Main Subjects : Botany

The Effect of Biological Control Agents on Fungi Isolated from some Citrus Trees in Mosul

Maha M. Taha Al-Nuaimy; Faten N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 68-77
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167687

In this study, the counter effect of two Biological Control Agents, namely Trichoderma harzianum fungi and Bcillus subtilis bacteria against the fungi-like organism Phytophthora infestans and the fungi; Fosarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani isolated from orange- trees’ bark and from lemon- trees’ roots. The results showed that the counter effect of T. harzianum (using double culture on petri dishes) reached 1.0 according to Bell scale, against all these pathogens. The counter effect of this antibiotic was also tested in vitro on branches taken from citrus trees and infected with Phytophthora infestans. The infection percentagesbefore treatment with T. harzianum were 75% and 58.3% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively, whereas after treatment with the inhibition fungi, the percentages of infection were 25% and 16.6% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively. The percentages of inhibition by Bacillus subtilis bacteria were 83%, 71% and 73% against Phytophthora infestans , Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani respectively

Initiation Callus Cultures from the Seedlings of Silybum Marianum and Estimate their Protein Content

Sabah Abdullah Al-Badrani; Rehab ِA. AL-Baker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 21-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167683

The present research investigates the best Method for sterilization the Silybum marianum Plant seeds for getting best seedlings and the roles of plant growth regulators the (BA) Benzyl adenine and (2,4-D) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, as well the type of the explants of the seedlings to induce and grow callus. In addition, determined the callus viability and its protein content. The results showed the best treatment seeds is to soak them with water for (24) hours and then with Ethanol 70% for (3) minutes, immerse them with Sodium hypochlorite) NaOCl) 2.5% for (10) minutes, and with 0.1% Tween 20 for (10) minutes. The explants of seedlings (roots, leaves, shoots, nodes) have been cultured on solid MS medium contain different concentrations (0.1,0.5,1.0,1.0) mg/L of BA and (0.25,0.5,0.5,1.0) mg/ L of 2,4-D. The medium which supplemented with (1) mg/l of (BA) and (2,4-D) had succeeded to induction of calls growth, which produce (2.4,3.1,4.1) gm. fresh weight respectively. The results showed that roots and nodes have more response than others to initiate and induce callus. The viability of callus showed a noticeable increase in age (80) day to reach (87%) for roots, leaves, and nodes callus. The callus of roots showed best increase in viability which reaches (95%) in (120) day. The results explained variation in protein level in callus culture with different in callus source and age, it reaches the highest level in nodes callus, and in (80, 120) days was the highest level of protein where in roots callus.

Role of the Hairy Roots as A Biological Agent in Phytoremediation

Amjad A. Mohammed; Owayes M. Hamed; Raed S. Alsaffar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167310

Pollution is a growing undertaking for humans around the globe which affects in which affects both developed and growing towns (Suresh and Ravishankar, 2004). All herbal methods that make contributions to economic pollution are typically categorized as natural contaminants (Sosa Alderete et al., 2009). These are the human final products which include:  navy explosives, agriculture, oil products, gasoline manufacturing and wood results                            (Pilon-Smits, 2005). Subsequently, the natural activities can additionally sell the discharge of heavy metals as nickel, molybdenum, lead, copper, zinc and mercury to the environment which are harmful to human health (Nedelkoska and Doran, 2000).                              The whole surroundings are constantly being contaminated from pollutants which is unsafe for human fitness (Suza et al., 2008 ; Rezek et al., 2012).
The cost of cleansing up infected sites is high therefore using vegetation to extract, stabilize and degrade contaminants, all of them called as phytoremediation, is giving reputation as an extra cost-powerful opportunity to different strategies of cleanup                            (Kuiper et al., 2004).

Effect of Soil Cultivar with Legume in Germination and Growth of Cucumbers

Wasan Salih Hussain

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165359

The allelopathic effect was studied to sequence varieties of cucumbers in soils cultivated previously with plants (broad bean, peas, chickpeas), as the results of this study showed that allelopathy had an effect on germination and growth of cucumbers, as previously cultivated soils caused legumes (broad bean, peas, chickpeas) significantly reduced. In the percentage of germination and germination speed, while it caused an increase in the height and dry weight of the vegetative group of cucumber varieties tested in most treatments, the highest percentage increase was 24% for the cultivars of the cultivar Beitha alpha after the chickpea plant. And on the role of allelopathy and its effect on the modulus of division and the phase factor of the cells of the roots of the roots of the cucumber seedlings gave a difference in their effect between the increase and the decrease, as the soil planted with chickpeas caused an increase in the division factor and the coefficient of the introductory phase of the Biyar dalta class, which was accompanied by a decrease in the coefficients of the separation and the final phase, accompanied by a decrease in Root total length.
The study also showed an increase in the number of root branching of the cultivated cultivars following the broad bean plant, accompanied by an increase in the length of the vegetative system.

Regenerated of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Plants from Differentiation of the Hypocotyl Stems Callus of its Seedlings

Safwan J. Sultan; Amjad Abdul-Hadi Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 39-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165364

The current study produced broccoli plants (Brassica oleracea var. italica) from the differentiation the hypocotyl stems callus of its seedlings and succeed of their adaptation and transferred to the soil. The results showed the difference in ratio of callus initiation with different type of plant growth regulators Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Indole-3-butyricacid (IBA), Benzyl adenine (BA) and their concentrations which used in this study. The interaction of IBA and BA had an efficient role of increasing the initiation ratios. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 IBA and 2.0 mg L-1 BA superiority in registered initiation ratio reached 100% after 11 days of the cultivation, and with its continued growth it produced typical callus cultures. The continued of callus subculture on the same initiation medium led to spontaneous production of 142 shoots produced from 50 pieces of callus. These regenerated shoots easily rooted in the MSO medium with full strength at ratio 100%, and with continued growth and formation of efficient root groups, they were successfully adapted to the soil within the pots in the greenhouse. 

Investigate some Species of Candida Contaminated with Yogurt and Tested its Sensitivity to some Antibiotics

Badia Abd Al_Razzak Malla Obaeda

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 20-29
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165361

Twenty-five samples of sheep yogurt were collected from different regions in Nineveh Governorate, marketed to local markets in the city of Mosul / Iraq. Isolates were diagnosed after phenotypic; culture and biochemical tests and the diagnosis was confirmed using API 20C test. The results showed that yeasts belong to the following species: Candida guilliermondii 28%, C. krusei 12%, C. norvegensis 36% and C. utilis 24%. The resistance of isolates was studied for six antibiotics. The results of the sensitivity examination showed a variation in the resistance of yeasts to antibiotics and yeast showed C. utilis resistance to all antibiotics used except Nystatin while the yeast C. krusei was sensitive to all antibiotics and was resistant to Candizole and Nystatin. The rest of the isolates varied in the resistance to the antibiotics used.

