Main Subjects : Biology


Specialized High-Quality 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Databases for Identification of Bacterial Taxonomic Groups: a review

Talal Sabhan Salih; Hiba K. Saeed; Mohammed A. Ibraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 40-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168341

        Recent accumulation of the bacterial 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences in the public GenBank databases obtained from the wide use of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) applications has led the specialists in the fields of microbiology and bioinformatics to provide specific and reliable databases for storing, retrieving and aligning bacterial ribosomal gene sequences. In our review, we have provided a comprehensive description of gene databases with an emphasis on the most specialized and high quality rRNA gene databases. These databases are freely accessible and widely used for all specialist users for accurate bacterial genera and species identification from different sources. rRNA genes, platforms, internet addresses and references of each gene specialized database were outlined. The Silva, EzTaxon-e and BIBI have been shown to be the most confident and reliable specialized rRNA gene databases. These databases contain the semi fully high-quality ribosomal gene sequences along with some              house-keeping and uncultured gene sequences in case of EzTaxon-e.   

Comparison of Three Biofilm Detection Methods in Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Species

Ahmed Al-Jubory; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168342

This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the ability of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) for the detection of biofilms, which are considered as the main virulence factor in their pathogenicity. Three methods were used for this purpose, the tube method, congo red agar and tissue culture plate method. Thirty-seven isolates of the following bacteria were tested, which includes Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus and S. sciuri.The results of the tube method showed that most isolates (64.5%) gave a moderate positive result, (32.3%) was weak positive and six isolates showed no ability to form biofilm, the congo red method showed that, the majority of isolates were a moderate positive result (89.3%) and nine isolates were negative for biofilm formation. As for the tissue culture plate method, the results ranged between (62.9%) a moderate positive and (31.4%) a weak positive, while only two isolates could not form biofilm. When comparing the efficiency of the three methods in detecting the ability of CoNS isolates to form biofilm, it was found that tissue culture plate method was the most efficient (94.6%), followed by the tube method (83.8%), and the congo red (75.7%).

In Vitro Propagation of Petunia hybrida Plant

Amina Ameen Ahmed; Bashar Zaki Kassab Bashi; Aysar M. Almemary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 16-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168343

This study was carried out in the laboratory of cells and plant tissue culture at Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, to propagate Petunia hybrida cv. “grandiflora doppia miscuglio” in vitro through multiplication of shoot tips and nodes produced from axenic seedling by culturing them on MS medium supplemented with (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg/l BA. Shoot produced from multiplication stage were cultured on MS medium containing (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) mg/l IBA. In addition, this study included culturing leaf explants and petioles on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0) mg/l BA and NAA (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) mg/l. The results indicated that highest shoots number 9.3 shoots/explants with 3.0 cm length were obtained from culturing shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BA as compared to nodes which gave 10.2 shoots/explants with 2.9 cm length when cultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l BA after eight weeks. Highest rooting percentage 100% with highest roots number 12.4 were obtained from shoot tips that produced during multiplication stage on MS medium containing 0.25 mg/l IBA after four weeks. Highest fresh weight of callus was obtained from culturing leaf explants and petioles on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l NAA which reached to 1.237gm. and 1.346 gm. respectively. Leaf explants that cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA produced shoots with percent of 10% while highest percentage of shoots production 20% with 1.0 shoot/explant were achieved from differentiation of petiole callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l NAA after 8 weeks. All plantlets produced from these experiments were acclimatized and transferred to field successfully.

Allelopathic Effect of Residues Medicago sativa L. in Mineral Content and Antioxidant Enzymes of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on Growing under Different Levels of Field Capacity

Mohammed S. Faysial; Ibrahim O. Saied; Ahmed J. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168344

This study was conducted inside the wire house of the Department of Biology/ College of Education for Pure Science/ Mosul University for the agricultural season 2018- 2019 to test the effect of vegetative and root residues of Medicago satival on the chemical content and antioxidant enzyme fenugreek plant Trigonella foenum- graecum L. (Iraq and Indian) growth under three different levels of field capacity (25, 50 and 75%). The experiment was designed as a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD). The result showed that the addition of vegetative residues of caused an increase the concentration of enzymes peroxidase, catalase, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to the root residues and the control treatment (without residues) while the filed capacity 75%, exceeded compared to the field capacity 25 and 50% in concentration of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium with the exception of nitrogen concentration, peroxidase and catalase. On the other hand, Indian cultivar was superior compared to cultivar Indian in most studied traits. Antioxidant enzyme.
 
 

The Pandemic of COVID-19: Current Scheme of Iraq (24 February- 8 August 2020)

saad taha mutlk; Ban O. Abdulsattar; Ian M. Jones

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 11-17
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167678

 Late in December 2019, the Wuhan City of China faced an outbreak of the unknown etiological agent of COVID-19, which spread rapidly in China and then worldwide to include 188 countries or regions of Africa, Oceania, Australia, Europe, America and Asia including Iraq. There are 31,132,906 of infected people over the world and 962,008 of global death, whereas the infection numbers increase rapidly. Several methods have been considered worldwide in order to control COVID-19. In spite of limited resources in Iraq. The Iraqi government has also taken demanding measures includes safety guides during Ramadan in the context of Covid-19. In addition, several strategies are used for that purpose such as designed particular hospitals, laboratories for testing, quarantine facilities, and movement restrictions to control viral spread all over the country. This review highlights the efforts of the Iraqi government to contain this deadly pneumonia inside it as well as travellers from Turkey, Iran and other neighbour countries.

Antiphosphatidyl Serine as Diagnostic Indicators for Detection of Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Aborted Women

Raqa& Alubaidi; Adeeba Younis Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 46-53
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167685

This study included 90 blood samples. 80 of which were collected from women who had undergone spontaneous or recurrent miscarriage and 10 were collected from women with a normal pregnancy as control samples. Serum was prepared from these samples for use in investigating antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies, the results of the study showed that 21 samples give a positive result for the presence of antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies, the concentration rate in these positive cases was 14.6±1.4 RU/ml in the patient group, control group did not show positive cases, the concentration rate of these antibodies reached 7.9±2.0 RU/ml in the control group and the presence of these antibodies increased in the group of patient who had suffered from three or more miscarriages and their number was 15 cases ,while the remaining 6 positive samples was belong to group of women suffered from two abortion and the average concentration of anti-phosphatidyl serine antibodies in this group of patient was 15.1±2.1 RU/ml, and there was no positive result in the group of women had underwent one miscarriage .

The Ability of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Minced Meat to Adhere and form Biofilm on the Aluminum and Stainless-Steel Surfaces

alaa hussein almola

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167681

The research included isolation and diagnosis of 19 bacterial isolate from 10 samples (minced meat and meat mincer), as 15 isolates belonging to the Micrococcaceae were diagnosed including 8 Staphylococcus spp. Isolates depending on the phenotypic properties and biochemical test, and in order to investigate the bacterial ability of the Micrococcaceae family to the formation of biofilms, two methods are used, the tube method and the Congo red agar method, as the results showed that all of the 15 isolates possess the ability to form biofilms as 100% depending on The tube method compared to the results of the Congo red agar test, which gave 13 positive result of 15 isolates in ratio 86.6% of the Micrococceae family. The highest rate of biofilm formation attributed to the Staphylococcus spp. which it gives 8 positive result for both tests as 100%. When comparing the adhesiveness of Staphylococcus spp. on the surface of the aluminum and stainless steel coupons as the materials used in the manufacture of meat mincers, our results showed that the adhesion and formation of biofilms were high on the surface of the aluminum coupons compared to the stainless steel coupons in the turbidity test using sonication and when investigating the total number of bacteria attached to the aluminum and steel coupons after exposing them to sonication, it was found that the number of units forming colonies CFU / cm2 for the aluminum coupons is 97 × 106, while it was found that CFU / cm2 of stainless steel coupons is 172 x 105, which enhances the turbidity comparison results.

Initiation Callus Cultures from the Seedlings of Silybum Marianum and Estimate their Protein Content

Sabah Abdullah Al-Badrani; Rehab ِA. AL-Baker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 21-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167683

The present research investigates the best Method for sterilization the Silybum marianum Plant seeds for getting best seedlings and the roles of plant growth regulators the (BA) Benzyl adenine and (2,4-D) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, as well the type of the explants of the seedlings to induce and grow callus. In addition, determined the callus viability and its protein content. The results showed the best treatment seeds is to soak them with water for (24) hours and then with Ethanol 70% for (3) minutes, immerse them with Sodium hypochlorite) NaOCl) 2.5% for (10) minutes, and with 0.1% Tween 20 for (10) minutes. The explants of seedlings (roots, leaves, shoots, nodes) have been cultured on solid MS medium contain different concentrations (0.1,0.5,1.0,1.0) mg/L of BA and (0.25,0.5,0.5,1.0) mg/ L of 2,4-D. The medium which supplemented with (1) mg/l of (BA) and (2,4-D) had succeeded to induction of calls growth, which produce (2.4,3.1,4.1) gm. fresh weight respectively. The results showed that roots and nodes have more response than others to initiate and induce callus. The viability of callus showed a noticeable increase in age (80) day to reach (87%) for roots, leaves, and nodes callus. The callus of roots showed best increase in viability which reaches (95%) in (120) day. The results explained variation in protein level in callus culture with different in callus source and age, it reaches the highest level in nodes callus, and in (80, 120) days was the highest level of protein where in roots callus.

The Protective Effect of Ficus Carica Leaves Extract on some Fertility Parameters in Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Treated with Paracetamol Drug

Noori Taha Khalaf; Waad S. Shaher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 11-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167682

This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of leaves extract of Ficus carica on some fertility parameters in white rats Rattus norvegicus.
 In this study used (40) male rats (2.5-3) month, weights ranged (200-250) g were divided into (4) groups (10) rat/group. The first group (control group), the second group (paracetamol group), the third group (extract group), the fourth group (extract + paracetamol group). All treatments were given doses every other day for (6) weeks.
 Results showed a significant decreased (P<0.05) in testosterone levels in paracetamol group after the third and sixth weeks of treatment as a compare with control group. While the testosterone level for extract group don’t changed after the third week, but the hormone level increased after sixth week of treatment to exceed the hormone level of the control group. While the (extract + paracetamol) group showed a decrease in testosterone level after the third week, then the hormone level increased to close level of (extract group) after the sixth week of treatment.
 The result revealed a significant decrease in the total sperms count and the percentage of the living sperms at (P<0.05) and increased the percentage of dead and abnormalities sperms of the paracetamol group as a compare with control group, the results showed no significant changes in the total sperms count (P<0.05) of the (extract + paracetamol) group, whereas found a significant change in percentage of living and dead sperms, there were no significant change in abnormalities sperms between the extract group and (extract + paracetamol) group.

Synergistic Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Erythromycin on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Different Infections

Reyam Th. Ghazi; Essra Ghanim Alsammak

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 54-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167686

One hundred and Twenty (120) samples were collected from various pathogenic sources (wounds, abscesses, urinary tract infections and blood samples) for the period from September 2019 to December 2019 from Al Salam and Al-KhansaHospitals and the Public Health Laboratory in Mosul city.
Samples were cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar medium; 105 samples showed a positive result. 50 isolates fermented mannitol sugar, at a rate of 47.6% depending on the phenotypic characteristics and production of Coagulase, 14 isolates were identified, at a rate of 13.3%, belonging to Staphylococcus  aureus the diagnosis were confirmed using VITEK system. The highest isolation rate from wounds was 57%, then abscesses 21%, blood samples 14%, and urinary tract infections 7%. The sensitivity of the isolates was tested for 16 antibiotics, the isolates showed variation in their resistance to antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed high resistance at 92.8% to Oxacillin, with a resistance rate of 85.7% for Erythromycin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Erythromycin was determined and ranged between (1250-5000) mg / cm3. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO nanoparticles was determined at different sizes (30,20, 50-150) nm and ranged between (5000-10000) mg / cm3 for all isolates. The results of the study showed a synergistic effect of Erythromycin with zinc nanoparticles and with good efficacy by inhibiting the bacterial growth of antibiotic-resistant strains as the MIC value of Erythromycin decreased from (1250-5000) mg / cm3 to (19.5-156.25) mg / cm3 when mixed with ZnO nanoparticles are 20 nm. Meanwhile, the MIC value of ZnO nanoparticles decreased from (30,20, 50-150) nm from (5000-10000) mg / cm3 to (78.125-312.5) mg / cm3 when mixed with Erythromycin.
 

The Effect of Biological Control Agents on Fungi Isolated from some Citrus Trees in Mosul

Maha M. Taha Al-Nuaimy; Faten N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 68-77
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167687

In this study, the counter effect of two Biological Control Agents, namely Trichoderma harzianum fungi and Bcillus subtilis bacteria against the fungi-like organism Phytophthora infestans and the fungi; Fosarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani isolated from orange- trees’ bark and from lemon- trees’ roots. The results showed that the counter effect of T. harzianum (using double culture on petri dishes) reached 1.0 according to Bell scale, against all these pathogens. The counter effect of this antibiotic was also tested in vitro on branches taken from citrus trees and infected with Phytophthora infestans. The infection percentagesbefore treatment with T. harzianum were 75% and 58.3% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively, whereas after treatment with the inhibition fungi, the percentages of infection were 25% and 16.6% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively. The percentages of inhibition by Bacillus subtilis bacteria were 83%, 71% and 73% against Phytophthora infestans , Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani respectively
 
 

Overview on Epidemiology of Leishmaniasis in Iraq

Haitham L. Al-Hayali; Muntaha alkattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 28-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167680

  Leishmaniasis continues to be a significant public health issue and socioeconomic obstacle in Iraq. The various species of leishmania are transmitted by the bite of sandflies belonging to genus phlebtomus, where high temperatures might prolong the breeding season for this fly species. The current review proved that the infection in the southern regions of Iraq is more than in the northern regions.
 The incidence of leishmaniasis has increased and expanded to most Iraqi governorates, the reason may be due to the population growth, urbanization, pronounced poverty and lack of public health awareness. Furthermore, leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease with a rodent, cats and dog’s reservoir that poses a problem to human health. Leishmaniasis has spread in Iraq from the 1950s until now, additionally, wars forced migration of Iraqi people from their province to other places. All these have encouraged an increase in the infected rate with leishmaniasis in areas previously uninfected.

Oviposition Deterrent and Repellent from Bites Activities of some Essential Oils against Culex pipiens molestus Forskal

Muneef Abed Mustafa; Aseel H. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 38-45
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167684

This study aimed to test the oviposition deterrent effect and repellent from bites for five essential oils (Hyacinthus orientalis L., Cinnamomum camphora L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Laurus nobilis L.and Ruta graveolens L.) at four concentrations (200, 100, 50, 25 ppm) against the female of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Results indicated that essential oils of all plants showed oviposition deterrent, the essential oils of H. orientalis, C.camphora and R.officinalis caused 100% deterrent at concentrations (200 and 100 ppm ), but oil of R. graveolens caused low deterrent to the female. Where the rate of deterrent reached 74% at concentration 200 ppm. The essential oils of plants showed repellent bites of female, H.orientalis caused the best protection period so reached (160.0 ± 20.4 ) minute, followed  C. camphora , R. officinalis, L. nobilis and R. graveolens, where caused protection period (130 ± 14.0 , 90 ±16.4 , 70 ± 15.3  ,50 ± 19.2 ) minute respectively.

