To determine the infection rate of human bocavirus in children with lower respiratory tract infection and related with different variable.
Patients and methods: Cross sectional study consists of 122 children under five years old their age ranged between 1 and 60 months and 75 males and 47 females; suffering from lower respiratory tract infection. They were attending respiratory wards in Fatima Al-Zahraa Hospital, Al-Elwiya Pediatrics Hospital, Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital and Pediatrics Protection Hospital in Baghdad, during the period from December 2017 to February 2018. Full information were collected from parents or relevant of each patient use specific formula sheet as well as nasopharyngeal samples were collected and used for DNA extraction and amplification with specific primers by PCR.
Results: Out of all 122 samples, eight samples were positive for HBoV (6.6%). Most infections were recorded in males 5(62.5%) patients aged 1-30 months 7(87.5%) but statistically non-significant. Significant differences (p=0.02) were noticed with nasal discharge 100% and wheezing 100% in HBoV-positive children, while non-significant with other parameter so higher proportion of HBoV-positive children had asthma (62.5%).Exactly 50% of HBoV-positive children were suffering from diarrhea. Nervous manifestation did no differ significantly between positive and negative groups (37.5% and 38.59% respectively). The results of phylogenetic analysis for HBoV DNA isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs revealed that all local isolates (8 isolates) are with HBoV type 1.
Conclusions: Infection rate of human bocavirus was compared with rates of infection from neighboring countries, no significant differences were notice between infection rate and different parameters except with nasal discharge and wheezing.

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Detection of mrkA Gene in Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients under Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Enas A. Al-Layla; Basima A. Abdullah; Ali A. Mohamad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 75-80
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159339

Thirty five sinus samples obtained from endoscopic patients who were suffering from chronic sinusitis and admitted to AL-Jumhori, AL-Rabie private, AL-Zahrawi private hospitals in Mosul city from March 2013 to March 2014 were conducted .Samples were cultured and pure isolates were identified to species level using morphological, biochemical and physiological tests. PCR was done using plasmids isolated from species under study by using primers for mrkA gene .mrkA gene was found in four species: Moraxella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli and Citrobacter freundii.
Nucleotide sequencing was done for isolated mrkA gene and homology searches were conducted between the sequences of standard gene BLAST program which is available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Basic Local Alignment Search program Tool(BLAST). Variations appear as transversion mutation which causes change tryptophan amino acid to leucine amino acid and there was transition mutation which causes change from aspartite amino acid to asparagine..

Isolation and Identification Species of Vibrio Genus from Fresh and Frozen Shrimp and Confirmation the Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique

Shaker G. Jerjees; Amera Mahmood Alrawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159381

This research was concerned with the isolation and identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from seafood (shrimp) samples. (40) samples of freshly harvested shrimp from the local markets in Al-Basra city and twenty (20) samples of frozen shrimp (Turkey origin) were collected. Two enrichment methods were used for the enhancement of the growth and isolation of vibrio species, which include enrichment in non selective medium Alkaline peptone water (APW) for 8 hours and then in selective broth salt polymyxin broth (SPB) and then plated on two solid selective media, ThioSulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose agar (TCBS) and Arabinose Ammonium Sulphate Cholate agar (AASC) and morphological, cultural and biochemical tests were performed on the colonies grown on selective media, then we confirmed the identification by using the chromogenic medium ChromagarTM Vibrio for the first time locally. Finally tox R based polymerase chain reaction was used to cofirm the identification of V. parahaemolyticus. The results showed the isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus in percentage 45%, 20%, 37.5%, 17.5% from fresh shrimp, 35%, 20%, 25%, 15% from the frozen shrimp respectively. The results also showed that there is an accordenance between biochemical tests and ChromagarTM Vibrio. The results of tox R based PCR revealed that 22l25 of V. parahaemolyticus contain the tox R gene which is species-specific gene.