Allelopathic Effect of Three Weed Residues on Growth and Nodulation. of Visia faba and Lens culinaris Medik

Rawnaq Ahmed Ibrahim; Janan Abed Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164477

The present study has been made in University of Mosul/ College of Science/ Department of Biology to investigate the effect of adding the residues of Cephalaria sp.,  Brassica  sp. and Hordeum sp. weeds at concentration (0,2,4,6) % (w:v) in seed germination and seedling growth in Vicia faba L, and Lens culinaris medik, the adding of (2mg/kg) of (Brassica sp.) residues caused the highest percentage of seed germination (70%) in Vicia faba L. adding (4 mg/kg) of  (Cephalaria sp.) residues caused the highest percentage of stimulation  in length (32.7 and46.8 cm) of  the shoot and roots in Vicia faba L., the highest percentage of stimulation in dry weight for the vegetative in Lens culinaris medik at the adding of (4 mg/kg) of (Cephalaria sp.) residues, while the highest percentage of reduction in dry weight (5.5 mg) of the roots partin Vicia faba L. at the adding of             (6 mg/kg) of (Hordeum sp.) residues, and the highest percentage of stimulation in the number and dry weight of nodule in Vicia faba L(2.23)kg. at the adding of (4 mg/kg) of(Cephalaria sp.) residues.

Role of Diode Laser Radiation Pretreatments in Growth of Pisum sativum L. Plant Seedlings and Callus under Salinity Stress

Eman T. Yaseen; Sajida Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 50-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164481

The research included a study of the effect of the red diode laser radiation at wave length 650 nm and power 50 mw/cm2 for different periods of time 2,4,6,8 and 10 minutes in the growth and development of seedlings and callus of Pisum sativum L. plant under salt stress at 200mM. The results showed that seeds exposed to laser radiation for different periods of time caused a clear increased in all studied growth indicators compared with the control treatment. Seeds treated with laser radiation for 10 minutes showed superiority on the other treatments in stimulation of  germination speed, rate of the radical and coleoptile lengths and their fresh and dry weights  with an increase in  the rate of fresh and dry weight of plant. The results showed also that exposing callus segments to the laser radiation for different periods of time caused an increase in the rate of their fresh and dry weights after 21 days of growth on MS medium supplement with 1.0 mg/l of BA and NAA for each one. The present study proved possibility of treating the negative effects of sodium chloride at the concentration 200mM on the growth indicators of seedlings and callus of Pisum sativum by treatment seeds and callus with laser radiation for 10 minutes before salinity treatment at 200 Mm. This led to increase in the speed of seeds germination, the activity of α-amylase enzyme during different  germination stages and increasing in plant growth rates (the lengths rate of each of the radical and coleoptile and their fresh and dry weights, plant height, root length, number of stem and root branches, fresh and dry weights of plant with an increase in the leaves content of chlorophyll. Also the results indicated a positive effect of laser radiation for10 min. in the  increasing  the fresh and dry weights of callus and return its viability after 21 days  of growth and reduce  the damage of cellular  membranes  with an  increase in  the amount of  total soluble carbohydrates, level of proline and protein content  in the  tissues of seedling leaves and callus according to salinity treatment only.  

Identitying The Absorbtion Range of Chara sp. Algae for Different Concentrations of Cadmium

Abdul Sattar J. Z. Al- Hayani; Abdulmoneim Kannah; HIba Khaleel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 26-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164479

        The adsorption of the cadmium element ion was used by the Chara sp., where it was dried and the effective groups of algae responsible for adsorption using infrared (FTIR) were COOH , (C=O)   and aliphatic nexus (C-H), in addition to the presence of groups with a negative charge such as (OH), (P = O), (CO3), (CH2), (Cl) and (Br) on the surface of the algae, and taking them at a weight of 2 g and treated with a series of different concentrations (0,5,10,20,40,100) mg.L-1 of Cadmium ion where incubation coefficients at (298°) Kelvin,
        After the incubation period, the stabilizers were extracted and Cadmium was quantified with mathematical description according to the equations of the single-surface (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin and Polani) respectively for Cadmium, It was found that the values of the coefficient of determination were effective for all equations, which gives a clear indication of the possibility of using any of these six equations. However, the two-sided Langmuir equation is the most efficient in the mathematical description of adsorption. Moreover, this equation showed a very large correlation between the actual adsorption values ​​and the calculated values ​​of this equation because they have the lowest standard error (SE) (0.0001) and the highest coefficient of determination (R2) (1.00), which gains the advantage in the mathematical description on the rest of the equations. The maximum adsorption capacity (Xm) on the first and second surfaces (1.28) and (169.49) mg. Kg -1 respectively, while the binding capacity (K) on the first and second surfaces (186.62) and (29.50) respectively.

The Effect of Salt Stress Conditions in Seed Germination Indicators, Seedlings Growth and Callus Initiation of Pisum sativum L. in Culture Media

Eman T. Yaseen; Sajida A. Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164478

The research included a study of the effect of sodium chloride salt with concentrations 0,50,100,150,200,250 and 300 mM in growth and development of seedlings and calli of Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The results showed that increasing salt concentration in culture medium led to decrease the percentage of seeds germination and increasing the duration of germination which  causing slow germination speed and decreasing in the lengths rate of each of the radical and coleoptile and their fresh and dry weights. Moreover the activity of α-amylase was decreased during different germination stages at 200 mM of NaCl according to the control. Salinity also caused a decrease in the rate of plant growth(plant height, root length, stem and root branches and  fresh and dry weights of plant).The enhancement of NaCl in a medium was accompanied with a gradual decrease in total chlorophyll of leaves at different concentrations of salt. The results also indicated a negative effect of salinity in fresh and dry weights of callus, membrane damage and viability of callus which developed on MS medium supplement with 1mg/l of BA and NAA. The present study demonstrated the effects of NaCl in increasing the amount of  total soluble carbohydrates ,level of proline in seedling leaf tissues at the age of 20 days  and callus is 21 days old while a clear decrease in the total amount of protein in those tissues occur.