Toxoplasma gondii: Model Manipulating by the Host Behaviour

Musafer AlArdi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 18-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167679

Toxoplasma gondii isan obligate intracellular parasite. Its life cycle includes two hosts, intermediate host (Mice, Rats, Birds, and Mammalians) and definitive host (feline family) which may be intermediate host, also. Toxoplasma infection exhibited variable consequences ranging from aborted to hard infections, in addition to modifications cytokines, change gene expression, and behaviour alterations.
 Alteration of behaviour mechanism includes stimulating a special immune response, a change in the rate of concentration of many neurotransmitters, and a change in the concentration of some important hormones, in addition to many genetic modifications.
          Many researches have established the association between Toxoplasma infection and various behaviour of the intermediate host. On the other hand, many studies regret the presence of such a relationship. Comparing the results of both studies, it can be said that the parasite infection has a ‎clear role in the emergence of many behavior disorders that may sometimes reach ‎schizophrenia, where the interaction of the parasite presence with the strength of the ‎immune response and the effect of it on the concentration of neurotransmitters and ‎some other hormones have confirmed their occurrence as confirmed the occurrence of ‎pathological effect.‎

The Effect of Diode Laser on Growth of some Gram-Negative Bacteria

Mohammad Tarish; Ghada Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167313

The Laser is distinguished of it’s the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacterial cells and spores, the effect of laser with (650 nm wavelength and a capacity of 50 mw/cmand a distance of 10 cm) were studied on the growth of four species of gram-negative bacteria: Shigella spp., Entereobacter cloacae,  Morganella morganii, and  Entereobacter hormaechei, All of them isolated from an eradicated gallbladder were diagnosed with conventional methods. After isolation and identification, the bacterial suspensions were prepared separately for each bacterium understudy, then were exposure to the laser beam for a period of (0,2,5) minutes, respectively, after that 0.1 ml of bacterial suspension for timings (0,2,5) min. were transported to the Muller-Hinton agar with triplicate.
After incubation, the results showed a clear decrease in the number of developing colonies, and the intensity of the killing was associated with direct relationship with increasing the time of exposure. The results also showed a variation in the bacterial sensitivity under study to killing by laser, Where the isolate E.cloacae recorded decreasing  in the number of its colonies from 144 before exposure to 80 and 28 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with a killing percentage of 45% and 81% respectively, E.hormaechei isolates also recorded decreasing in the number of its colonies from109 before exposure to 62 and 25 colonies, with a killing percentage reaching 43% and 77% respectively after (2 and 5) of exposure, as well as the number of Shigella spp colonies decreased from 180 before exposure to 134 and 97 colonies  with a killing percentage of 26% and 64% after (2 and 5) exposure respectively, in addition, M.morganii isolates witnessed decreasing in the number of its developing colonies after exposure to the laser beam from 233 colonies before exposure to 148 and 120 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with percentage of killing reaching 37% and 48% respectively.

Role of the Hairy Roots as A Biological Agent in Phytoremediation

Amjad A. Mohammed; Owayes M. Hamed; Raed S. Alsaffar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167310

Pollution is a growing undertaking for humans around the globe which affects in which affects both developed and growing towns (Suresh and Ravishankar, 2004). All herbal methods that make contributions to economic pollution are typically categorized as natural contaminants (Sosa Alderete et al., 2009). These are the human final products which include:  navy explosives, agriculture, oil products, gasoline manufacturing and wood results                            (Pilon-Smits, 2005). Subsequently, the natural activities can additionally sell the discharge of heavy metals as nickel, molybdenum, lead, copper, zinc and mercury to the environment which are harmful to human health (Nedelkoska and Doran, 2000).                              The whole surroundings are constantly being contaminated from pollutants which is unsafe for human fitness (Suza et al., 2008 ; Rezek et al., 2012).
The cost of cleansing up infected sites is high therefore using vegetation to extract, stabilize and degrade contaminants, all of them called as phytoremediation, is giving reputation as an extra cost-powerful opportunity to different strategies of cleanup                            (Kuiper et al., 2004).
 

Detection of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in some Pathogenic Samples and Medical Devices and Determining Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

Ahmed A. Hammadi; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167312

This study was conducted to detection of bacterial types belonged to (CoNS) group from pathogenic sources and medical devices and studying the pattern of their resistance to different antibiotics. 120 samples (pathogenic samples, surgical instruments and tools) were collected from some hospitals in Mosul city for the period from August 2019 until January 2020, Various diagnostic methods were used, which included phenotypic methods (Cultural, microscopic and biochemical) and the use of the Api Staph system, and Vitek system. The sensitivity of the isolated bacteria to (12) antibiotics was tested.
 The CoNS bacterium group was isolated from all studied sources and (37) isolates were obtained, at a rate of (52.8%) of the total staphylococci, and it prevailed on Staphylococcus aureus in many cases, and the isolated species included Staphylococcus epidermidis (12 isolates 32.4%) followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (8 isolates 21.6%), then Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis (6 isolates 16.2%) for each of them, then Staphylococcus lentus (3 isolates 8.1%) Finally, Staphylococcus sciuri (2 isolates 5.4%).
 Antibiotic sensitivity results of CoNS isolates showed high resistance to Tetracyclin 89.1% (%), Penicillin (86.4%), Erythromycin 81%), and Oxacillin 78.3%), respectively, and in lower percentage to the rest of the studied antibiotics. Isolates are absolutely sensitive (100%) to the Vancomycin and high sensitivity for Ofloxacin (89.1%) and Novobiocin (72.9%). These results confirm the prevalence of different bacteria belonging to the CoNS group in the various pathogenic sources, and their health importance and severity associated with their high resistance to antibiotics.

Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Extracted from Enterobacter cloacae on some Pathogenic Bacteria

Rawaa Ahmed AL Aswad; Hiyam Adel Altaii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167308

A 106 different specimen were collected to isolate and diagnose some gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, as it was performed for the period from 15 August to 30 November 2019 from AL-Salam and Al-Khansaa educational hospitals in Mosul. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted from Enterobacter cloacae by using the Methanol - Chloroform method. extract was diagnosed, using some biochemical tests such as the Molisch test to detect carbohydrate content and Folin reagent in order to determine proteins concentration, lipid solubility in organic solvent and Bio drop technique as well as to detect nucleic acid concentration. The extraction methods showed its efficiency with low protein and nucleic acids concentration in the extract. Lipopolysaccharide demonstrated its efficiency inhibiting microbial growth on all test isolates at concentrations 1100, 1000 µg\ ml while its lipopolysaccharide showed its inhibition of Proteus mirabilis at all concentrations used. LPS showed possibility used as inhibitory, antimicrobial growth

Pathological Effects of Toxoplasma gondii in the Brain and Liver of Sheep’s Fetuses in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

Yahya N. ALKATEB; Ayad H. Ibrahim; Saad T. Rasheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167311

Congenital toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of abnormalities and pathological changes in fetuses that cause miscarriage, fetal death, or the death of newborns, especially in farms animals. The research designed to study of the histological changes in the brain and the liver of sheep’s fetuses that infected with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in in the third trimester of pregnancy. 32 fetuses where taken after slaughtering the mothers and then collect the brain and liver after confirming the infection by laboratory tests. The histological study showed that the brain suffering from congestion of blood vessels, hemorrhage and necrotizing areas surrounded with Glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and the parasites tissue cysts. In the liver the lesions were sever necrosis, degeneration, dilatation of blood sinusoids and the tissue lost the characterizing appearance of liver tissue, the presence of the parasite in multiple areas surrounded with leukocytes and kupffer cells. We conclude from the current study that the parasite has a severe and destructive effects on the brain and liver tissues of sheep’s fetuses, however pregnancy may continue to the last period and this explains the death of fetuses in late pregnancy or the death of lambs immediately after birth when they are congenitally infected with toxoplasmosis as a result of failure of Those organs to perform their vital functions.

Investigation of the Ability of some Bacteria Isolated from Intravenous Catheters to form Biofilms and the Effectiveness Ability of some Substances in Removing them

Raad M. Mahmmod; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 14-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166315

The research included investigating some of the contaminated bacteria of the Cervical Vein Catheter (CVC) devices in patients with dialysis in  Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital (alternative site), then testing the ability of the isolated bacteria to form the biofilms in two ways, the  congo red agar and the tube method, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of some substances to remove the biofilms                       
   The results showed that the contaminated bacteria of the cervical venous catheter apparatus included: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Burkholderia cepacia. The current study also showed that the ability of the pathogenic bacteria above to form the biofilms by Tube Method came at 3,2 and 0, bacteria respectively, and its ability to the composition of the biofilms by the Congo Red Agar Method came at 2,2 and 0, bacteria respectively. The results also showed the high ability of Vancomycin and Meropemen 10% for each one, and Alum 20% as well as natural lemon juice undiluted to remove the biofims formed by the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium. As for the other materials that were used, they did not show any ability to remove the biofilms.                                                                                                

Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus and its Roles in Cytokines Stimulation in Immunocompromised Patients in Mosul City, Iraq

Nawal Shahir Mahmood; Abdulrhem Thonnon AL-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 17-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166308

Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) cause different infections in humans all over the world with a prevalence exceeds 70% in adults and 90% in poorer communities and developing countries. Two hundred immunocompromised patients (cancer, dialysis, thyroid gland, and thalassemia) infected with CMV were subjected to determine CMV seroprevalence and its effect on cytokines expression using advance molecular test (Real time PCR) and Serological ELISA test.  The results showed high CMV seroprevalence rate in immunocompromised patients but in low rate in thalassemia patients in Mosul city compared with other cities near Iraq. CMV stimulates upregulation in expression (mRNA transcripts) of three cytokines genes (IL-10, TNF, and CCL2) which affect four key immune pathways which in turn may cause severe complication on patients such as asthma and cytokine storm.

Hemodialysis Effect in Myeloperoxidase Activity and Number of Biochemical Parameters in Blood Serum of Chronic Renal Failure Patients

Eyman Taha Al Ali; Eyman T. Al-Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166314

This study was conducted in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul for the period from the beginning of February 2018 to the end of June 2018, and this study aims to assess the effect of hemodialysis in the activity of the myeloproxidase enzyme and number of biochemical parameters for chronic renal failure patients who are undergo to hemodialysis, and this study included follow-up 95 patients with Chronic renal failure at the age of (15-65) years, and different parameters were compared with the same parameters in 30 healthy people who did not have any disease and the same ages as a control group. A significant increase was achieved at the probability level (P ≤ 0.05) in the activity of the enzyme before and after dialysis, compared with the control group. results showed a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in iron concentration and total iron capacity in iron associated with patients before and after dialysis compared with the control group. The results showed a significant increase in the activity of the enzyme myeloperoxidase in the age group       (31-40), and the concentrations of Urea, Creatinine Uric acid, and decrease in Iron concentration of Iron and TIBC as a result of the effect of age..

Investigate some Species of Candida Contaminated with Yogurt and Tested its Sensitivity to some Antibiotics

Badia Abd Al_Razzak Malla Obaeda

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 20-29
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165361

Twenty-five samples of sheep yogurt were collected from different regions in Nineveh Governorate, marketed to local markets in the city of Mosul / Iraq. Isolates were diagnosed after phenotypic; culture and biochemical tests and the diagnosis was confirmed using API 20C test. The results showed that yeasts belong to the following species: Candida guilliermondii 28%, C. krusei 12%, C. norvegensis 36% and C. utilis 24%. The resistance of isolates was studied for six antibiotics. The results of the sensitivity examination showed a variation in the resistance of yeasts to antibiotics and yeast showed C. utilis resistance to all antibiotics used except Nystatin while the yeast C. krusei was sensitive to all antibiotics and was resistant to Candizole and Nystatin. The rest of the isolates varied in the resistance to the antibiotics used.

Elevation of the Inhibitory Action of Standard Antimicrobials (Ciprofloxacin and Chlorhexidine) by some Natural Materials against Three Periodontal Pathogens

Sumaya A.S.M. Al-Hamdoni; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165354

Maintaining the level of periodontal bacteria under control represents the basis for reducing periodontal infections. Therapeutic therapy along with scaling aids to prevent the causative agent from recolonizing the treated surface. As natural substitutes, this study aimed to verify the validity of two natural products, olibanum and alum as inhibitors of periodontal pathogens and also as supporting agents to elevate the anti-action of the pre- validated antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine. The study chose three periodontal bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola as representative taxa because they are considered the more virulent with high proteolytic activity. The antimicrobial activity was studied to find out the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values using resazurin- based microdilution assay. The cooperative interaction between reagents was studied by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values, analyzing the statistical difference between the single and combinational use and comparing the inhibition zone by agar diffusion. The results proved the inhibitory activity of olibanum and alum against the three pathogens and their high efficacy in improving the inhibitory action of the two standard drugs which was evidenced by the lowered MIC values, calculated FIC values, enlarged inhibition zone and statistical significance of the combinational use. The study concluded the successful use of olibanum and alum in reducing the red complex pathogens either in a single use or in combination as a pure natural preparation and also raising the anti- action of lower concentrations of ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidin.
 

Effect of Soil Cultivar with Legume in Germination and Growth of Cucumbers

Wasan Salih Hussain

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165359

The allelopathic effect was studied to sequence varieties of cucumbers in soils cultivated previously with plants (broad bean, peas, chickpeas), as the results of this study showed that allelopathy had an effect on germination and growth of cucumbers, as previously cultivated soils caused legumes (broad bean, peas, chickpeas) significantly reduced. In the percentage of germination and germination speed, while it caused an increase in the height and dry weight of the vegetative group of cucumber varieties tested in most treatments, the highest percentage increase was 24% for the cultivars of the cultivar Beitha alpha after the chickpea plant. And on the role of allelopathy and its effect on the modulus of division and the phase factor of the cells of the roots of the roots of the cucumber seedlings gave a difference in their effect between the increase and the decrease, as the soil planted with chickpeas caused an increase in the division factor and the coefficient of the introductory phase of the Biyar dalta class, which was accompanied by a decrease in the coefficients of the separation and the final phase, accompanied by a decrease in Root total length.
The study also showed an increase in the number of root branching of the cultivated cultivars following the broad bean plant, accompanied by an increase in the length of the vegetative system.