The Investigation of some Types of Bacteria in Kidney Stones

Amera M. AL-Rawi; Rasha N. AL-Sa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.41344

The study investigated the presence of bacteria in stone constituents in addition to chemical analysis of struvite stone components, removed by surgical intervention form (50) patients having renal stones and urinary tract infections ( UTIs).
The results showed the isolation of Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonass aeruginosa from most of 8 struvite stones from the center and subsurface layers, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were also isolated from one of the 32 calcium stones, while 10 uric acid stone, were germ-free.

The chemical analysis results showed that struvite stone components, contain calcium, magenisium and phosphate.

Invitrogenesis of Renal Struvite Stone

Rasha N. AL-Sa’doon; Amera AL-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 56-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42498

The study aimed designation of a continuous culture of P. mirabilis which isolated from urine of patients with renal stones and Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) by using artificial urine and similar conditions to that of human urinary system, the bacteriaum exhibit ability to form struvite stone crystals. Then a number of chemical tests were done on a precipitate that formed and the results showed that it consists of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus in addition to investigation on bacteria in it. The effects of alkaline, acid and neutral materials were studied, the preciptates were soluble in acidic and neutral solutions but not in alkaline. A comparison was carried out on the quantity of preciptate with time and the ability of bacteria to stimulate crystallization in surplus urine from the continuous culture was tested in different pH values, the quantity of crystals formed depend on calcium and magenisium concentrations in urine.

Study of Breast Feeding Effect and other Factors on the Carriage Rate of Haemophilus influenza in Children in Mosul City

Hiyam A. Al-Tai

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 26-35
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42704

148 samples were collected including 74 throat swabs and 74 Nasopharyngal swabs from children with ages from after birth to 12 years old. From day care centera and primary school in Mosul city, data about sex , age , type of feeding , Respiratory tract infections , smoking exposure and Scocio-economic state were recorded .
Isolation and identification of Haemophilus influenza (Hi) were done depending on morphological and biochemical tests.
The results showed that the carriage rate with Hi bacteria was 38.5%, 56% , of it was from Nasopharynx and 44% from throat as well as the carriage state in breast feeded children was 72%, while 26% , 2% in battle feeded and mixed feeded children respectively also it showed that the highest carriage rate was in the age group 4-6 years old with predominance of male. This study appeared that 24% of carriage were infected with respiratory tract infections and 80% of them were exposed to smoking, in addition the socioeconomic state showed an important effect on carriage rate it found that 52% of carriers were living in medium economic level , 30% in bad level, 18% in a good one.

Effect of Different Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on the Production of Xanthan by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951.

Taha A. Khmis; Yousif J. Isma; Mohammed Bashir I. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 10, Pages 30-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43286

Xanthan production by Xanthomonas Campestris ATCC 13951 was studied in a basal medium containing various carbon and nitrogen sources. The greatent yeild of Xanthan was achieved with sucrose and sodium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. The yeild of Xanthan was abtained with lactose and sodium nitrite.Regarding the optimum comcentrations of both sucrose and sodium nitrate, 7.5% and .124% respectivly gave the highest production of Xanthan.

Study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated fromrespiratory tract of neonates in Mosul City

Najlaa Alnaeimy; Amera M. Alrawy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 10, Pages 121-134
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43314

279 samples of aspirate from respiratory tract infected neonates has been collected by Fluid Sucker including 100 samples from full term neonates, 109 samples from premature births and 70 samples from healthy neonates (control). The samples were cultured in Methylene Blue - Glucose Diphasic Medium. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were confirmed by Morphological & Biochemical test , sensitivity to antibiotics were also studied. The results showed that Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been isolated from full term , premature neonates by 6.1 % and 10.2 % respectively it was isolated from control samples. The out comes of sensitivity and resistance for antibiotics showed that this bacteria was sensitive to Gentamycin , Tetracyclin , Erythromycin and Chloramphenicol while it was resistant to Vancomycin , Rifampicin , Ampicilin and Trimethoprim .