Comparison among Various Control Methods of Tomato Bacterial Spot Disease (Xanthomonas campestirs pv.vesicatoria)

Frishta Abdurrahman; Khalid M. Ahamed; Tahsein A. M. Amein

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 20-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164471

Two different plant extracts, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens L18 and Bacillus subtilis K3, one antibiotic (Streptomycin) and one bactericide (copper sulphate) were tested for their control efficacy against Tomato Bacterial Spot caused by the bacterium  Xanthomonas campestirs pv.vesicatoria under vitro and in vivo conditions.
          Two different concentrations of each extract was used, under lab and greenhouse conditions. The eucalyptus extract had better effect than the thyme extract in both conditions.  The inhibition zone in Petri dishes was 11.25 mm and 6.99 mm and the reduction of disease severity index in plants was 40.7% and 35.6% respectively.
The Pseudomonas fluorescens L18 strain had much better and was more effective than the Bacillus subtilis K3 strain in reduction the disease severity in plants. The disease severity index was reduced by 29.3% and 18.2% respectively.
       Streptomycin used as antibiotic   had a great effect on reduction of the disease severity index 83.5% and inhibition zone 22.5mm. Copper sulphate   reduced the disease severity index by 87% and had 38.1mm inhibition zone and had the best effect compared with other treatments.

Regeneration of White Lupin, Lupinus albus, Plants form Hypocotyl Stems

Amjad A. Mohammed; Rana T. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 95-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159348

This study succeeded in regenerating the white lupin, Lupinus albus, plants from
differentiated the hypocotyl stems callus of its sterilized seedlings. The results indicated to superior
the solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium provided with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA in callus initiation
with 90% after 20 days of culture from the other of selected media. The rate of the value of the
callus fresh weight was 3.3 gm after 40 days of growth, which gives indication on the viability and
activity of callus. The continued of callus subculture on the same its initiated medium led to
spontaneous production of 22 shoots. These regenerated shoots rooted when cultivated in MSO
with its full strength at ratio 50% after 26 days, producing the whole lupin plants in the culture
media. .

Detection of Ochratoxigenic Potential in some Aspergillus and Penicillium Isolates from Vineyard Soil, Fresh and Dried Grapes by ELISA

Asia Saadullah; Samir K. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159364

Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were isolated and identified from samples of
vineyard soil, fresh grape berries and dried vine fruits collected from grapevine nursery and shops
in Duhok province. The ochratoxigenic potential of some of their strains was evaluated by ELISA
technique. Ochratoxin A (OA) was detected in cultures of two species of section Nigri
(A.carbonarius and A.niger aggreg.), two species of Aspergillus section Circumdati (A.ochraceus
and A.westerdijkia) and one species of OA was found at levels from 0.64 to 0.72 ng ml in
A.carbonarius isolates, from 0.64 to 0.66 ng ml in A.niger aggreg. isolates, from 0.23 to
0.65 ng ml in A.ochraceus isolates and 0.40 ngml in A.westterdijkia isolate, whereas the level was
from 0.61 to 0.64 ngml in Penicillium verrucosum.تم عزل وتشخیص العدید من الأنواع الفطریة العائدة للجنسین اسبرجلس و بنیسیلیوم من عینات ترب حقول الأعناب
فضلا عن ثمار العنب الطریة و الجافة والتی جمعت من محافظه دهوک. تم الکشف عن قابلیه إنتاج هذه العزلات لإنتاج السم
Aspergillus section Nigri تم الکشف عن إنتاج السم من قبل عزلتان من ELISA. الفطری اوکراتوکسین باستخدام تقنیه
Aspergillus section Circumdati (A.ochraceus وعزلتان من (A.carbonarius A.niger aggreg.),
.Penicillium (P.verrucosum و عزله من A.westerdijkiae
A.niger 0.64 نانوغرام / ملغم وفى عزلات - ما بین 0.72 A.carbonarius تراوح مستوى إنتاج السم من قبل عزلات
0.23 و فی عزله - مابین 0.65 A.ochraceus 0.64 نانوغرام/ ملغرام وفى عزلات - مابین 0.66 aggreg.
0.61 نانوغرام/ ملغم فى عزلات - 0.40 نانوغرام/ ملغرام بینما تراوح الإنتاج مابین - 0.64 A.westerdijkiaie
.Penicillium verrucosum

Investigation of some Carboxylic Acids and Phenolic Compounds of Ailanthus altissima Leaves and their its Effect on Italian Cupressus Seedlings Root Rot Fungi

Fanar H. Al-Hashumi; Anwer N. Al-Khero; Ayad Ch. Al-daody

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 8-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159366