Effect of Essential Oil Isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis Leaves on the Vitality of Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces of Sheep Outside the Organism in vitro

Arkan Sheet; Abdulkhaliq A. Mahaimed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165357

This study was carried out at the beginning of September 2018 to the end of August 2019, the current study involves the effect of the essential oils of rosemary plant leaves on vitality of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. So using modified drip-type steam distillation device (Clevenger), the biological effectiveness of the essential oils were tested and its effect was effective in vitality of primacies protoscolices using concentrations 20, 30, 40, 50, 100 mg / ml and times of 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes and  didn’t show a significant difference among used concentrations and duration on the probability level p<0.05, this led to the mortality of all protoscolices with 100% percentage in all duration and concentrations used on the test.
          Deduced from the current study the biological activity of the essential oils of rosmary leaves against the protoscolices, so we recommend increasing interest in these extracts and it's use against this epidemic disease  and during surgery to remove the hydatid cysts.

Regenerated of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Plants from Differentiation of the Hypocotyl Stems Callus of its Seedlings

Safwan J. Sultan; Amjad Abdul-Hadi Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 39-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165364

The current study produced broccoli plants (Brassica oleracea var. italica) from the differentiation the hypocotyl stems callus of its seedlings and succeed of their adaptation and transferred to the soil. The results showed the difference in ratio of callus initiation with different type of plant growth regulators Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Indole-3-butyricacid (IBA), Benzyl adenine (BA) and their concentrations which used in this study. The interaction of IBA and BA had an efficient role of increasing the initiation ratios. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 IBA and 2.0 mg L-1 BA superiority in registered initiation ratio reached 100% after 11 days of the cultivation, and with its continued growth it produced typical callus cultures. The continued of callus subculture on the same initiation medium led to spontaneous production of 142 shoots produced from 50 pieces of callus. These regenerated shoots easily rooted in the MSO medium with full strength at ratio 100%, and with continued growth and formation of efficient root groups, they were successfully adapted to the soil within the pots in the greenhouse. 

Relationship of some Risk Factors and Bacterial Contamination Associated with Dialysis to Patients in some Mosul Hospital

Raad M. Mahmmod; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 30-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.165362

The research was conducted on dialysis patients at Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital                        (alternative site) in Mosul / Nineveh Governorate. Where the study included 90 blood samples from the patients as well as swabs from the washing machine with recording information related to chronic diseases and the age and gender of all patients under study. Isolation and identification of the accompanying and contaminating bacteria was done using morphological and biochemical tests then by using Vitek device.                                                                                  
The results of the current study showed that age group 56-46 years are more likely to suffer from kidney failure at a rate of 26.66%, while the age group with the lowest infection was 76-85 year, with a rate of 1.11%. Males are more likely to have renal failure at 57.77% compared to 42.22% for females. High blood pressure may be the leading cause of kidney failure, and 50% of all patients. Bacteremia was appeared in hemodialysis patients in 11.11. Staphylococcus aureus came in at 44.44%, Burkholderia cepacia complex was isolated by 33.33%, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus was isolated by 22.22%. Contamination of dialysis devices reached 40%, and the causative bacteria, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, reached 100%.                                           

Effect of Leaf Extract of Melia azedarach L. on the Testis Tissue of Albino Mice Mus musculus

Alshaher Waad sabri

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164469

Melia azedarach L. Leaf extract (200mg /kg body weight) every other day for 3,5,7 weeks on the reproductive organs of male mice and the fertility index were studied.
The treatment had no significant effect on body weight of groups B,C and D. The study exhibited that the average of new born and fertility were reduced to 2.66 and 66.66% in treatment groups for 7 weeks respectively.
 The testes sections showed histopatholoical changes in all treated groups of male mice, and the degree of these changes ranged from medium to severe. The results indicated separated and necrotic of seminiferous tubules, testicular oedema, mixed and necrotic changes of spermatogenic cells, degeneration and loosing parts of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules, bleeding of interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules, clamping of spermatozoa in the seminiferous lumen,  mixed the spermatogenic cells and   thickness the sheath of tunica albuginea of the testis.
 
Keywords: Melia azedarch, Leaf extract, Testis, Fertility, Mice.

Role of Diode Laser Radiation Pretreatments in Growth of Pisum sativum L. Plant Seedlings and Callus under Salinity Stress

Eman T. Yaseen; Sajida Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 50-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164481

The research included a study of the effect of the red diode laser radiation at wave length 650 nm and power 50 mw/cm2 for different periods of time 2,4,6,8 and 10 minutes in the growth and development of seedlings and callus of Pisum sativum L. plant under salt stress at 200mM. The results showed that seeds exposed to laser radiation for different periods of time caused a clear increased in all studied growth indicators compared with the control treatment. Seeds treated with laser radiation for 10 minutes showed superiority on the other treatments in stimulation of  germination speed, rate of the radical and coleoptile lengths and their fresh and dry weights  with an increase in  the rate of fresh and dry weight of plant. The results showed also that exposing callus segments to the laser radiation for different periods of time caused an increase in the rate of their fresh and dry weights after 21 days of growth on MS medium supplement with 1.0 mg/l of BA and NAA for each one. The present study proved possibility of treating the negative effects of sodium chloride at the concentration 200mM on the growth indicators of seedlings and callus of Pisum sativum by treatment seeds and callus with laser radiation for 10 minutes before salinity treatment at 200 Mm. This led to increase in the speed of seeds germination, the activity of α-amylase enzyme during different  germination stages and increasing in plant growth rates (the lengths rate of each of the radical and coleoptile and their fresh and dry weights, plant height, root length, number of stem and root branches, fresh and dry weights of plant with an increase in the leaves content of chlorophyll. Also the results indicated a positive effect of laser radiation for10 min. in the  increasing  the fresh and dry weights of callus and return its viability after 21 days  of growth and reduce  the damage of cellular  membranes  with an  increase in  the amount of  total soluble carbohydrates, level of proline and protein content  in the  tissues of seedling leaves and callus according to salinity treatment only.  
                                                                                               
 

Effect of Melatonin on some Biochemical Parameters in D-galactose Induced Aging in Rats

Enas O. Al-babily; Fadwa KH. Tawfeeq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 39-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164473

The current research investigates the main physiological and potent antioxidant  roles of melatonin hormone in induced aging rats by D-galactose administration. This research includes 4 groups of male rat, Group 1:considered as a control group administered distilled water, Group 2: D-galactose induced aging by administration of (300mg/kg B.Wt .S.C.) for 15 weeks, Group 3: administered melatonin hormone (10 mg/kg B.wt. orally) for 15 weeks, Group 4: induced aging by D-galactose (300mg/kg B.wt .S.C.)+melatonin hormone (10 mg/kg B.wt. orally) for 15 weeks. Results Body and brain  weight  is decreased in the induced aging rats. Advanced glycation end products  (AGEs), Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) andthiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is increased  significantly in the D- galactose  aged rats compared with control group  accompanied with significant decrease  in Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione (GSH) level induced aging rats compared with control rat group. Melatonin hormone could effectively attenuates these alterations. conclusion: melatonin hormone administration counteracted the accelerated induced aging process by D-galactose in rats  which may be due to its effects on antioxidant enhancing activity and protect  the cell from lipid and protein   oxidation.
                                                                                                                         
Keywords: Aging, D- galactose, Melatonin hormone.

Association of Autoimmunity and Parvovirus B19 Infection among Spontaneous Miscarriage Women in Erbil / Iraq

Nyan J. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164472

The study was conducted from January 2016 to January 2017 at Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city/ Iraq. One hundred and forty women who experienced spontaneous abortions were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and forty normal pregnant women as a control group. Serum from patients and control group subjected for assessment of anticardiolipin IgM, antiphospholipid IgM, Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay technique. Prevalence of positive Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM, anticardiolipin IgM and antiphospholipid IgM, in aborted women was higher than that observed in non-aborted women (control group). Women with the highest frequency of spontaneous abortion found at age group 27–34 year. More frequent of previous spontaneous abortion was 1-2 abortion at the 1st trimester of gestational period. Anticardiolipin antibody and antiphospholipid antibody production trigged by viral infection, and have role in spontaneous abortion in pregnant women.
 
 

Comparison among Various Control Methods of Tomato Bacterial Spot Disease (Xanthomonas campestirs pv.vesicatoria)

Frishta Abdurrahman; Khalid M. Ahamed; Tahsein A. M. Amein

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 20-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164471

Two different plant extracts, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens L18 and Bacillus subtilis K3, one antibiotic (Streptomycin) and one bactericide (copper sulphate) were tested for their control efficacy against Tomato Bacterial Spot caused by the bacterium  Xanthomonas campestirs pv.vesicatoria under vitro and in vivo conditions.
          Two different concentrations of each extract was used, under lab and greenhouse conditions. The eucalyptus extract had better effect than the thyme extract in both conditions.  The inhibition zone in Petri dishes was 11.25 mm and 6.99 mm and the reduction of disease severity index in plants was 40.7% and 35.6% respectively.
The Pseudomonas fluorescens L18 strain had much better and was more effective than the Bacillus subtilis K3 strain in reduction the disease severity in plants. The disease severity index was reduced by 29.3% and 18.2% respectively.
       Streptomycin used as antibiotic   had a great effect on reduction of the disease severity index 83.5% and inhibition zone 22.5mm. Copper sulphate   reduced the disease severity index by 87% and had 38.1mm inhibition zone and had the best effect compared with other treatments.

Detection of the Inhibitory Effect of the Leaves, Seed and Fruits of Cydonia oblonga on some Gram Positive and Negative Bacteria

Najlaa A. F. Al- Noamy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 10-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164470

Seventy six swab samples were collected from Otitis media and stool samples from gastroenteritis cases, were cultured on different culture media, gram positive and gram negative bacteria were isolated and identified. The highest prevalence was Staphylococcus aureus (25%) while Salmonella typhi formed the lowest isolate rate (3.9%) other bacterial isolates varied between these two and comparison was done between effect of the air part of Cydonia oblonga (Quince) plant (leaves, seeds, fruits) to determine the highest effective part on the isolated bacteria. As the inhibitory effect of Cydonia oblonga seed, leaves and fruit alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the isolated bacteria were studied. Alcoholic seed extract showed the highest inhibitory activity on two bacterial species Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterococcus faecalis (25 and 22 mm) respectively followed by Aeromona sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13 and 11 mm) respectively while alcoholic leaves extract showed antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus only  (15 mm), alcoholic fruit extract showed its effect on Enterococcus faecalis (12 mm), Klebsiella sp. (11 mm), Salmonella typhi (10 mm), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9 mm). the aqueous seed extract showed an effect on Enterococcus faecalis (11 mm), while the aqueous leaves extract showed the highest effect on Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm), followed by Bacillus subtilis (10 mm), and the aqueous fruit extract showed the highest effect on E.coli (10 mm) while on Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter aerogenes was less (9 mm) for all of them. The (MIC) value of the effective extracts revealed that the highest value of alcoholic seed extract on E.faecalis was (25 mg\ml), while the least (MIC) was (0.39 mg\ml) for Aeromona sp. with the remaining MIC values ranging between the two.

Identitying The Absorbtion Range of Chara sp. Algae for Different Concentrations of Cadmium

Abdul Sattar J. Z. Al- Hayani; Abdulmoneim Kannah; HIba Khaleel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 26-40
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164479

        The adsorption of the cadmium element ion was used by the Chara sp., where it was dried and the effective groups of algae responsible for adsorption using infrared (FTIR) were COOH , (C=O)   and aliphatic nexus (C-H), in addition to the presence of groups with a negative charge such as (OH), (P = O), (CO3), (CH2), (Cl) and (Br) on the surface of the algae, and taking them at a weight of 2 g and treated with a series of different concentrations (0,5,10,20,40,100) mg.L-1 of Cadmium ion where incubation coefficients at (298°) Kelvin,
        After the incubation period, the stabilizers were extracted and Cadmium was quantified with mathematical description according to the equations of the single-surface (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin and Polani) respectively for Cadmium, It was found that the values of the coefficient of determination were effective for all equations, which gives a clear indication of the possibility of using any of these six equations. However, the two-sided Langmuir equation is the most efficient in the mathematical description of adsorption. Moreover, this equation showed a very large correlation between the actual adsorption values ​​and the calculated values ​​of this equation because they have the lowest standard error (SE) (0.0001) and the highest coefficient of determination (R2) (1.00), which gains the advantage in the mathematical description on the rest of the equations. The maximum adsorption capacity (Xm) on the first and second surfaces (1.28) and (169.49) mg. Kg -1 respectively, while the binding capacity (K) on the first and second surfaces (186.62) and (29.50) L.mg-1 respectively.
 
 

The Effect of Salt Stress Conditions in Seed Germination Indicators, Seedlings Growth and Callus Initiation of Pisum sativum L. in Culture Media

Eman T. Yaseen; Sajida A. Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164478

The research included a study of the effect of sodium chloride salt with concentrations 0,50,100,150,200,250 and 300 mM in growth and development of seedlings and calli of Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The results showed that increasing salt concentration in culture medium led to decrease the percentage of seeds germination and increasing the duration of germination which  causing slow germination speed and decreasing in the lengths rate of each of the radical and coleoptile and their fresh and dry weights. Moreover the activity of α-amylase was decreased during different germination stages at 200 mM of NaCl according to the control. Salinity also caused a decrease in the rate of plant growth(plant height, root length, stem and root branches and  fresh and dry weights of plant).The enhancement of NaCl in a medium was accompanied with a gradual decrease in total chlorophyll of leaves at different concentrations of salt. The results also indicated a negative effect of salinity in fresh and dry weights of callus, membrane damage and viability of callus which developed on MS medium supplement with 1mg/l of BA and NAA. The present study demonstrated the effects of NaCl in increasing the amount of  total soluble carbohydrates ,level of proline in seedling leaf tissues at the age of 20 days  and callus is 21 days old while a clear decrease in the total amount of protein in those tissues occur.
 
 

Effect of Plant Seeds Peganum harmala L- Evaporation on Liver and Heart Enzymes Activity and Total Protein in Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Treated with Chlorpromazine

Thaer M. Al-Mushhadani; Hussien E. Arteen; Hamed J. Jumaa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 68-79
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164482

This study was conducted on (60) of male white rats aged 3-4 months and weighing                   (300-200)g were divided into two groups first: negative control group and includes 10 males dosed with distilled water, and the remaining animals dosed with chlorpromazine drug (2 mg / kg) B.W daily for six weeks, Then the treated animals divided into five groups, each group consisting of 10 rats, a positive control group treated with chlorpromazine only and the second group evaporated with peganum harmala seeds for 7 days, third evaporated for 14 days and fifth group evaporated for 21 days, and final group dosed with chlorpromazine and let for 30 days without evaporation with peganum harmala seeds. The positive group results showed a significant increase in the activity of ALT, AST and significant decrease in the activity of ALP, ACP and LDH as well as significant decrease in serum total protein concentration, while the results of the evaporated groups with  peganum harmala seeds showed a significant decrease in the activity of ALT and AST enzyme and significantly increased in the activity of ALP, ACP and LDH enzymes in in addition to a significant increase in total serum protein concentration. Finally, the groups that let for 30 days without evaporation showed the continued negative effect of the drug. The enzymatic activity and the concentration of total protein did not return to normal level.

Investigation of Toxicity of some Plant Extracts on Mosquito Larvae Culex pipiens molestus

Khalida A. Sulayman; Aulfat T. Yassn

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 41-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164480

The current study was conducted to find  out the effect of lethal concentrations of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of three powders are Murraya koenigii L., Syzygium aromaticum and Capisicum annum of the 3rd instar of mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (1-7 days) after treatment, using different concentrations of those extracts. The results showed that all the extracts used had deadly effects on mosquito larvae. The concentrations 400 ppm of alcoholic extract of Murraya koenigii and 200 ppm of aqueous extract of the same extract caused 100% mortality of larvae after four days of treatment. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Capisicum annum of the concentrations 500, 1000 ppm respectively caused 100% mortality after six days of treatment. While when using the alcoholic extract of Syzygium aromaticum the concentration 1000 ppm caused 100% mortality of larvae after five days of treatment and the concentration 1500 ppm of aqueous extract of the same extract caused 100% mortality of larvae after six days of treatment.
                                                                                                              
          

Extraction of Silymarin Complex from Milk Thistle (Silybummarianaum) Seeds and Study its Effect on the Liver Functions and some Antioxidants in Rats

Samera Alkatib; Alaa H. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 95-110
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164484

This study included extraction of silymarin complex from milk thistle seeds and study the effect of different concentrations of this complex on the liver functions and levels of some antioxidants in rats exposed to liver injury induced byethanol, then study the effect of these concentrations on the repair of liver injury induced by ethanol by evaluating the hepatic pathology of different animal  groups. Sixty male rats with the age of 3-4 months were divided into 6 groups: Group (1) control which received drinking tap water, group (2) treated with  5% ethanol  in drinking water, group (3) treated with 5% ethanol  and 1 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, group (4) treated with  5% ethanol  and 2 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, group (5) treated with  5% ethanol  and 4 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, group (6) treated with 5% ethanol and 8 mg silymarin complex by oral dose once daily, by the end of the experimental period of 3 weeks all animals groups were killed and collection of blood samples and liver tissues for the measuring of liver functions parameters and some antioxidants in blood, and processing the histological examination of liver.
Treatment with ethanol revealed a significant prolongation of the coagulation time and a significant increase of Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate  transaminase (AST) enzymes activity, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, peroxynitrite radical and xanthine oxidase activity and a significant decrease of albumin, Vit. C, Vit. E, glutathione and ceruloplasmin levels in serum comparing with the control group (P < 0.05).
Different concentrations of silymarin complex have different effects on the protection from the liver injury induced by ethanol, and return these parameters to about normal ranges. Concentrations of 1 and 2 mg of silymarin complex can reduce the fatty changes induced by ethanol, while the concentrations of 4 and 8 mg led to reduce the necrosis and inflammation  in addition to fatty changes.
 
 

Allelopathic Effect of Three Weed Residues on Growth and Nodulation. of Visia faba and Lens culinaris Medik

Rawnaq Ahmed Ibrahim; Janan Abed Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.164477

ABSTRACT
The present study has been made in University of Mosul/ College of Science/ Department of Biology to investigate the effect of adding the residues of Cephalaria sp.,  Brassica  sp. and Hordeum sp. weeds at concentration (0,2,4,6) % (w:v) in seed germination and seedling growth in Vicia faba L, and Lens culinaris medik, the adding of (2mg/kg) of (Brassica sp.) residues caused the highest percentage of seed germination (70%) in Vicia faba L. adding (4 mg/kg) of  (Cephalaria sp.) residues caused the highest percentage of stimulation  in length (32.7 and46.8 cm) of  the shoot and roots in Vicia faba L., the highest percentage of stimulation in dry weight for the vegetative in Lens culinaris medik at the adding of (4 mg/kg) of (Cephalaria sp.) residues, while the highest percentage of reduction in dry weight (5.5 mg) of the roots partin Vicia faba L. at the adding of             (6 mg/kg) of (Hordeum sp.) residues, and the highest percentage of stimulation in the number and dry weight of nodule in Vicia faba L(2.23)kg. at the adding of (4 mg/kg) of(Cephalaria sp.) residues.
 
 

Induced of Systemic Resistance in Tomato Plant Against Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus by Bion and Riboflavin

Hameed Ali; Noor S. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159359

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of abiotic agents Bion and Riboflavin in
inducing resistance in tomato plant Geesy cultivar against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), under plastic house conditions. The experiment was included two application with induce resistance agents:
Bion & Riboflavin used by two concentration for foliar spray before and after 3,6 and 2,4 days artificial
inoculation with virus. The treatment was evaluated by using several parameters such as estimation of
percentage and severity of disease infection, serological evaluation by DAS-ELISA, estimation of
peroxidase absorbance change and some of the plant growth parameters. The best treatment was foliar
spray with Bion 1 mg/ml before 6 days of virus inoculation showed reduction in the percentage of
disease infection which was 37.1% compare with control treatment, on the other hand above treatment
was caused high inhibition activity of virus (TBSV) multiplication which was 70% as demonstrated by
ELISA absorbance values 0.296 nm compare with control treatment which inoculated with virus only
was 0.972 nm. Results also indicated that the treatment by spray Riboflavin concentration 10 mM
before (4 days) the inoculation of virus was inhibition of percentage of disease was 35%. On the other
hand the treatment was used of Riboflavin 10 mM spray gave significant increase in the activity of
peroxidase after 14 days of virus inoculation which was give 71.172 absorbance compare with control
treatment which was 28.193.).

Detection of Positions of Genes of β-Carotene Production by

Badia A. Malla-Obaida; Raad H. Sultan; Rafea Q. Jirjees

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159355

Two procedures was followed to determine the position of β-carotene pigment coding genes.
The first procedure is curing of plasmid nucleic acid content using ethidium bromide with 150 μg/ml
concentration for each the yeasts Rhodotorula. mucilaginosa BA61, Sacharomyces cervisiae BA179
and Escherichia coli BA252. The results revealed that success of curing of plasmid DNA for
the yeast R. mucilaginosa BA61. The cured colonies was bearing β-carotene pigment production
characteristic and the genes responsible for this characteristic laid on the chromosome, as long
as, the curing did not occur. The curred colonies showed sensitivity against the studied antibiotics
with percentage ranged from 16-80% with exception with Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Lamisil and
Vancomycin. Also results of curing of the yeast S. cervisiae strain BA179 losing of antibiotic
resistance with the range 15-92%. Results of curring of E. coli BA252 strain showed losing of
antibiotic resistance with percentage 15-23%, with exception with the Trimethoprim, Erythromycin
and Lamisil.
The second procedure for determine the position of coding genes was done by conjugation,
which two conjugation attempts was done. The first one for determine the ability of plasmid nucleic
acid for mobilization and transferation in yeast strains. There was success conjugation between donor
yeast strain R. mucilaginosa BA61 and the curred yeast S. cervisiae BA179 as recipient with
conjugation frequency 0.65× 10-8, this study proved that the transferred plasmid nucleic acid from
R. mucilaginosa BA61 bearing Gentamicin antibiotic genes, but not genes responsible for β-carotene
pigment production, as well as, two attempts of conjugation was done through kingdoms between
R.mucilaginosa BA61 as a donor and E. coli BA252 as recipient. Results revealed that plasmid
nucleic acid bearing Rifampin resistance genes has the ability ofmobilization and transferation from
the yeast to the bacteria with conjugation frequency 3.05×10-8. Results also showed that the curred
bacteria has the ability of receiving and stability of plasmid from the yeast by conjugation,
whereas the resulting was not bear production of the β-carotene pigment characteristic and this
confirm that the genes coding for pigment production characteristic bearing laid on chromosomal
nucleic acid.

Survey and Identification of some New Record Mushrooms in Erbil Governorate

Farid M. Toma; Hero M. Ismael; Nareen Q. Faqi Abdulla

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159365

Sixteen species of Basidiomycota, which belong to sixteen genera were collected and identified
from various areas in Erbil city of kurdistan region-Iraq, such as: Erbil city center, Barzan, Hanara,
Heran, Khalefan, Koysnjaq, Salahaddin (Permum), Mergasur, Shaqlawa and Tawska. The identified
genera and species include the followings: Agaricus bitorquis, Ampulloclitocybe clavipes, Bovista
plumbea, Coprinus micaceus, Hebeloma mesophaeum, lyophyllum decastes, Mycena inclinata,
Meruliopsis taxicola, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus arcularius, Russula
turci, Schizophyllum commune, Scleroderma verrucosum, Trametes hirsuta and Vascellum pretense.
Seven genera of the mushroom were new record in kurdistan region-Iraq, such as: Ampulloclitocybe
clavipes, Bovista plumbea, lyophyllum decastes, Meruliopsis taxicola, Russula turci, Scleroderma
verrucosum and Vascellum pretense. The aim of this research is to survey and identify Basidiomycota,
which is a wild mushroom that grow in natural form in different seasons and different areas Scleroderma verrucosum ،Russula turci

Colon Cancer Early Detection by some Serum's Antigenic, Enzymatic and Free- serum's DNA indicators

Noor A. Azeez; Sarab D. Sulayman; Iman Adel

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 114-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159343

This research include (104) patient's blood serum diagnosed with colon cancer proved by
colonoscopy and histopathology. Blood samples had been selected consecutively over the period
March 2013 to April 2014 from patients treated in Oncology and Nuclear Medicine hospital, Al-
Jumhory hospital/Mosul and azadi Teaching Hospital/Kirkuk. All cases and controls were aged (21-
85–years). One hundred normal blood donor individuals had been used as controls. Antigenic tumor
markers which include carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9)
had been measured in blood's serum from 104 patients with colon cancer. Results indicate a significant
elevation (p<0.05) in levels of CEA and C19-9 only in patients with advanced stage C and metastatic
stage D compared with control. Beside biochemical enzymatic tumor markers that included
Cyclooxygenase, Arginase showed significantly increase (p<0.05) of enzymatic activity for colon
cancer patients with early stage (A) compared with controls. While the serum alkaline
sphingomyelinase level was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in colon cancer patients in stage A
compared with controls and this decrease was independent of Dukes’ stage, thus strengthening the
hypothesized validity of these assays to be used as serum test for the early detection of colonic
neoplasia. The results of this research also revealed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the serum's free
DNA in all stages of colon cancer patient's compared with control grope for this it was considered as a
good indicator of early detection of colon cancer.

Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms from Patients with Halitosis

Ghada Y. Abdul-Rahman; Rafit J. Al-Adole

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159333

Twenty-eight patients suffering from oral halitosis were subjected to this study (14 males and 14 females), their ages range between 18 to 65 years were diagnosed clinically. Ninety-five samples were collected by sterile paper points (size 50) or sterile cotton swab and transported in thioglycolate broth and cultured on blood agar in aerobic or anaerobic conditions for (48-72 hours), the identification of the bacteria was carried out using morphological and cultural characteristics, biochemical tests and antibiotics susceptibility tests. The results showed that 13 different bacterial species isolated in this study ((Bacteriodes spp. (14 isolate), Viridans Streptococci (10 isolates), Peptostreptococci spp. (9 isolates), Actinomyces spp. (6 isolates), Porphyromonas spp. (4 isolates), Fusobacterium spp. (4 isolates), Veillonella spp. (4 isolates), Non.coagulase Staphylococcus (3 isolates) Prevotella spp (one isolate), Propinobacterium spp. (one isolate) Tetragenococci spp. (one isolate), Eubacterium spp. (one isolate), and Staphylococcus aureus (one isolate). The conclusion is the dominance of different genera and species of anaerobic bactria in cases of halitosis. Staphylococcus aureus

Detection of Ochratoxigenic Potential in some Aspergillus and Penicillium Isolates from Vineyard Soil, Fresh and Dried Grapes by ELISA

Asia Saadullah; Samir K. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159364

Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were isolated and identified from samples of
vineyard soil, fresh grape berries and dried vine fruits collected from grapevine nursery and shops
in Duhok province. The ochratoxigenic potential of some of their strains was evaluated by ELISA
technique. Ochratoxin A (OA) was detected in cultures of two species of section Nigri
(A.carbonarius and A.niger aggreg.), two species of Aspergillus section Circumdati (A.ochraceus
and A.westerdijkia) and one species of OA was found at levels from 0.64 to 0.72 ng ml in
A.carbonarius isolates, from 0.64 to 0.66 ng ml in A.niger aggreg. isolates, from 0.23 to
0.65 ng ml in A.ochraceus isolates and 0.40 ngml in A.westterdijkia isolate, whereas the level was
from 0.61 to 0.64 ngml in Penicillium verrucosum.تم عزل وتشخیص العدید من الأنواع الفطریة العائدة للجنسین اسبرجلس و بنیسیلیوم من عینات ترب حقول الأعناب
فضلا عن ثمار العنب الطریة و الجافة والتی جمعت من محافظه دهوک. تم الکشف عن قابلیه إنتاج هذه العزلات لإنتاج السم
Aspergillus section Nigri تم الکشف عن إنتاج السم من قبل عزلتان من ELISA. الفطری اوکراتوکسین باستخدام تقنیه
Aspergillus section Circumdati (A.ochraceus وعزلتان من (A.carbonarius A.niger aggreg.),
.Penicillium (P.verrucosum و عزله من A.westerdijkiae
A.niger 0.64 نانوغرام / ملغم وفى عزلات - ما بین 0.72 A.carbonarius تراوح مستوى إنتاج السم من قبل عزلات
0.23 و فی عزله - مابین 0.65 A.ochraceus 0.64 نانوغرام/ ملغرام وفى عزلات - مابین 0.66 aggreg.
0.61 نانوغرام/ ملغم فى عزلات - 0.40 نانوغرام/ ملغرام بینما تراوح الإنتاج مابین - 0.64 A.westerdijkiaie
.Penicillium verrucosum

Study of the Effect of Black Leg Disease in Potato Production

Zahra S. Al-Mashadani; Nadeem A. Ramadan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 88-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159357

The susceptibility of 8 cultivars of potato to infection by black leg disease was studied using
artificial inoculation with 10- 4 CFU/ml from isolated bacterial. The results showed that all cultivars
were susceptible at different levels, under greenhouse and filed condition. Diamond was found to be
the most susceptible cultivar to blackleg disease while Desiree was the least susceptible .Different
method to treat the blackleg disease. The symptoms were reduction in the production of tubers and
the appearance of infected of leaves and the reduction in different plant heights. The bacteria that
cause this disease were isolated from potato tubers, shoots, soil and water. The mother tubers were
found to be major source of inoculums for blackleg disease.تمت دراسة قابلیة ثمانیة اصناف من البطاطا للإصابة بمرض الساق الأسود وکانت جمیعها قابلة للإصابة بدرجات
4 وحدة مکونة للمستعمرات - متفاوتة تحت ظروف البیت الزجاجی والحقل باستخدام العدوى الصناعیة بمعلق البکتریا بترکیز 10
البکتیریة لکل مل وکان الصنف دایمونت اکثر الأصناف حساسیة للإصابة أما الصنف دیزاری فهو اقلها حساسیة. کما تم عزل
البکتریا المسببة لهذا المرض من درنات البطاطا وسیقان النباتات الهوائیة والأوراق والتربة ومن میاه السقی وقد تبین أن
الدرنات الأم تعد المصدر الأهم لحدوث الإصابة ومن اعراض المرض انخفاض إنتاجیة الدرنات وظهور الأوراق المصابة
واختلاف أطوال النباتات نتیجة الإصابة بالبکتریا

Synthesis and Evaluation the Activity of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as Antibacterial Agent Against Uncommon Bacteria Causes of Urinary Tract Infections

Shaymaa Daham; Marwa H. Abdullwahab; Asmaa E. Mahmood; Evon Akram

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 90-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159340

Schiff base compound 5-(benzylideneamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol was prepared from condensation reaction of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole with benzaldehyde. New Schiff bases react with copper (II), Ferric (III), Cobalt (II) and Zinc (II) to form four complexes. The Schiff base complexes were identification by using FTIR and UV-VIS. The antibacterial activity of complexes (Copper (II) LM1, Ferric (III) LM2, Cobalt (II) LM3 and Zinc (II) LM4 complexes) were studied against Kocuria kristinae, Alloiococcus otiti and Aerococcus urinae as a model of Gram positive, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Ochrobactrum anthropic and Pantoea agglomerans as a model of Gram negative to determine the activity of synthesized complexes. Identification of these uncommon bacteria that isolated from urinary tract infection confirmed by using VITEK2 compact system. Several antibiotics have been chosen to investigate the ability of these isolates to resist the conventional antibiotic. The results showed higher activity of the new compounds relative to the chosen antibiotics. .