The study was carried out for separation and identification of some carboxylic acids such as
Aspartic, Citric, Tartaric, Propionic, Ascorbic, Maleic and Fumaric, Adepic acid, as well as Phenol,
Resorcinol, Hydroguinone, Quercetine, p-Hydroxybenzoic, Benzoic acid and Gallic acid from
Alianthus altissima determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Moreover
the major components of carboxylic acid were presented as Ascorbic acid (86.38%). Also the
phenolic compounds was studied and the results showed that P- Hydroxy benzoic acid (41.99%)
was the highest amount. Isolation results from Cupressus seedlings infected with root rot disease
appearance of the fungus F. solani, F. oxysporum , F. chlamydosporium and Rhizoctonia solani,
the isolation ratios was 41% as amaximum value for F. solani, then F. oxyspoum (27%), F.
chlamydosporium (12%) which was minimum value and Rhizoctonia solani (20%).
Bioassay results of Ailanthus altissima leaves extract showed an increasing inhibition ratio
of fungi growth with increasing leaves extract concentrations, F.oxysporum and
F.chlamydosporium had the highest degree of growth inhibition (100) % for the two fungus at (4%)
extracts concentrations, then followed by the fungus F.solani and Rhizoctonia solani were (84.
78,57) % respectively and Rhizoctonia solani had the minimum inhibition.
The results of average fungus growth treated with several concentrations of Ailanthus leaves
extracts with PDA media showed inhibition of growth with increasing extracts concentration, F.
chlamydospoum had minimum mean growth 7mm at 1% extract conc. whereas the two species of
Fusarium showed maximum inhibition for average growth were zero values at 4% of extract conc.
except Rhizoctonia solani which had a different value (19.67) mm at the same conc.تشیر الدراسة الحالیة الى فصل وتشخیص بعض الاحماض الکاربوکسیلیة کحامض الاسبارتک، الستریک، التارتاریک،
البروبانویک، الاسکوربیک، المالیک، الفیوماریک، وحامض الادبیک، فض ً لا عن المرکبات الفینولیة کالفینول، ریسورسینول،
هیدروکینون، کورستین، باراهیدروکسی بنزویک، حامض البنزویک، حامض الکالیک. وأشارت النتائج الى أن حامض الاسکوربیک ظهر بأعلى نسیة بلغت 86.38 % ، وکذلک تم دراسة المرکبات الفینولیة وأظهرت النتائج ان حامض
.% بارهیدروکسی بنزویک ظهر بأعلى نسبة بلغت 41.99
F. و Fusarium solani أظهرت نتائج العزل من شتلات السرو المصابة بمرض تعفن الجذور فطریات
وبلغت النسبة المئویة للعزل 41 % کحد أقصى مع Rhizoctonia solani و F. chlamydosporium و oxysporum
والذی بلغت نسبته المئویة أدنى F. chlamydosporium بنسبة 27 % و F. oxysporum تلته الفطریات F. solani الفطر
فکانت نسبة العزل 20 %، وتبین من نتائج الاختبار الحیوی لمستخلص أوراق Rhizoctonia solani قیمة ( 12 )%، أما الفطر
F. تأثر الفطریات مع زیادة التراکیز للمستخلص حیث أظهر الفطر Ailanthus altissima لسان الطیر
F. solani أقصى تثبیط بتأثیر المستخلص بلغ 100 % عند الترکیز 4% من المستخلص تلته الفطریات chlamydosporium
Rhizoctonia حیث بلغت قیم تثبیطها ( 84 و 57 و 87 )% على التوالی، فی حین أظهر الفطر Rhizoctonia solani و
أدنى نسبة تثبیط بتأثیر المستخلص. solani
کذلک أظهرت نتائج الاختبار الحیوی لمستخلص أوراق لسان الطیر تثبیطًا معنویُا فی متوسطات نمو الفطریات مع
ادنى میوسط نمو تثبیط بتأثیر مستخلص الأوراق إذ بلغ 7 ملم F. chlamydosporium ترکیز المستخلص حیث أظهر الفطر
أقصى تثبیطًا للنمو بلغت قیمته صفر عند Fusarium عند الترکیز 1% من المستخلص، فی حین أظهرت نوعی الفطر
الذی کانت قیمة متوسط نموه 19.67 ملم عند نفس التر

Effect of some Biological Agents on Pathogenicity of some Root Pathogenic Fungi

Hadeel A. AL-Ameri; Zuhair A. Dawood; Fatin N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159344

Results of pathogenicity showed that the three fungi Fusarium culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp.
and Bipolaris spp. were the faster fungi inoculated in the emergence of symptoms as pathological
symptoms in both strawberry varities Hapil and Festival. Hapil was more sensitive than Festival agents
on the three studied fungi. The results indicate that the addition of biological agent T. harzianum and P.aerogenosa and fungicides Azadirachtin to the three fungi F. culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp. and
Bipolaris spp. caused a significant reduction of the pathogenicity compared with fungi alone, and the
results indicated that the biological agent efficiency of high antagonisms ability against the three fungi
F. culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp. and Bipolaris spp., and the results indicated the ability of
biological agent on P. aerogenosa agents the fungus Cylindrocarpon spp., and fungicide Azadirachtin
showed high antagonism against Cylindrocarpon spp.أشارت نتائج اختبار القدرة الامراضیة الى أ  ن الفطریات الثلاثة
وفستفل Hapil تسببت فی ظهور الأعراض المرضیة فی صنفی الشلیک هابل Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و
وکان الصنف هابل اکثر حساسیة من الصنف فستفل تجاه الفطریات الثلاثة المدروسة، فقد بینت النتائج الى ان إضافة .Festival
والمقاوم الکیمیائی Pseudomonas aerogenosa والبکتیری Trichoderma harzianum المقاومین الحیویین الفطری
اعطى انخفاضًا معنویًا فی Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و F. culmorum الى الفطریات الثلاثة Azadirachtin
شدة ظهور المرض بالمقارنة مع الفطریات ک ً لا على حدة وبمفرده. وکان للمقاوم الحیوی الفطری کفاءة تضادیة عالیة ضد
کما تشیر النتائج إلى تفوق القدرة التضادیة ،Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و F. culmorum الفطریات الثلاثة
ایضًا قدرة Azadirachtin معنویًا وأظهر المقاوم الکیمیائی Cylindrocarpon spp. على الفطر P. aerogenosa للبکتریا
.Cylindrocarpon spp. تضادیة عالیة على الفطر

Effect of Organic Fertilizer of Potasium Humate and Sea Weed Extracts on some

Munther Y. Mohammad; Mudhafar O. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 64-75
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159356

The study was conducted in the forest nursery at college of agriculture and forestry/ University of
Mosul during the mid of April 2012, to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer Pow humus with three
concentrations (0 , 1 , 2) g L. In addition to Hypra tonic and Alga 300 with three concentration
(0 , 1 , 2 ) ml L. on some chemical and physiological characteristics of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. The
results showed that the highest significant increase was caused by Pow humus fertilizer in the leaves
content of phosphorus, potassium, carbohydrate, total chlorophyll and phenols, as well as the root
content of nitrogen and potassium. While Hypra tonic fertilizer has the highest significant increase in
the root content of phosphorus. In addition spraying by Alga 300 fertilizer gave the highest significant
increase in leaves content of nitrogen and it is effect was significant in stability of membranes.أجریت هذه الدراسة فی مشتل قسم الغابات/ کلیة الزراعة و الغابات، جامعة الموصل، فی منتصف الشهر الرابع عام 2012
لمعرفة تأثیر السماد العضوی فی البوهیومص بثلاثة تراکیز ( 2 ، 1 ، 0 ) غم/ لتر، الى جانب الهایبراتونیک و الجا 300 و بثلاثة
.Pinus pinea L. تراکیز ایضا ( 2 ، 1 ، 0 ) مل/ لتر على بعض الصفات الکیمیائیة و الفسلجیة لشتلات الصنوبر الثمری
وأظهرت النتائج ان اعلى زیادة معنویة سببها سماد الباوهیومص فی محتوى الاوراق من الفسفور و البوتاسیوم و الکاربوهیدرات و
الکلوروفیل الکلی و الفینولات فضلا عن محتوى الجذور من النتروجین و البوتاسیوم، فی حین سبب سماد الهایبراتونیک حصول
اعلى زیادة معنویة فی محتوى الجذور من الفسفور، کما أعطى الرش بسماد الجا 300 اعلى زیادة معنویة فی محتوى الاوراق من
النتروجین و کان تأثیره معنویًا فی ثباتیة الأغشیة