Effect of Spray with Benzyladenine and Soil Texture in Growth and some Physiological Characters for Oat Plant (Avena sativa L.)

Alaa H. Ali; Hekmat M. Musaeb

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 103-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159358

This Study include cultivating of Qat (Avena sativa L.) in two different soils texture Sada wa
Baweeza soil (Silty Clay Loam) and Hamam Al-Aleal Soil (Silty Sandy Loam) with spraying the
plants with concentrations of Benzyladenine [0.0, 100,150] ppm and its effect on some growth and
physiological features of oats plant. Results were analyzed using the Complete Randomized Design
(C.R.D) as a factorial experiment, and the results showed surpass plant cultivated in clay loam soil
were in plant height, leaf area, relative water contain and plant pigments content (8.3, 20.6, 2.3,
20.3, 17.5 %) Respectively compared to the plant cultivated in the Silty Sandy Loam texture. Plants
treated with BA (100, 150 ppm) surpassed in all of measurement growth and physiological features
compared with untreated plants.

Morphological and Molecular Diagnosis of Root Knot Nematode Species Associated with Olive Seedling and Trees in Baghdad, Babil and Karbala/ Iraq

Waref M. Hanoon; Zeinab A. Altememe; Asmaa M. Abdel rasool

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 138-150
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159350

The study was aimed to conduct a field survey to identify the Root knot nematodes species
associated with olive trees and nurseries in provinces of Baghdad /Al- Zaafaraniya, Babil /Al- Sada,
Karbala /Al-Atishi and Al-Hindiah Horticulture Center. Baghdad /Al- Zaafaraniya had the highest
percentage of disease incidence (100%) and root-knot index (3) in the field, while nurseries under
shade conditions in the same region had the least percentage of disease incidence and root-knot
index (6.6% and 0), respectively.
Two species of root-knot nematodes M. javanica and M.incognita were identified in all study
location, the perineal pattren technique was used for identification .M.incognita identification was
molecularly confirmed by the PCR to be used in all study trials.

Detection of Human Bocavirus Infection in Children with Lower Respiratory

Qasim Sh. Al-Mayah; Areej A. Hussein; Duraid A. Hasan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 64-74
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159335

Background: Respiratory tract diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children, and a great variety of viruses are responsible of these infection.
Objectives: To determine the infection rate of human bocavirus in children with lower respiratory tract infection and related with different variable.
Patients and methods: Cross sectional study consists of 122 children under five years old their age ranged between 1 and 60 months and 75 males and 47 females; suffering from lower respiratory tract infection. They were attending respiratory wards in Fatima Al-Zahraa Hospital, Al-Elwiya Pediatrics Hospital, Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital and Pediatrics Protection Hospital in Baghdad, during the period from December 2017 to February 2018. Full information were collected from parents or relevant of each patient use specific formula sheet as well as nasopharyngeal samples were collected and used for DNA extraction and amplification with specific primers by PCR.
Results: Out of all 122 samples, eight samples were positive for HBoV (6.6%). Most infections were recorded in males 5(62.5%) patients aged 1-30 months 7(87.5%) but statistically non-significant. Significant differences (p=0.02) were noticed with nasal discharge 100% and wheezing 100% in HBoV-positive children, while non-significant with other parameter so higher proportion of HBoV-positive children had asthma (62.5%).Exactly 50% of HBoV-positive children were suffering from diarrhea. Nervous manifestation did no differ significantly between positive and negative groups (37.5% and 38.59% respectively). The results of phylogenetic analysis for HBoV DNA isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs revealed that all local isolates (8 isolates) are with HBoV type 1.
Conclusions: Infection rate of human bocavirus was compared with rates of infection from neighboring countries, no significant differences were notice between infection rate and different parameters except with nasal discharge and wheezing.

.

Molecular Identification of the Local Isolated Fungi Aureobasidium pullulans

Zena Al-gader; Khalid D. Ahmed; Mohammed A. Al-shakarchi; Jasem M. Abdo

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 115-128
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159349

Twenty fungal isolates of Aureobasidium were isolated from many healthy leaves of
different citrus trees. Fungal isolates understudy were identified by using morphological and
cultural characters. The results revealed that the isolates are belonged to the species A .pullulans.
Molecular identification of the isolated fungi were carried out using the specific-PCR reaction. The
results showed 17 bands of purified genomic DNA from local fungal isolates of similar size ranging
(500-600)bp. These bands have the same size to that obtained from the standard strain A. pullulans
NRRL 58560. On the other hand, it did not show any band of the DNA as a result of the Specific-
PCR reaction specialize of isolates (Ap15 and Ap17 and Ap18) in the agarose gel.
The sequence of the nitrogenous bases for the Specific PCR products were determined for
three chosen local isolates. The results were analyzed using DNA Blast / NCBI program revealed
that there is a similarity higher than 95% between these sequences and those of the standard
strains of A. pullulans already recorded in the Gene Bank. Additionally, the point mutations
whether they are substitution or addition or deletion were observed in some positions of the
nitrogenous bases after comparing the sequences of the tested local isolates and the standard.
These mutations may occur spontaneously.
This analysis results sent to GenBank using the website of the NCBI and introduced in
GenBank record as standard isolates and given a cod number in the GenBank as follows: Ap1.sqn
Ap1 KX964610, Ap7.sqn Ap7: KX964611, Ap14.sqn Ap14 KX964612 This confirms the validity
of the results obtained in this study and diagnosis of the validity of the local isolates under study..

Comparison Between some Water Characters of the Lesser Zap with anImpoundment Ground Water Close to it

Abdulmoneim M. Ali Kannah; Mahmood I. Al-Jubouri; Ayesha W. Aumary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 212-222
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159363

The current study is a comparative between the quality of water in the river lesser Zap with an
impoundment ground water close to it, The two sampling areas are located in the Kirkuk city. In
2011, monthly samples were collected from both sites for a period of six months. Some physical
and chemical analyzes were conducted (water and temperature, electrical conductivity and
hardness). As well as positive and negative ions). On the biological side, the total number of
bacteria was numerated.
The results of the present study showed clear variations in the values of these variables in some
months of the year. The total hardness values in lesser Zab ranged between (150 – 233) mg/ l
compared with their values in an impoundment ground water (1075 – 1820) mg/l. The chloride ion
concentration showed clear rise in an impoundment ground water 2749 mg/ l during September
month compared with water tributary Zab reaching 80 mg/ l. The positive ions, sodium and potassium, showed a clear increase in an impoundment ground water (1375- 1800) and (4-18) mg /
l compared with their concentration in the water lesser Zab (34-87) and (1.6- 2.6) mg / l
respectively, while the highest count of bacteria in an impoundment ground water were (30 × 103)
cells / ml (11 × 103) cells / ml in lesser Zab.تناولت الدراسة الحالیة مقارنة بین نوعیة میاه نهر الزاب الأسفل مع تجمع لمیاه العین القریبة منه فی ناحیة الزاب
الأسفل/ محافظة کرکوک. من عام 2011 تم جمع عینات شهریة من کلا الموقعین ولمدة ستة اشهر وأجریت علیها بعض
التحلیلات الفیزیائیة والکیمیائیة وهی (درجة حرارة الماء والهواء وقابلیة التوصیل الکهربائی والعسرة بأنواعها فضلا عن
الأیونات السالبة والموجبة) أما من الجانب البیولوجی فقد تم حساب العدد الکلی للبکتیریا.
بینت نتائج الدراسة الحالیة حصول تغیرات واضحة فی قیم هذه المتغیرات فی بعض أشهر السنة، إذ تراوحت قیم
(1820 – 233 ) ملغم / لتر مقارنة مع قیمها فی تجمع ماء العین ( 1075 – العسرة الکلیة فی نهر الزاب الأسفل بین ( 150
ملغم / لتر، فی حین اظهر ترکیز أیون الکلورید ارتفاعا واضحا فی تجمع ماء العین بلغ ( 2749 ) ملغم /لتر خلال شهر ایلول
مقارنة مع میاه الزاب الأسفل إذ وصل إلى ( 80 ) ملغم / لتر. أما الأیونات الموجبة الصودیوم والبوتاسیوم فقد أظهرا ارتفاعا
18 ) ملغم / لتر مقارنة مع ترکیزهما فی میاه الزاب الأسفل - 1800 ) و( 4 - واضحا فی تجمع ماء العین حیث وصل ( 1375
103 ) خلیة × 2.6 ) ملغم / لتر على التوالی فی حین وصل أعلى عد للبکتیریا فی تجمع ماء العین إلى ( 30 – 87- 34 ) و( 1.6 )
103 ) خلیة / مل فی ماء الزاب الأسفل. × / مل و(

Effect of Amcocombe and Topaz Pesticide in Fungus Causing Contract Failure and Syphilis of Pumpkin Plant

Nidal Y. Al-Murad; Selda M. Baker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 151-161
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159360

In this study isolation from squash flowers which showed blossom end rot and male flowers
during fall and spring seasons showed the appearance of the following fungi Alternaria alternata,
Choanephora cucurbitarum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium
sporotrichioides. A. alternata record the highest isolate percentage 30.86% , 32.82% in fall and
spring respectively, followed by F. proliferatum which only isolated from male flowers during fallseasons in addition to F. culmorum, F. sporotrichioides The results also showed that Amkucombe
caused significant inhibition in fungi dry weight ,the highest inhibition was in F. sporotrichioides
where percentage was 91.66 followed by F. culmorum with 50%. Amkucombe also discourage
significantly mycelium growth of F. proliferatum. lowest inhibition percentage in mycelium growth
was recorded with A. alternata 4.83%, Treatment with fungicide Topaz caused significant reducing
to blossom end rot where inhibition percentage was 46.49% Amkucombe also caused significant
increasing on squash fruit number/ plant 11.55 and wet weight.أوضحت نتائج الدراسة ان العزل من الازهار المصابة بفشل العقد وتعفن الطرف الزهری والازهار الذکریة للموسمین
Alternaria alternata, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Fusarium الخریفی والربیعی أدى الى ظهور الفطریات
ومن نتائج نسبة العزل سجل الفطر culmorum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides
32.82 % للموسمین الخریفی والربیعی على التوالی وتلاها الفطر ، % اعلى نسبة عزل بمقدار 30.86 A.alternata
وتکرر عزله من الازهار الذکریة للموسمین الخریفی ولم یسجل ضمن الفطریات الموسم الربیعی تلاهما F.proliferatum
وتبین النتائج ان مستحضر امکوکومبی أدى الى تثبیط معنوی فی الوزن F.culmorum, F.sporotrichioides الفطرین
اذا بلغت النسبة المئویة للتثبیط 91.66 F. sporotrichioides الجاف للفطریات الممرضة وکان اشدها تثبیطا معنویا للفطر
وبنسبة تثبیط 50 % وادى مستحضر امکوکومبی أیضا الى تثبیط معنوی فی نمو الغزل الفطری F. culmorum تلاه الفطر
83 %، ویعد تأثیر المعاملة بالمبید توباز افضل . اذ بلغ 4 A. alternata وسجل أدنى تثبیط للفطر F.proliferatum للفطر
المعاملات فی خفض فشل العقد فی القرع وبفارق معنوی عن معاملة المقارنة الإیجابیة إذ بلغت نسبة الخفض 46.49 % ومن
دراسة تأثیر امکوکومبی فی الوزن الرطب للثمار فقد تفوق معنویا مع جمیع الفطریات وأیضا أدى الى زیادة عدد الثمار اذ بلغ
عددها 11.55 ثمرة لکل نبات

Separation and Identification of some Phenolic Compounds and Maleic Acid from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Study its Effect on the some Types of Pathogenic Bacteria

Fatimah I. Sultan; Ayad Ch. Khorsheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 169-180
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159361

Separated of some free phenolic compounds from flowers of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. by
column chromatography (CC). So, the acid hydrolysis was carried out for acetonic, ethanolic and
ethanolic fraction for them and the ethanolic-acetonic fraction for aqueous extract, the results of
chromatographic identification were appeared by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
(HPLC) that all separated parts of Rosella contained on P-hydroxybenzoic acid, also H3b and H4F2b
contained of thymol as well as of the presence of vanillic acid in H3b, so cinnamic acid also was
appeared, and coumarin compound in H3F2b were appeared, and thymol in H5F2b, as well as the
identification of Maleic acid in all fractions H3b, H3F2b. The crude extracts and which contained on
free isolate phenolic compounds were showed various inhibitory effect against of some bacteria
under study, using disc diffusion method compare with some antibiotic standard.

Effects of Paracetamol in Non-Specific Immunological Parameters

Rojan G.M. AL-Allaff

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159324

Our study includes follow up the effect of excessive dose of paracetamol in some individuals on non- specific immunological parameters, the study estimates total white blood cell count and calculates the absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes in blood, and estimation of the effectiveness of phagocytic cells of neutrophils. The study included the collection of (30) blood samples from individuals used paracetamol with excessive dose with age range between (20-40) years of both sexes, blood samples individuals donors do not use paracetamol as control samples were used as well. The results showed no significant differences in number of total white blood cell count and number of lymphocytes for individuals with excessive dose of paracetamol compared with control, on another hand the results showed a significant increase in number of neutrophils and monocytes compared with control, concerning the phagocytic activity, the results showed a significant reduction in phagocytic activity in individuals with excessive dose of paracetamol compared with control.

Isolation and Biofilm Forming Ability of Bacteria Attached to Urinary Catheter Undergoing Long-Term Bladder Catheterization

Khansa M. Younis

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 51-59
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159334

Catheter associated urinary tract infections are one of the most common nosocomial infections. This study aims to isolate, identify and biofilm forming ability of bacteria attached to urinary catheters particularly catheters that had been in place for prolonged periods in preventing catheter-associated infections caused by hospitalized ICU patients. Urinary catheters from (Clinical center of University Kebangsaan Malaysia) were used, one from Acute Vascular Rejection patient (Urinary catheter B), and two from Benign Prostate Hyperplasia patient (Urinary Catheter C and D).The urinary catheters and urine evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively used colony-forming unit and bacteriological assessment, respectively for each portions of urinary catheter for identifying infections. Bacterial population on agar plates showed varying density for all parts of three urinary catheters and urine samples. Altogether 100 isolates including 96 bacterial isolates and 4 yeast isolates have been successfully obtained from the three urinary catheters. Pathogens were Proteus 22 isolates followed by E.coli 5 isolates, Enterobacter 4 isolates, Klebsiella 3 isolates, Pseudomonas 1 isolates For UC(B), while in UC(C and D) which represent the catheters to same diseases were Pseudomonas 23 isolates showed the highest isolates followed by E.coli 16 isolate, Proteus 10 isolates, Enterobacter 7 isolates, Klebsiella 4 isolates, Candida 4 isolates, Bacillus 1 isolate. Results of biofilm forming on microtiter plate and sterile Foley catheter revealed that these isolates possess a high capacity for biofilm formation on the both surfaces at different degrees with delay in the initiation of biofilm formation on silicone coated Foley catheter compared to polystyrene microtiter plate. It is concluded that Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for UTI infections in our patients and almost all of the isolates have the abilities to form visible growing biofilms on both surfaces.

Effect of Organic Fertilizer of Potasium Humate and Sea Weed Extracts on some

Munther Y. Mohammad; Mudhafar O. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 64-75
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159356

The study was conducted in the forest nursery at college of agriculture and forestry/ University of
Mosul during the mid of April 2012, to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer Pow humus with three
concentrations (0 , 1 , 2) g L. In addition to Hypra tonic and Alga 300 with three concentration
(0 , 1 , 2 ) ml L. on some chemical and physiological characteristics of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. The
results showed that the highest significant increase was caused by Pow humus fertilizer in the leaves
content of phosphorus, potassium, carbohydrate, total chlorophyll and phenols, as well as the root
content of nitrogen and potassium. While Hypra tonic fertilizer has the highest significant increase in
the root content of phosphorus. In addition spraying by Alga 300 fertilizer gave the highest significant
increase in leaves content of nitrogen and it is effect was significant in stability of membranes.أجریت هذه الدراسة فی مشتل قسم الغابات/ کلیة الزراعة و الغابات، جامعة الموصل، فی منتصف الشهر الرابع عام 2012
لمعرفة تأثیر السماد العضوی فی البوهیومص بثلاثة تراکیز ( 2 ، 1 ، 0 ) غم/ لتر، الى جانب الهایبراتونیک و الجا 300 و بثلاثة
.Pinus pinea L. تراکیز ایضا ( 2 ، 1 ، 0 ) مل/ لتر على بعض الصفات الکیمیائیة و الفسلجیة لشتلات الصنوبر الثمری
وأظهرت النتائج ان اعلى زیادة معنویة سببها سماد الباوهیومص فی محتوى الاوراق من الفسفور و البوتاسیوم و الکاربوهیدرات و
الکلوروفیل الکلی و الفینولات فضلا عن محتوى الجذور من النتروجین و البوتاسیوم، فی حین سبب سماد الهایبراتونیک حصول
اعلى زیادة معنویة فی محتوى الجذور من الفسفور، کما أعطى الرش بسماد الجا 300 اعلى زیادة معنویة فی محتوى الاوراق من
النتروجین و کان تأثیره معنویًا فی ثباتیة الأغشیة

Analysis of the Oxidative Stress Parameters in Testicular, Hepatic and Renal Tissues Homogenates of Albino Rats after Administration of Imatinib at Peripuberty

Hafidh Al-Ashoo; Luma I. Al-Allaf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 128-135
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159342

Background: Targeted small molecule drugs have revolutionized treatment of chronic
myelogenous leukemia (CML) over the last two decades. The safety zone of imatinib, and
specifically its relevancy to organ toxicity, has been discussed in a controversial manner in current
years. There is a little data on the contribution of oxidative stress in imatinib induced organ
toxicities
Objectives: This work aims to analyze the possible role of oxidative stress in the occurrence of
testicular, hepatic and renal toxicities induced by imatinib (if present) by analyzing some
parameters including glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in their homogenates.
Study setting and design: This experimental study was conducted on male Albino rats (purchased
from Animal Houses of both Mosul Medical College, and Veterinary College, University of Mosul,
Mosul, Northern Iraq).
Methods: This work included 40- 45 days aged rats (at peripuberty) (n=8) which administered a
single daily dose of 200mg/kg of imatinib mesylate for 30 days (100mg capsule, Glivec®, STI 571;
Novartis) bought from Ibn-Sena Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Northern Iraq, or bought from some
private pharmacies and were dissolved in distilled water (D.W) and given orally by gavage with 24
gage needle. Another group of 8 rats were administered with D.W represents an age matched
control. Testes, livers, parts and kidneys were collected from all rats. Tissue GSH, MDA
concentrations in the homogenates of the three organs were determined by spectrophotometer
according to the methods described.
Results: All rats survived the experimental period. This study revealed a decrease in value of GSH
in the testicular and hepatic tissues of the treated rats, however, the concentrations of this
antioxidant in renal tissue were higher than that of control ones. Briefly, imatinib induced an
elevation of MDA productions in both testicular and hepatic tissues when compared to the control
group. MDA concentrations in renal homogenates in the treated group were lower than that of
control ones.
Conclusion: Imatinib induced a decrease in the level of GSH and increased in level of MDA in
testicular, hepatic homogenates indicating its oxidative effect.الخلفیة: ان الأدویة المستهدفة للجزیئات الصغیرة قد احدثت ثورة فى علاج مرض ابیضاض الدم المزمن خلال العقدین
المنصرمین. ان المنطقة الامنة للایماتنب وخصوصا علاقته مع سمیة الاعضاء قد نوقشت بطریقة متناقضة فى السنوات
الحالیة. هناک بیانات قلیلة عن مساهمة الکرب التاکسدى فی سمیة الأعضاء الناتجة عن الایماتنبأهداف الدراسة: یهدف هذا العمل الى تحلیل الدور الاحتمالی للکرب التاکسدى فى حدوث سمیة الخصیة والکبد والکلى الناتجة
عن الایماتنب (اذا ما کانت موجودة) وذلک عن طریق تحلیل بعض المؤشرات التی تشمل مستویات الکلوتاثایون المالوندالدیهاید
فی مزیج أنسجة تلک الأعضاء.
مکان الدراسة: هذه الدراسة التجریبیة اجریت على الجرذان المهقاء والمهداة من بیتی الحیوانات التابعین لکلیتی طب الموصل
والطب البیطرى، جامعة الموصل فى مدینة الموصل شمالی العراق.
45 یوما (حول البلوغ) وعددهم ثمانیة وذلک عن طریق الفم یومیا - طرائق العمل: تضمن العمل تجریع الجرذان بعمر 40
بمقدار 200 ملغرام لکل کیلوغرام من وزن الجسم ولمدة شهر بعقار الایماتنب مسیلیت (کلیفک، نوفارتس) مهداة من مستشفى
ابن سینا التعلیمى، مدینة الموصل او مشترى من بعض الصیدلیات الخاصة. تم اذابة الدواء فى الماء المقطر وباستعمال ابرة
تجریع قیاس 24 . مجموعة اخرى من نفس العمر جرعوا بالماء المقطر ومثلوا مجموعة السیطرة. تم جمع اخذ الخصیتین
والکبد والکلیتین من کل الجرذان. تم تحدید تراکیز الکلوتاثایون والمالوندالدیهاید فی مزیج أنسجة الأعضاء الثلاثة بجهاز قیاس
الطیف الضوئی وذلک حسب الطرق المعتمدة.
النتائج: کل الجرذان عاشوا خلال طول فترة التجربة. هذه الدراسة أوضحت ان هناک قلة فى مستوى الکلوتاثایون فی نسیج
الخصیة والکبد فى الجرذان المعاملة مع العلم ان مستوى هذا المضاد التاکسدى فی نسیج الکلى قد کان اعلى من مجموعة
السیطرة. بطریقة مختصرة، الایماتنب احدث زیادة فى مستوى المالوندالدیهاید فى کلا نسیجی الخصیة والکبد بالمقارنة مع
مجموعة السیطرة. ان مستوى المالوندالیهاید فى نسیج الکلى فى مجموعة المعاملة کان اقل من ذلک العائد لمجموعة السیطرة.
الاستنتاجات: ان الایماتنب قد سبب انخفاضا فى مستوى الکلوتاثایون وزیادة فی مستوى المالوندالدیهاید فی مزیجی الخصیة
والکبد ممایدل على تأثیره الاوکسیدى.

Detection of Biofilm Genes (IcaA and IcaD) in Staphylococcus spp.

Aws I. Sulaiman; Basima A. Abdulla

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 60-63
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159338

One hundred thirty one clinical bacterial samples were collected from skin, pus, urine and blood from patients at Al-Salam General Teaching Hospital in Mosul city during March until July/ 2012, The present study included identification using API ID 32 STAPH system to the species Staphylococcus. aureus, Staph. lugdunensis, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. hominis, Staph. auricularis and Staph. haemolyticus, Biofilm formation genes at icaA (188 bp.) were found in 35.7% of Staph. aureus, Staph. hominis, and Staph. xylosus but 42.8 % of Staph. aureus, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. hominis, and Staph. xylosus contained icaD (198 bp.) gene only.

.

Detection of mrkA Gene in Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients under Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Enas A. Al-Layla; Basima A. Abdullah; Ali A. Mohamad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 75-80
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159339

Thirty five sinus samples obtained from endoscopic patients who were suffering from chronic sinusitis and admitted to AL-Jumhori, AL-Rabie private, AL-Zahrawi private hospitals in Mosul city from March 2013 to March 2014 were conducted .Samples were cultured and pure isolates were identified to species level using morphological, biochemical and physiological tests. PCR was done using plasmids isolated from species under study by using primers for mrkA gene .mrkA gene was found in four species: Moraxella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli and Citrobacter freundii.
Nucleotide sequencing was done for isolated mrkA gene and homology searches were conducted between the sequences of standard gene BLAST program which is available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Basic Local Alignment Search program Tool(BLAST). Variations appear as transversion mutation which causes change tryptophan amino acid to leucine amino acid and there was transition mutation which causes change from aspartite amino acid to asparagine..

Investigation of some Carboxylic Acids and Phenolic Compounds of Ailanthus altissima Leaves and their its Effect on Italian Cupressus Seedlings Root Rot Fungi

Fanar H. Al-Hashumi; Anwer N. Al-Khero; Ayad Ch. Al-daody

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 8-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159366

The study was carried out for separation and identification of some carboxylic acids such as
Aspartic, Citric, Tartaric, Propionic, Ascorbic, Maleic and Fumaric, Adepic acid, as well as Phenol,
Resorcinol, Hydroguinone, Quercetine, p-Hydroxybenzoic, Benzoic acid and Gallic acid from
Alianthus altissima determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Moreover
the major components of carboxylic acid were presented as Ascorbic acid (86.38%). Also the
phenolic compounds was studied and the results showed that P- Hydroxy benzoic acid (41.99%)
was the highest amount. Isolation results from Cupressus seedlings infected with root rot disease
appearance of the fungus F. solani, F. oxysporum , F. chlamydosporium and Rhizoctonia solani,
the isolation ratios was 41% as amaximum value for F. solani, then F. oxyspoum (27%), F.
chlamydosporium (12%) which was minimum value and Rhizoctonia solani (20%).
Bioassay results of Ailanthus altissima leaves extract showed an increasing inhibition ratio
of fungi growth with increasing leaves extract concentrations, F.oxysporum and
F.chlamydosporium had the highest degree of growth inhibition (100) % for the two fungus at (4%)
extracts concentrations, then followed by the fungus F.solani and Rhizoctonia solani were (84.
78,57) % respectively and Rhizoctonia solani had the minimum inhibition.
The results of average fungus growth treated with several concentrations of Ailanthus leaves
extracts with PDA media showed inhibition of growth with increasing extracts concentration, F.
chlamydospoum had minimum mean growth 7mm at 1% extract conc. whereas the two species of
Fusarium showed maximum inhibition for average growth were zero values at 4% of extract conc.
except Rhizoctonia solani which had a different value (19.67) mm at the same conc.تشیر الدراسة الحالیة الى فصل وتشخیص بعض الاحماض الکاربوکسیلیة کحامض الاسبارتک، الستریک، التارتاریک،
البروبانویک، الاسکوربیک، المالیک، الفیوماریک، وحامض الادبیک، فض ً لا عن المرکبات الفینولیة کالفینول، ریسورسینول،
هیدروکینون، کورستین، باراهیدروکسی بنزویک، حامض البنزویک، حامض الکالیک. وأشارت النتائج الى أن حامض الاسکوربیک ظهر بأعلى نسیة بلغت 86.38 % ، وکذلک تم دراسة المرکبات الفینولیة وأظهرت النتائج ان حامض
.% بارهیدروکسی بنزویک ظهر بأعلى نسبة بلغت 41.99
F. و Fusarium solani أظهرت نتائج العزل من شتلات السرو المصابة بمرض تعفن الجذور فطریات
وبلغت النسبة المئویة للعزل 41 % کحد أقصى مع Rhizoctonia solani و F. chlamydosporium و oxysporum
والذی بلغت نسبته المئویة أدنى F. chlamydosporium بنسبة 27 % و F. oxysporum تلته الفطریات F. solani الفطر
فکانت نسبة العزل 20 %، وتبین من نتائج الاختبار الحیوی لمستخلص أوراق Rhizoctonia solani قیمة ( 12 )%، أما الفطر
F. تأثر الفطریات مع زیادة التراکیز للمستخلص حیث أظهر الفطر Ailanthus altissima لسان الطیر
F. solani أقصى تثبیط بتأثیر المستخلص بلغ 100 % عند الترکیز 4% من المستخلص تلته الفطریات chlamydosporium
Rhizoctonia حیث بلغت قیم تثبیطها ( 84 و 57 و 87 )% على التوالی، فی حین أظهر الفطر Rhizoctonia solani و
أدنى نسبة تثبیط بتأثیر المستخلص. solani
کذلک أظهرت نتائج الاختبار الحیوی لمستخلص أوراق لسان الطیر تثبیطًا معنویُا فی متوسطات نمو الفطریات مع
ادنى میوسط نمو تثبیط بتأثیر مستخلص الأوراق إذ بلغ 7 ملم F. chlamydosporium ترکیز المستخلص حیث أظهر الفطر
أقصى تثبیطًا للنمو بلغت قیمته صفر عند Fusarium عند الترکیز 1% من المستخلص، فی حین أظهرت نوعی الفطر
الذی کانت قیمة متوسط نموه 19.67 ملم عند نفس التر