Genotypic and Phenotypic Behavior for Quantitative Traits of some Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) and their Half Diallel Crosses

Ahmed H. Anees; Abdul-Khader H. AL- Jubouri

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 76-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159347

A field experiment was carried out at the research station of the field crops department
college of agricultureuniversity of Tikrit during (2011-2012 and 2013 winter seasons, included
crossing according half diallel cross in the first season and evaluating parents and their crosses in
the second season to study the genotypic and phenotypic behavior for the traits: days to anthesis,
plant height (cm), no. spikes. plant-1, no. grains. spike-1, 1000 grains weight (g) and individual grain
weight. Results showed highly significant differences for whole studied traits, many parents have
high significant means and agood combiner in many traits especially ACS-W-J19-9148 parents in
plant height and grains. spike-1 , ACS-W-J14-9143 parent in days to anthesis and 1000 grain weight
and ACS-W-J15-9144 in no.grains.spike-1 and individual grain weight. Many crosses have better
performance and affected positively to wards desired direction of significant hybrid vigor (ACS-WJ19-
9148 X sham 6) in no. grains. spike-1 and individual grain yield, (ACS-W-J15-9144) in 1000
grain weight and individual grain weight. Whole traits were controlled by dominance type of gene
action and that adequate with the ratio of the degree of dominance which were more than one.
Consequently heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance were low. The last two
crosses can be useful through the application of pedigree selection on the late segregation
generations to improve bread wheat cultivars

Study of the Effect of Black Leg Disease in Potato Production

Zahra S. Al-Mashadani; Nadeem A. Ramadan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 88-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159357

The susceptibility of 8 cultivars of potato to infection by black leg disease was studied using
artificial inoculation with 10- 4 CFU/ml from isolated bacterial. The results showed that all cultivars
were susceptible at different levels, under greenhouse and filed condition. Diamond was found to be
the most susceptible cultivar to blackleg disease while Desiree was the least susceptible .Different
method to treat the blackleg disease. The symptoms were reduction in the production of tubers and
the appearance of infected of leaves and the reduction in different plant heights. The bacteria that
cause this disease were isolated from potato tubers, shoots, soil and water. The mother tubers were
found to be major source of inoculums for blackleg disease.تمت دراسة قابلیة ثمانیة اصناف من البطاطا للإصابة بمرض الساق الأسود وکانت جمیعها قابلة للإصابة بدرجات
4 وحدة مکونة للمستعمرات - متفاوتة تحت ظروف البیت الزجاجی والحقل باستخدام العدوى الصناعیة بمعلق البکتریا بترکیز 10
البکتیریة لکل مل وکان الصنف دایمونت اکثر الأصناف حساسیة للإصابة أما الصنف دیزاری فهو اقلها حساسیة. کما تم عزل
البکتریا المسببة لهذا المرض من درنات البطاطا وسیقان النباتات الهوائیة والأوراق والتربة ومن میاه السقی وقد تبین أن
الدرنات الأم تعد المصدر الأهم لحدوث الإصابة ومن اعراض المرض انخفاض إنتاجیة الدرنات وظهور الأوراق المصابة
واختلاف أطوال النباتات نتیجة الإصابة بالبکتریا

Effect of Spray with Benzyladenine and Soil Texture in Growth and some Physiological Characters for Oat Plant (Avena sativa L.)

Alaa H. Ali; Hekmat M. Musaeb

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 103-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159358

This Study include cultivating of Qat (Avena sativa L.) in two different soils texture Sada wa
Baweeza soil (Silty Clay Loam) and Hamam Al-Aleal Soil (Silty Sandy Loam) with spraying the
plants with concentrations of Benzyladenine [0.0, 100,150] ppm and its effect on some growth and
physiological features of oats plant. Results were analyzed using the Complete Randomized Design
(C.R.D) as a factorial experiment, and the results showed surpass plant cultivated in clay loam soil
were in plant height, leaf area, relative water contain and plant pigments content (8.3, 20.6, 2.3,
20.3, 17.5 %) Respectively compared to the plant cultivated in the Silty Sandy Loam texture. Plants
treated with BA (100, 150 ppm) surpassed in all of measurement growth and physiological features
compared with untreated plants.

Molecular Identification of the Local Isolated Fungi Aureobasidium pullulans

Zena Al-gader; Khalid D. Ahmed; Mohammed A. Al-shakarchi; Jasem M. Abdo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 115-128
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159349

Twenty fungal isolates of Aureobasidium were isolated from many healthy leaves of
different citrus trees. Fungal isolates understudy were identified by using morphological and
cultural characters. The results revealed that the isolates are belonged to the species A .pullulans.
Molecular identification of the isolated fungi were carried out using the specific-PCR reaction. The
results showed 17 bands of purified genomic DNA from local fungal isolates of similar size ranging
(500-600)bp. These bands have the same size to that obtained from the standard strain A. pullulans
NRRL 58560. On the other hand, it did not show any band of the DNA as a result of the Specific-
PCR reaction specialize of isolates (Ap15 and Ap17 and Ap18) in the agarose gel.
The sequence of the nitrogenous bases for the Specific PCR products were determined for
three chosen local isolates. The results were analyzed using DNA Blast / NCBI program revealed
that there is a similarity higher than 95% between these sequences and those of the standard
strains of A. pullulans already recorded in the Gene Bank. Additionally, the point mutations
whether they are substitution or addition or deletion were observed in some positions of the
nitrogenous bases after comparing the sequences of the tested local isolates and the standard.
These mutations may occur spontaneously.
This analysis results sent to GenBank using the website of the NCBI and introduced in
GenBank record as standard isolates and given a cod number in the GenBank as follows: Ap1.sqn
Ap1 KX964610, Ap7.sqn Ap7: KX964611, Ap14.sqn Ap14 KX964612 This confirms the validity
of the results obtained in this study and diagnosis of the validity of the local isolates under study..