Detection of Active Compounds in Residues some Species of Plant, Isolation and

Wasan S. Hussein; Janan A. Saeed; Amer M. Al-Mathedy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159345

The research aims to the guarantee detection of some active compounds in plant residues for
crops Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barely (Hordeum Spp. Desf.),Corn (Zea mays L.), Sunflower
(Helianthus annuus L.) using the appropriate chemical reagents, were separated and some estimate
their respective rates, has also been isolated and identified Allelopathic compounds using separation
device High performance liquid chromatography HPLC the results were as follows:
1. The results of initial qualitative statements showed presence most of the secondary metabolic
compounds which includes (glycosides and alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids,
saponins, resins) in the sun flower remnants, while the results of detecting the presence of
steroids in the remnants of barley and Corn did not show, as did not give turbines and steroid
positive and resins when detected in the remnants of wheat, were also measured quantity
(glycosides and alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids) and the results showed that the highest
concentration of (alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids) was in the sun flower residues, while the highest
concentration of Glycosides was in the residues of barley.
2. The results of the analysis devise chromatography High performance liquid HPLC showed
presence 5 phenolic compounds, in residues of wheat (Hydroquinone, P- Hydroxy benzoic acid,
Quercetin, Salicylic acid, Rutin), two compounds in barley residues(Hydroquinone, Caffiec
acid), 5 compounds in Corn residues(Caffiec acid, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, Rutin, Vanillin),
but the sun flower residues continued(Quercetin, Resorcinol, Rutin, Vanillin).

Effect of some Biological Agents on Pathogenicity of some Root Pathogenic Fungi

Hadeel A. AL-Ameri; Zuhair A. Dawood; Fatin N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159344

Results of pathogenicity showed that the three fungi Fusarium culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp.
and Bipolaris spp. were the faster fungi inoculated in the emergence of symptoms as pathological
symptoms in both strawberry varities Hapil and Festival. Hapil was more sensitive than Festival agents
on the three studied fungi. The results indicate that the addition of biological agent T. harzianum and P.aerogenosa and fungicides Azadirachtin to the three fungi F. culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp. and
Bipolaris spp. caused a significant reduction of the pathogenicity compared with fungi alone, and the
results indicated that the biological agent efficiency of high antagonisms ability against the three fungi
F. culmorum, Cylindrocarpon spp. and Bipolaris spp., and the results indicated the ability of
biological agent on P. aerogenosa agents the fungus Cylindrocarpon spp., and fungicide Azadirachtin
showed high antagonism against Cylindrocarpon spp.أشارت نتائج اختبار القدرة الامراضیة الى أ  ن الفطریات الثلاثة
وفستفل Hapil تسببت فی ظهور الأعراض المرضیة فی صنفی الشلیک هابل Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و
وکان الصنف هابل اکثر حساسیة من الصنف فستفل تجاه الفطریات الثلاثة المدروسة، فقد بینت النتائج الى ان إضافة .Festival
والمقاوم الکیمیائی Pseudomonas aerogenosa والبکتیری Trichoderma harzianum المقاومین الحیویین الفطری
اعطى انخفاضًا معنویًا فی Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و F. culmorum الى الفطریات الثلاثة Azadirachtin
شدة ظهور المرض بالمقارنة مع الفطریات ک ً لا على حدة وبمفرده. وکان للمقاوم الحیوی الفطری کفاءة تضادیة عالیة ضد
کما تشیر النتائج إلى تفوق القدرة التضادیة ،Bipolaris spp. و Cylindrocarpon spp. و F. culmorum الفطریات الثلاثة
ایضًا قدرة Azadirachtin معنویًا وأظهر المقاوم الکیمیائی Cylindrocarpon spp. على الفطر P. aerogenosa للبکتریا
.Cylindrocarpon spp. تضادیة عالیة على الفطر

Biophysical Effect of EMR with 5GHz on Male Reproductive system of Mus musclus Mice

Qusay K. Al-Dulamey; Abd-Alkareem H. Ismail; Yasir A. Al-Jawwady

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 103-113
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159341

To study the effect of microwave radiation with power density 100,150 and 200 microwatt /
cm2 (μW/cm2) of exposure on male reproductive system of Mus musclus Swiss albino mice. The
results of the first group exposed to 100 μW/cm2 showed a significant decrease(p<0.05) in no. of
sperm cells in epididymis percentage of living sperm cells and percentage of normal sperm cells
respectively while a significant increase(p<0.05) in percentage of dead sperm cells and percentage
of abnormal sperm cells was found. The second and third groups exposed to microwave radiation at
150 and 200 μW/cm2.The 5GHz on microwave radiation has a harmful effects physiologically and
histopathologically for reproductive system. Exposure for long time to radiation from
communication that have this same frequency as WI –Fi or any communication from internet
should be avoided.تمت دراسة تأثیر موجات المایکرویف بکثافة قدرة 150 ، 100 و 200 مایکرو واط/سم 2 على الجهاز التناسلی الذکری
5. بینت النتائج ان GHz لفترة تعریض ( 6) ساعات یومیا لمدة ( 60 ) یوما للتردد Mus musculus للفئران من نوع
فی عدد خلایا النطف فضلا (P< المجموعة المعرضة لجرعة اشعاعیة 100 مایکرو واط/سم 2 اظهرت انخفاضا ملحوظا ( 0.05
عن حصول انخفاض معنوی فی عدد الخلایا الحیة والطبیعیة، بینما بینت هذه النتائج حصول زیادة معنویة فی عدد الخلایا
المیتة والمشوهة.
اما نتائج القیاسات للمجموعتین المعرضتین للجرعتین الاشعاعیتین 150 و 200 مایکرو واط/سم 2 فقد اظهرت نفس
5 لها تاثیرات خطرة فسلجیا GHz التغییر الذی حدث فی المجموعة الاولى. موجات المایکرویف الاشعاعیة عند التردد
ونسیجیا للجهاز التناسلی وان یتم تجنب التعرض لفترة زمنیة طویلة للاشعاعات المنبعثة من الاتصالات التی لها نفس تردد
او أی اتصالات عبر الانترنت

Bioinformatics: Effect of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Human Immune Gene Expression

Abdulrhem Th. Al-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 40-50
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159337

Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) cause common infections in humans with a prevalence of over 70% in adults, reaching 90% in poorer communities and developing countries. In immune-compromised and transplant recipients, CMV causes serious complications including pneumonia and ulcerative colitis. Studying the effect of CMV on human immune-inflammatory genes in immune cellular responses is critically important to explore the molecular mechanisms of viral-host interaction. The aim of this study is to explore changes in the mRNA transcripts of a panel of 84 human inflammatory genes. Ninety blood samples were collected from healthy persons used as control samples and compared with acute infection with CMV sample from bioinformatics data (previous researches). Real time-PCR array were performed to determine mRNA levels expression levels of 84 different cytokines and chemokines in control`s leukocytes concentrate. CMV infection caused upregulation (between 44.99 and 0.92 fold change) in the expression of 13 human immune-inflammatory genes (IL-1 alpha, IL10R Alpha, CXCL10, IL10, CX3CR1, CCL2, CCR5, CCR7, CXCL1, IL-1β, TNF, IFN-alpha 2, CCL5). Gene ontology analysis revealed that CMV causes high impact on four key pathways in infected cells. .

First Record of Fusarium poae, Wheat Root Rot Fungus in the North of Iraq

Ali K. AL-Taee; Zardasht A. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 162-168
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159351

The Results of field survey conducted in Ninevah and Erbil governorates to assess the
distribution of root rot disease in wheat have shown variability in infection levels. In Ninevah; the
highest infestation of %27.5 was reported from Bashika, and lowest of %16.9 from Hamdaniyeh,
and in Erbil;the highest infestation of %25.8 was reported in Grdy Mawan and lowest of %21.5
was in Khalwan. Isolates from root rot infected wheat plants shown the appearance of Bipolaris
sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shomaker, Fusarium graminearium (Schwabe ), F. culmorum (Wm. G. Smith )
Sacc and and F.poae (Schwabe ) as first found and recorded on wheat in Iraq, the fungus B.
sorokiniana recorded the highest isolation rate of %54.1 in Tallafar and lowest rate of %37.1 in
Qapakian, followed by F.culmorum which recorded a range of isolation between % 22.1 and
%25.4. Identification of isolated fungi were confirmed by conducting Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR) molecular test using 2 specific primers FP82F and FP82R. The expected PCR product (220
bp) obtained from a specific molecular marker (FP82), confirmed that they belong to fungus F.
Poae. However, this is the first molecular study indicates clearly the presence of F. Poae in Iraq.

Regeneration of White Lupin, Lupinus albus, Plants form Hypocotyl Stems

Amjad A. Mohammed; Rana T. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 95-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159348

This study succeeded in regenerating the white lupin, Lupinus albus, plants from
differentiated the hypocotyl stems callus of its sterilized seedlings. The results indicated to superior
the solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium provided with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA in callus initiation
with 90% after 20 days of culture from the other of selected media. The rate of the value of the
callus fresh weight was 3.3 gm after 40 days of growth, which gives indication on the viability and
activity of callus. The continued of callus subculture on the same its initiated medium led to
spontaneous production of 22 shoots. These regenerated shoots rooted when cultivated in MSO
with its full strength at ratio 50% after 26 days, producing the whole lupin plants in the culture
media. .

Genotypic and Phenotypic Behavior for Quantitative Traits of some Wheat Varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) and their Half Diallel Crosses

Ahmed H. Anees; Abdul-Khader H. AL- Jubouri

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 76-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159347

A field experiment was carried out at the research station of the field crops department
college of agricultureuniversity of Tikrit during (2011-2012 and 2013 winter seasons, included
crossing according half diallel cross in the first season and evaluating parents and their crosses in
the second season to study the genotypic and phenotypic behavior for the traits: days to anthesis,
plant height (cm), no. spikes. plant-1, no. grains. spike-1, 1000 grains weight (g) and individual grain
weight. Results showed highly significant differences for whole studied traits, many parents have
high significant means and agood combiner in many traits especially ACS-W-J19-9148 parents in
plant height and grains. spike-1 , ACS-W-J14-9143 parent in days to anthesis and 1000 grain weight
and ACS-W-J15-9144 in no.grains.spike-1 and individual grain weight. Many crosses have better
performance and affected positively to wards desired direction of significant hybrid vigor (ACS-WJ19-
9148 X sham 6) in no. grains. spike-1 and individual grain yield, (ACS-W-J15-9144) in 1000
grain weight and individual grain weight. Whole traits were controlled by dominance type of gene
action and that adequate with the ratio of the degree of dominance which were more than one.
Consequently heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance were low. The last two
crosses can be useful through the application of pedigree selection on the late segregation
generations to improve bread wheat cultivars

Serological and Molecular Comparison Study for Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infection in aborted Pregnant Women in Iraq

Anmar A. Al-Taie; Basim A. Abdullah; Mozahim Y. Al-Attar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 81-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159336

This study was conducted to investigate the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections of pregnant women. The samples were collected from Mosul and Baghdad hospitals in Iraq for two years and the tested women within the age category of under 20 to above 39 years. One thousand five hundred samples were taken as serum, to use in ELISA (IgM, IgG). EDTA blood, Heparin blood and cervical swabs were used in molecular tests. Three hundred positive samples demonstrating the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies using ELISA test. IgM antibodies were positive in 146 (48.7%) CMV, IgG antibodies were positive in 189 (63%) for CMV. DNA was extracted and Real-Time PCR indicates positive in only four samples (1.3%) in CMV from all 300 positive samples in ELISA tests. CMV

Identification of Vinblastine and Vincristine in Callus of Catharanthus roseus L. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Apparatus

Aysar M. Almemary; Bashar Z. Kassab Bashi; Ayad C. Aldaoody

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159376

Parts of leaves, nodal explant, and internodes of Catharanthus roseus were cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with 30 gm / L sucrose, 6 mg / L agar with addition BA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 mg/ L with 0.75 mg /L 2,4-D for callus initiation and growth. Vinblastine and Vincristine were identified in these calli by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.(HPLC). Data refers: highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 1.907 gm, 14.47% were achieved respectively from cultured parts of leaves on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D. cultured nodal explant on MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/ L 2, 4-D produced highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 0.496 gm, 9.15% respectively, culture internodes explant on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D produced highest fresh weight of callus and highest protein percentage 0.717 gm, 11.90 % respectively. The callus produced from cultured parts of leave on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D gave highest absorption value for Vinblastine at retention time (13.536) with detected area (255647). highest detected area was (975021) at retention time (18.886) for Vincristine assessed from callus produced from cultured parts of leave on MS medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D, callus produced from cultured nodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D gave highest detected area for Vinblastine (318395) at retention time (12.809) but culture nodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/ L BA with 0.75 mg/L 2,4-D gave highest detected area (577979) for Vincristine at retention time (18.139), callus produced from cultured internodes on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ L BA and 0.75 mg/ L 2,4-D gave highest absorption value for Vinblastine and Vincristine (1892650) and (964402) at retention time (13.632) (18.309) respectively..

Detection of some Biochemical Indicators and Auto-Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of Kidney Disease and Renal Failure Patient's Urine

Sarab D. Alshamaa; Saja H. Al-Obaidi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159383

The use of reliable biomarkers is becoming increasingly important for improved management of patients with acute and chronic kidney diseases. Recent developments have identified a number of these novel biomarkers in urine that can determine the potential risk of kidney damage. This research have elucidated that there are some biochemical enzymatic markers that have strong relationships with kidney disease and renal failure and could be used for diagnostic purposes, such as arginase and carbonic anhydrase that show a significant activity increase in both male and female patient's urine in all age stages at probability P Fluorescence spectrophotometric technique reveals that some natural urine's fluorophores intensities changed according to the clinical state of the persons, for this it can be utilized as a diagnostic indicator of some diseases such as kidney diseases and renal failure as shown in this research which indicated that the intensities of patient's urine emission fluorescence peaks have changed in both males and female patient's urine especially at 352, 353, 363 nm,401, 425,438,445 nm, 438-445nm and 703nm compared with healthy ones at fixed excitation wavelength 350-400 respectively.
.