Induced of Systemic Resistance in Tomato Plant Against Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus by Bion and Riboflavin

Hameed Ali; Noor S. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159359

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of abiotic agents Bion and Riboflavin in
inducing resistance in tomato plant Geesy cultivar against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), under plastic house conditions. The experiment was included two application with induce resistance agents:
Bion & Riboflavin used by two concentration for foliar spray before and after 3,6 and 2,4 days artificial
inoculation with virus. The treatment was evaluated by using several parameters such as estimation of
percentage and severity of disease infection, serological evaluation by DAS-ELISA, estimation of
peroxidase absorbance change and some of the plant growth parameters. The best treatment was foliar
spray with Bion 1 mg/ml before 6 days of virus inoculation showed reduction in the percentage of
disease infection which was 37.1% compare with control treatment, on the other hand above treatment
was caused high inhibition activity of virus (TBSV) multiplication which was 70% as demonstrated by
ELISA absorbance values 0.296 nm compare with control treatment which inoculated with virus only
was 0.972 nm. Results also indicated that the treatment by spray Riboflavin concentration 10 mM
before (4 days) the inoculation of virus was inhibition of percentage of disease was 35%. On the other
hand the treatment was used of Riboflavin 10 mM spray gave significant increase in the activity of
peroxidase after 14 days of virus inoculation which was give 71.172 absorbance compare with control
treatment which was 28.193.).

Morphological and Molecular Diagnosis of Root Knot Nematode Species Associated with Olive Seedling and Trees in Baghdad, Babil and Karbala/ Iraq

Waref M. Hanoon; Zeinab A. Altememe; Asmaa M. Abdel rasool

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 138-150
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159350

The study was aimed to conduct a field survey to identify the Root knot nematodes species
associated with olive trees and nurseries in provinces of Baghdad /Al- Zaafaraniya, Babil /Al- Sada,
Karbala /Al-Atishi and Al-Hindiah Horticulture Center. Baghdad /Al- Zaafaraniya had the highest
percentage of disease incidence (100%) and root-knot index (3) in the field, while nurseries under
shade conditions in the same region had the least percentage of disease incidence and root-knot
index (6.6% and 0), respectively.
Two species of root-knot nematodes M. javanica and M.incognita were identified in all study
location, the perineal pattren technique was used for identification .M.incognita identification was
molecularly confirmed by the PCR to be used in all study trials.

Effect of Amcocombe and Topaz Pesticide in Fungus Causing Contract Failure and Syphilis of Pumpkin Plant

Nidal Y. Al-Murad; Selda M. Baker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 151-161
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159360

In this study isolation from squash flowers which showed blossom end rot and male flowers
during fall and spring seasons showed the appearance of the following fungi Alternaria alternata,
Choanephora cucurbitarum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium
sporotrichioides. A. alternata record the highest isolate percentage 30.86% , 32.82% in fall and
spring respectively, followed by F. proliferatum which only isolated from male flowers during fallseasons in addition to F. culmorum, F. sporotrichioides The results also showed that Amkucombe
caused significant inhibition in fungi dry weight ,the highest inhibition was in F. sporotrichioides
where percentage was 91.66 followed by F. culmorum with 50%. Amkucombe also discourage
significantly mycelium growth of F. proliferatum. lowest inhibition percentage in mycelium growth
was recorded with A. alternata 4.83%, Treatment with fungicide Topaz caused significant reducing
to blossom end rot where inhibition percentage was 46.49% Amkucombe also caused significant
increasing on squash fruit number/ plant 11.55 and wet weight.أوضحت نتائج الدراسة ان العزل من الازهار المصابة بفشل العقد وتعفن الطرف الزهری والازهار الذکریة للموسمین
Alternaria alternata, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Fusarium الخریفی والربیعی أدى الى ظهور الفطریات
ومن نتائج نسبة العزل سجل الفطر culmorum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides
32.82 % للموسمین الخریفی والربیعی على التوالی وتلاها الفطر ، % اعلى نسبة عزل بمقدار 30.86 A.alternata
وتکرر عزله من الازهار الذکریة للموسمین الخریفی ولم یسجل ضمن الفطریات الموسم الربیعی تلاهما F.proliferatum
وتبین النتائج ان مستحضر امکوکومبی أدى الى تثبیط معنوی فی الوزن F.culmorum, F.sporotrichioides الفطرین
اذا بلغت النسبة المئویة للتثبیط 91.66 F. sporotrichioides الجاف للفطریات الممرضة وکان اشدها تثبیطا معنویا للفطر
وبنسبة تثبیط 50 % وادى مستحضر امکوکومبی أیضا الى تثبیط معنوی فی نمو الغزل الفطری F. culmorum تلاه الفطر
83 %، ویعد تأثیر المعاملة بالمبید توباز افضل . اذ بلغ 4 A. alternata وسجل أدنى تثبیط للفطر F.proliferatum للفطر
المعاملات فی خفض فشل العقد فی القرع وبفارق معنوی عن معاملة المقارنة الإیجابیة إذ بلغت نسبة الخفض 46.49 % ومن
دراسة تأثیر امکوکومبی فی الوزن الرطب للثمار فقد تفوق معنویا مع جمیع الفطریات وأیضا أدى الى زیادة عدد الثمار اذ بلغ
عددها 11.55 ثمرة لکل نبات

First Record of Fusarium poae, Wheat Root Rot Fungus in the North of Iraq

Ali K. AL-Taee; Zardasht A. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 162-168
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159351

The Results of field survey conducted in Ninevah and Erbil governorates to assess the
distribution of root rot disease in wheat have shown variability in infection levels. In Ninevah; the
highest infestation of %27.5 was reported from Bashika, and lowest of %16.9 from Hamdaniyeh,
and in Erbil;the highest infestation of %25.8 was reported in Grdy Mawan and lowest of %21.5
was in Khalwan. Isolates from root rot infected wheat plants shown the appearance of Bipolaris
sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shomaker, Fusarium graminearium (Schwabe ), F. culmorum (Wm. G. Smith )
Sacc and and F.poae (Schwabe ) as first found and recorded on wheat in Iraq, the fungus B.
sorokiniana recorded the highest isolation rate of %54.1 in Tallafar and lowest rate of %37.1 in
Qapakian, followed by F.culmorum which recorded a range of isolation between % 22.1 and
%25.4. Identification of isolated fungi were confirmed by conducting Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR) molecular test using 2 specific primers FP82F and FP82R. The expected PCR product (220
bp) obtained from a specific molecular marker (FP82), confirmed that they belong to fungus F.
Poae. However, this is the first molecular study indicates clearly the presence of F. Poae in Iraq.

Separation and Identification of some Phenolic Compounds and Maleic Acid from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Study its Effect on the some Types of Pathogenic Bacteria

Fatimah I. Sultan; Ayad Ch. Khorsheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 169-180
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159361

Separated of some free phenolic compounds from flowers of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. by
column chromatography (CC). So, the acid hydrolysis was carried out for acetonic, ethanolic and
ethanolic fraction for them and the ethanolic-acetonic fraction for aqueous extract, the results of
chromatographic identification were appeared by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
(HPLC) that all separated parts of Rosella contained on P-hydroxybenzoic acid, also H3b and H4F2b
contained of thymol as well as of the presence of vanillic acid in H3b, so cinnamic acid also was
appeared, and coumarin compound in H3F2b were appeared, and thymol in H5F2b, as well as the
identification of Maleic acid in all fractions H3b, H3F2b. The crude extracts and which contained on
free isolate phenolic compounds were showed various inhibitory effect against of some bacteria
under study, using disc diffusion method compare with some antibiotic standard.

Identification of Vinblastine and Vincristine in Callus of Catharanthus roseus L. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Apparatus

Aysar M. Almemary; Bashar Z. Kassab Bashi; Ayad C. Aldaoody

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159376

Parts of leaves, nodal explant, and internodes of Catharanthus roseus were cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with 30 gm / L sucrose, 6 mg / L agar with addition BA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 mg/ L with 0.75 mg /L 2,4-D for callus initiation and growth. Vinblastine and Vincristine were identified in these calli by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.(HPLC). Data refers: highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 1.907 gm, 14.47% were achieved respectively from cultured parts of leaves on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D. cultured nodal explant on MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/ L 2, 4-D produced highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 0.496 gm, 9.15% respectively, culture internodes explant on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D produced highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 0.717 gm, 11.90 % respectively. The callus produced from cultured parts of leave on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D gave highest absorption value for Vinblastine at retention time (13.536) with detected area (255647). highest detected area was (975021) at retention time (18.886) for Vincristine assessed from callus produced from cultured parts of leave on MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D, callus produced from cultured nodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D gave highest detected area for Vinblastine (318395) at retention time (12.809) but culture nodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D gave highest detected area (577979) for Vincristine at retention time (18.139), callus produced from cultured internodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D gave highest absorption value for Vinblastine and Vincristine (1892650) and (964402) at retention time (13.632) (18.309) respectively..

Detection of some Alkaloids and Fatty Acids to Plant and Callus of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L . )

Mira A. Al – Katib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 77-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32381

The study results showed that the best supporter media for callus induction from local purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) stems and leaves sterile explants , those MS media(Murashige and Skoog medium) supporting with hormone regulators BA(Benzyl adenine), NAA(Naphthalene Acetic Acid) in concentrations 1.0 , 2.0 , 4.0 , mg/L from each of them as well as MS medium containing BA : NAA in 2:1 mg/L respectively , and the callus was inculcation during 15-20 day . The result of separating alkaloids from callus of stems and leaves and shoots of plant showed in Infrared Spectrophotometer technique (IR) separating of Oleracein B and Oleracein D that degree in purity and the best of it appear in stems callus extract . when Thin Layer Chromatography Technique (TLC) was made for extracted alkaloids , Rate of Flow (Rf) values appeared very comparatively to these samples (0.77, 0.82, 0.80) to each of stems callus alkaloid, leaves callus alkaloid and plant alkaloid respectively , then retention time record for it , and main band recognized in plant alkaloid at 4.755 min , also 4.646 min and 4.657 min in stems callus alkaloid and leaves callus alkaloid respectively by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique , that result prove of Oleraceins (B, D) occurrences in samples of purslane . The fatty acids which occur in purslane plant , calli of stems and leaves are detect by using Capillary Gas Chromategraph (CGC) technique , the plant extract showed 12 fatty acids in it , but in low concentration compared with that appear in leaves callus extract for most fatty acids especially omega – 3 fatty acid (C18: 3) , when the stems callus extract record the lower ratio of fatty acid occurrences that it was 3 fatty acids only (C16: 0 , C16: 1, C18: 1).

Restriction the Spread of Viruses Caused Mosaic on Squash Plants by Using Several Field Control Methods and Studying their Effect on Chlorophyll

Naseer K. Al–Biadani; Nabeel A. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 21-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37422

The study showed the effect of some agricultural methods in reducing the incidence of mosaic symptoms on squash plants by using mineral oil (Sunoco) at conc. 2.5% at 15 days interval by spraying the leaves, this treatment was the best one because it decreased the disease incidence to 24.6% compared with 54% in control. Also using yellow water traps and aluminum stripes to attract aphids, reduced disease incidence to 28.6 and 13.3% respectively.
The diagnostic study which conducted by using indicator plants and antisera, detected three viruses which cause mosaic symptoms: Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic Potyvirus (WMV–2). The results showed that these symptoms reduced chlorophyll content to 47.5%.

Effect of Different Amino Acids as Nitrogen Sources on Polysaccharide Production ( Pullulan ) By Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 42023

Shimal y. Abdul- Hadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 97-103
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41417

The effect of different amino acids as nitrogen sources in a basal synthetic medium on the production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 42023 was investigated. The results showed that glycine was the best nitrogen source among anthor amino acids tested in stimulating pullulan production . Maximum production of pullulan (21.16) g/L was obtained when basal synthetic supplements with 0.05% glycin as a nitrogen source.

Inhibitory Effect of Lowsonia inermis Leaves on Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Different Cutaneous Infections

bdul Razak K. Mahmood; Rwaa Hamoshi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41395

The study included the isolation and identification of Staph. aureus from different cutaneous infections in the emergency unit, and out patients of dermatology clinic both within the Mosul Medical City. (247) samples were collected, (155) of them were of
Staph. aureus at a ratio of (62.7%). The highest rate Staphylococcal infection ( 76.1%) was isolated from impetigo while the lowest rate ( 37.5%) was isolated from infected wounds. The inhibitory effect alcoholic and aqueous, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and acetone of Lowsonia Inermis leaves against the isolates of Staph. aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) determined for these extracts.
The results indicated that the acetone extract showed the best effect on bacteria and the MIC was (0.5 mg/cm3) and the MBC equal to (1.0mg/ cm3) against the tested bacteria. The MIC and MBC differs according to the type extract and the region of isolation .
The Acetone extract was chosen to test its effect in vivo , this extract showed good results in treating the experimental wounds which were artificially infected with Staph. aureus using the Albino rabbit as experimental model for maximum period of twenty days .

The Effect of Eucalyptus and Orange Leaves Added to the Soil on Germination and Growth of Four Ornamental Plants

Janan Saeed; Fatin K. Ibraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 15-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42305

The experiment was conducted on green house to investigate the addition effect of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L.) and Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) on seed germination and growth of four species of the ornamental plants ( Dimorphothica aurantiaca L., Chrysanthemum carinatum L., Calendula officialis L. and Gaillardia pulchella L.).
The results showed that the effects of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus and Orange which added to the soil (Separately) caused the reduction in the percentage of seed germination of the plants. As for growth a decrease in plants planted in soils containing fresh Eucalyptus leaves, while an increase in plants planted in soils containing Orange leaves.
The results also showed different in the responses of the ornamental plants species to the allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus and Orange leaves added to the soil, it appeared that Dimorphothica aurantiaca L. and Chrysanthemum carinatum L. were more sensitive to the allelopathic effect for these trees, while Calendula officialis L. and Gaillardia pulchella L. were less sensitive for these trees.

Effect of BA and 2,4 – D on growth of nodes of Melissa officinalis L. in vitro

Rehab A. AL – Baker; Hana S. Al – Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 133-143
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42516

Melissa officinalis L. has been used for in vitro culture to study the effect of ethanol,sodium hypochlorite and Mercury Chloride ( with different concentrations ) on the viability of explant , controlling contamination and effect of addition 10 -3 , 10-5 , 10-7 molar BA and 2,4 – D to MS medium , each was added to the culture medium alone or with interaction between them. The results showed that using Mercury Chloride as sterilant at 0.025 g/100ml for 1.5 min was the most effective , also the results showed that addition of BA and 2,4 – D to MS medium at different concentrations , affect variably the response of explants to initiate callus or to regenerate shoots , which was noticed at 25 and 50 days after culture . It was shown that 10-3 and 10 -5 Molar of both BA and 2,4–D causes death of explants after 25 days of culture . Addition of 10 -7 Molar of 2,4–D to the culture medium alone or with 10-7 Molar BA was effective in stimulating the explants to regenerate shoots with wellgrown leaves , shoots reached to 3.7 and 3.9 cm respectively represented by the mean of length, number of leaves grown were 9.0 on both treatments , It was observed that explants grown on medium with 10-7 and 10-5 Molar of 2,4 – D and BA respectively were able to regenerate few roots after 50 days of culture . The optimum treatment for callus production was 10-5 Molar of 2,4 – D .

Numerical Taxonomy for Genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) in North of Iraq

Zeravan A. S; Saleem I. Shahbaz; Amer M. AL Maa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42626

The present research included numerical taxonomy for the genus Crataegus L. which is growing in Iraq and represented by the following five taxa namely: (Crataeques azarolus var. aronia, C.azarolus var. pontica, C. azarolus var. sharania , C. monogyna and C. meyeri) by using morphological, pollen grains and Chromosomal number features.
The results showed that the similarity range among the species was 30-68% and the highest Similarity was 68% found between the C. azarolus var. aronia and C. azarolus var. sharania.
In dendrogram the taxa meet at (51%) level of similarity, indicating awide range of Variation among the taxa of this genus.

The Effect of Mepiquat Chloride (Pix) and Soil Moisture on Growth and Yield of Two Cultivars Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Mohammed S. Faysal; Alaa H. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 169-184
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44342

The study has been done in the greenhouse. It investigated the effect of two cultivars of wheat (Al-Iz and Eratom) shoots spraying with three concentrations of growth retardants (zero,500,100 ppm)during tillering stage under three levels of soil moisture (25,50,75% field capacity )on some physiological characteristics, and yield. The experiment have been designed on the basis that it is factorial experiment and over completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the results obtained showed: growth retardants highly effective in reducing plant height, length of base interned and leaf area. The treatment of growth retardants reduced negative effect of soil moisture levels (25,50,75%) on (relative water content, chlorophyll, proline)and increasing appeared in the number of grains in spike which reflected in increasing of grains yield. on the other hand Al-Iz cultivar showed agood results in some of the important characteristics (relative water content, chlorophyll, number of grains /spike).

Effect of Thyme Leaves Extracts in Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Level and other Parameters in Local Male Rabbits

Muna H. Janker; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan; Saeb Y. Abdul

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 237-244
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44353

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of boiled extract of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on blood glucose and cholesterol level, and some blood parameters and body weight in local male rabbits (3-4 months old). Rabbits were divided into 2 groups (6 rabbits each). The first group received orally the boiled extract of thyme at a dose of 100 mg L Kg B. wt daily for 28 days. The second group was treated with distilled water (control group). The results revealed a significant reduction in blood glucose and cholesterol level, total leukocyte and erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration. The results also showed a significant increase in body weight and an improvement in relative growth rate of treated animals as compared with the control group.

Effect of Interaction Between Growth Regulators and Sulfanilamide on Stem Parts Callus Initiation and Suspension Culture of Almond Plants

Amjad A. Mohammad; Mutallib S. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 15-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44008

Callus growth was affected by the types and concentration of growth regulators used. The best medium sustained callus growth was MS medium supplemented with 10-4 molar NAA and 10-5 molar BA. The callus fresh weight in such medium reached about 3.73 gm after 60 days of subculture as compared with other medium used.
The growth of the cultures was affected by the type and concentration of growth regulator used as well as the sulfainlamide added. The best medium sustained suspension cultures growth was MS containing 10-8 molar NAA and 10-8 molar BA with cell density reaching about (53.5x105 Cell/Cm3) after 7 days of incubation. Callus initiation was about (%50.2) from the cells embedded in agar as compared with %80.31 by the addition 100 M sulfanilamide to MS medium containing 10-4 molar BA.

Asystematic study of the genus Rhus L. (Anacardiaceae)in Iraq

Amer M.M.AL-Maa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 100-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44048

The present study includes asystematic study of the genus Rhus L. that represented in Iraq by one species namely R. coriaria L. Which growth widley and cultivated near the villages in the north of Iraq . Macro and micro characteristics of plant, pollen grain, and anatomical characters of epidermis, venation, wood and indumentum were studied. According to the information of survey field and some herbarium specimens are utilized to elucidate the ecology and distribution of the species belong to the genus.

Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments of the Euphrates Formation Between Fuhaimi and Al-Qaim Valleys, in Western Desert-Iraq

Kotayba Al-Youzbaki; Salim Q. Al-Naqib; Abdul–Aziz M. Al-Hammdani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 44-45
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41394

The study involves the Euphrates Formation in the area between Fuhaimi and Al-Qaim valleys in the western desert of Iraq. The Formation was divided into six informal units depending on various lithological properties. Facies analysis reveals the presence of the following microfacies, from bottom to top respectively; pelletal lime packstone, pellitoidal lime grainstone, oolitic lime grainstone, benthonic lime packstone and dolomitized lime mudstone microfacies. These microfacies, in addition to some geochemical properties were used to interpret the depositional environments, which are ranging from shelf, low water energy restricted and lagoonal environment to relatively high water energy open marine.