The Effect of Adding Different Proportions of Ginger Powder on Production in Performance and Carcass Characteristics and Egg of Quail Strains

Esraa M. Tawfeeq; Hytham M. Sabeh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 95-106
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159382

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding different levels of ginger powder to the lying Quail rations of three strains (white, gray, black). 297 Quail bird (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly distributed into 3 treatments with 3 and 3 strains, replications of 11 birds/ replication The addition of G.P to the treatments T1 (control), T2 and T3was (0,0.5 and 1%) respectively. The results revealed a significant increase (P≥0.05) in feed consumption and body weight at age of 5 weeks, and relative weight of chest, back and thigh as well as body and carcass weight, and significant increase (P≥0.05) in egg yolk weight and shell thickness in favor to T2. As for strain both white and black strain showed a significant increase (P≥0.05) in carcass percentage fragments, gnat ratio, carcass weight and fragment weights of chest, back and thigh compared to gray line, a significant increase (P≥0.05) in egg length and width in favor to black strain. while there were no significant differences of the ginger in average daily gain, coefficient of food conversion, gnat ratio, egg, white and shell weight respectively and egg white and yolk height between addition levels. As for the interaction between ginger addition and strain, the results revealed a significant differences (P≥0.05) in body weight and feed consumptions in fevor to interaction between gray, white strain, and between T2 and white, black strain of feed conversion efficiency and significant differences (P≥0.05) in egg width in favor to the interaction between T3 and gray strain, and egg produced for favor to the interaction between white strain and T1,T2, egg yolk and white weight and yolk height for favor to the interaction between B.S and both T1and T2. For shell thickness the interaction between W.S. and T1 was significantly superior (P≥0.05) than other treatments.

Bioaccumulation of Zinc in Four Tissues of Local Fishes Collected from Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 15-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159379

The study determined the concentration of Zinc in local fish tissues (liver, muscle, gills). The local fishes (Cyprinuscarpio, Condrostomeregium, Liza abu and Carassiuscarassius). All of this samples were collected from Mushirfa, which considered as a control, Middle of the city (near the old bridge of Ninevah ) and Al-Busaif locations. The results showed that the accumulation of Zinc in fish tissues was followed descending order: Liver > Gills > Muscle. While depended on fish collected locations, the bioaccumulation of this metals has followed the order, Al- busaif area > Middle city >Mushirfa area. .

Isolation and Identification Species of Vibrio Genus from Fresh and Frozen Shrimp and Confirmation the Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique

Shaker G. Jerjees; Amera Mahmood Alrawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159381

This research was concerned with the isolation and identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from seafood (shrimp) samples. (40) samples of freshly harvested shrimp from the local markets in Al-Basra city and twenty (20) samples of frozen shrimp (Turkey origin) were collected. Two enrichment methods were used for the enhancement of the growth and isolation of vibrio species, which include enrichment in non selective medium Alkaline peptone water (APW) for 8 hours and then in selective broth salt polymyxin broth (SPB) and then plated on two solid selective media, ThioSulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose agar (TCBS) and Arabinose Ammonium Sulphate Cholate agar (AASC) and morphological, cultural and biochemical tests were performed on the colonies grown on selective media, then we confirmed the identification by using the chromogenic medium ChromagarTM Vibrio for the first time locally. Finally tox R based polymerase chain reaction was used to cofirm the identification of V. parahaemolyticus. The results showed the isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus in percentage 45%, 20%, 37.5%, 17.5% from fresh shrimp, 35%, 20%, 25%, 15% from the frozen shrimp respectively. The results also showed that there is an accordenance between biochemical tests and ChromagarTM Vibrio. The results of tox R based PCR revealed that 22l25 of V. parahaemolyticus contain the tox R gene which is species-specific gene.

Effect of Thymus and Anis and Mixture on some Physiological and Productive Traits of Quail

Ghadeer A. Rahawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 49-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159377

The experiment was carried out on quails (unsexed, one day old), to evaluate the effect of supplementation of thymus and anise to ration in physiological, productive traites, birds weight and divided to 4 treatments, three replicate and 20 birds for each replicate for 7 weeks. The experimental treatments were, T1(control): reared on standard ration, T2 reared on standard ration supplemented thyme with 10 g/kg ration, T3 reared on standard ration supplemented anise with 10 g/kg ration and T4 reared on standard ration supplemented with 10 g thyme and 10g anise/kg ration.
Statistical analysis of data showed significant increase in live body weight and weight gain for T4, and significant increase in feed intake in for T2 and T4. significant improvement in feed conversion ratio for T3 and T4. Also, improved mean egg weight, dressing percentage, heart, liver, gizzard, breast, thighs, wings and neck in 4th treatment. And 3rd treatment improved weight of carcass, red blood cell (T.RBC count), hematocrit values (PCV) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), while decrease mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). 2nd and 3rd and 4th treatment decrease glucose concentration and bacterium number in intestine, but show significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in total protein, albumin, globulin, triglycerides and cholesterol concentration. Also, length and improved 2nd , 3rd and 4th treatment egg quality. It concluded from this study that the thyme and anise plant supplement to dieted quail bird improved some of the physiological, productive and reproductive characters and egg quality
.

Isolation and Identification of some Microorganisms Causing Vaginitis and Cervicitis and Relationship of Risk Factors with these Infections

Muhsin A. Essa; Faleeha H. Hussein

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 77-94
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159378

This research was performed to isolate and identify the Microorganisms causing vaginitis and cervicitis and relationship of some risk factors with these infections. Two hundred and seventy high vaginal specimens were collected during the period from December 2012 until the end of May 2013, from pregnant and non- pregnant women of different ages, who had the clinical symptoms of vaginitis and cervicitis infections.
Isolation and identification results showed that (252) specimen (93.3%) were positive for microbial culture, these specimen distributed among (152) specimen (60.3%) appeared single bacterial growth, (13) specimen (5.2%) were mixed bacterial growth, (36) specimen (14.3%) mixed bacterial with candida growth and (51) specimen (20.2%) candidal growth only.
Gram positive bacteria formed the high percentage (63.8%) compared with Gram negative bacteria (36.2%). Staphylococcus spp. were the most isolate among Gram positive bacteria and E.coli were the most isolate among Gram negative bacteria. Candida albicans showed significant appearance among positive microbial cultures either as single or mixed with bacteria.
Results showed relationship between some risk factors with studied infections, it was found that almost all infections were in the married women, aged (20-50) years (93.3%) and the most infections in non- pregnant women (66.7%), in addition to the role of other diseases (such as UTI, diabetes) ,various contraceptive methods and other risk factors.

Detection of some Alkaloids and Fatty Acids to Plant and Callus of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L . )

Mira A. Al – Katib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 77-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.32381

The study results showed that the best supporter media for callus induction from local purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) stems and leaves sterile explants , those MS media(Murashige and Skoog medium) supporting with hormone regulators BA(Benzyl adenine), NAA(Naphthalene Acetic Acid) in concentrations 1.0 , 2.0 , 4.0 , mg/L from each of them as well as MS medium containing BA : NAA in 2:1 mg/L respectively , and the callus was inculcation during 15-20 day . The result of separating alkaloids from callus of stems and leaves and shoots of plant showed in Infrared Spectrophotometer technique (IR) separating of Oleracein B and Oleracein D that degree in purity and the best of it appear in stems callus extract . when Thin Layer Chromatography Technique (TLC) was made for extracted alkaloids , Rate of Flow (Rf) values appeared very comparatively to these samples (0.77, 0.82, 0.80) to each of stems callus alkaloid, leaves callus alkaloid and plant alkaloid respectively , then retention time record for it , and main band recognized in plant alkaloid at 4.755 min , also 4.646 min and 4.657 min in stems callus alkaloid and leaves callus alkaloid respectively by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique , that result prove of Oleraceins (B, D) occurrences in samples of purslane . The fatty acids which occur in purslane plant , calli of stems and leaves are detect by using Capillary Gas Chromategraph (CGC) technique , the plant extract showed 12 fatty acids in it , but in low concentration compared with that appear in leaves callus extract for most fatty acids especially omega – 3 fatty acid (C18: 3) , when the stems callus extract record the lower ratio of fatty acid occurrences that it was 3 fatty acids only (C16: 0 , C16: 1, C18: 1).

Restriction the Spread of Viruses Caused Mosaic on Squash Plants by Using Several Field Control Methods and Studying their Effect on Chlorophyll

Naseer K. Al–Biadani; Nabeel A. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2010, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 21-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2010.37422

The study showed the effect of some agricultural methods in reducing the incidence of mosaic symptoms on squash plants by using mineral oil (Sunoco) at conc. 2.5% at 15 days interval by spraying the leaves, this treatment was the best one because it decreased the disease incidence to 24.6% compared with 54% in control. Also using yellow water traps and aluminum stripes to attract aphids, reduced disease incidence to 28.6 and 13.3% respectively.
The diagnostic study which conducted by using indicator plants and antisera, detected three viruses which cause mosaic symptoms: Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic Potyvirus (WMV–2). The results showed that these symptoms reduced chlorophyll content to 47.5%.

The Investigation of some Types of Bacteria in Kidney Stones

Amera M. AL-Rawi; Rasha N. AL-Sa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2009, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.41344

The study investigated the presence of bacteria in stone constituents in addition to chemical analysis of struvite stone components, removed by surgical intervention form (50) patients having renal stones and urinary tract infections ( UTIs).
The results showed the isolation of Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonass aeruginosa from most of 8 struvite stones from the center and subsurface layers, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were also isolated from one of the 32 calcium stones, while 10 uric acid stone, were germ-free.

The chemical analysis results showed that struvite stone components, contain calcium, magenisium and phosphate.

Inhibitory Effect of Lowsonia inermis Leaves on Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Different Cutaneous Infections

bdul Razak K. Mahmood; Rwaa Hamoshi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41395

The study included the isolation and identification of Staph. aureus from different cutaneous infections in the emergency unit, and out patients of dermatology clinic both within the Mosul Medical City. (247) samples were collected, (155) of them were of
Staph. aureus at a ratio of (62.7%). The highest rate Staphylococcal infection ( 76.1%) was isolated from impetigo while the lowest rate ( 37.5%) was isolated from infected wounds. The inhibitory effect alcoholic and aqueous, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and acetone of Lowsonia Inermis leaves against the isolates of Staph. aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) determined for these extracts.
The results indicated that the acetone extract showed the best effect on bacteria and the MIC was (0.5 mg/cm3) and the MBC equal to (1.0mg/ cm3) against the tested bacteria. The MIC and MBC differs according to the type extract and the region of isolation .
The Acetone extract was chosen to test its effect in vivo , this extract showed good results in treating the experimental wounds which were artificially infected with Staph. aureus using the Albino rabbit as experimental model for maximum period of twenty days .

Effect of Different Amino Acids as Nitrogen Sources on Polysaccharide Production ( Pullulan ) By Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 42023

Shimal y. Abdul- Hadi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 97-103
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41417

The effect of different amino acids as nitrogen sources in a basal synthetic medium on the production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 42023 was investigated. The results showed that glycine was the best nitrogen source among anthor amino acids tested in stimulating pullulan production . Maximum production of pullulan (21.16) g/L was obtained when basal synthetic supplements with 0.05% glycin as a nitrogen source.

Effect of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Garlic Extracts on the Mutagenicity of Short Wave Ultraviolet in Conidia of the Fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Rafi’a K. Girges; Rafi’ K. Al-Taee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 16-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41528

یتضمن البحث اختبار تاثیر مستخلصات الثوم المائیة والکحولیة على القابلیة التطفیریة للاشعة فوق البنفسجیة القصیرة الموجة (UVC) فی کونیدات الفطر Aspergillus amstelodami، وقد جرى دراسة اربعة تراکیز غیر سامة لکل من المستخلصین المائی والکحولی وکانت تراکیز المسنخلص المائی المدروسة هی (2.5 ، 5 ، 7.5 و 10 ملغم / مل من العالق الکونیدی)، اما تراکیز المستخلص الکحولی فقد کانت (0.5 ، 1 ، 1.5 و 2 ملغم / مل من العالق الکونیدی). وقد اجریت الدراسة بطریقة المعاملة المسبقة فأظهر کل من المستخلصین المائی والکحولی وبالتراکیز المذکورة لکل منهما تاثیرا مثبطا للقابلیة التطفیریة للاشعة فوق البنفسجیة قصیرة الموجة (UVC).

The Effect of Eucalyptus and Orange Leaves Added to the Soil on Germination and Growth of Four Ornamental Plants

Janan Saeed; Fatin K. Ibraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 15-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42305

The experiment was conducted on green house to investigate the addition effect of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L.) and Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) on seed germination and growth of four species of the ornamental plants ( Dimorphothica aurantiaca L., Chrysanthemum carinatum L., Calendula officialis L. and Gaillardia pulchella L.).
The results showed that the effects of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus and Orange which added to the soil (Separately) caused the reduction in the percentage of seed germination of the plants. As for growth a decrease in plants planted in soils containing fresh Eucalyptus leaves, while an increase in plants planted in soils containing Orange leaves.
The results also showed different in the responses of the ornamental plants species to the allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus and Orange leaves added to the soil, it appeared that Dimorphothica aurantiaca L. and Chrysanthemum carinatum L. were more sensitive to the allelopathic effect for these trees, while Calendula officialis L. and Gaillardia pulchella L. were less sensitive for these trees.

Effect of BA and 2,4 – D on growth of nodes of Melissa officinalis L. in vitro

Rehab A. AL – Baker; Hana S. Al – Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 133-143
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42516

Melissa officinalis L. has been used for in vitro culture to study the effect of ethanol,sodium hypochlorite and Mercury Chloride ( with different concentrations ) on the viability of explant , controlling contamination and effect of addition 10 -3 , 10-5 , 10-7 molar BA and 2,4 – D to MS medium , each was added to the culture medium alone or with interaction between them. The results showed that using Mercury Chloride as sterilant at 0.025 g/100ml for 1.5 min was the most effective , also the results showed that addition of BA and 2,4 – D to MS medium at different concentrations , affect variably the response of explants to initiate callus or to regenerate shoots , which was noticed at 25 and 50 days after culture . It was shown that 10-3 and 10 -5 Molar of both BA and 2,4–D causes death of explants after 25 days of culture . Addition of 10 -7 Molar of 2,4–D to the culture medium alone or with 10-7 Molar BA was effective in stimulating the explants to regenerate shoots with wellgrown leaves , shoots reached to 3.7 and 3.9 cm respectively represented by the mean of length, number of leaves grown were 9.0 on both treatments , It was observed that explants grown on medium with 10-7 and 10-5 Molar of 2,4 – D and BA respectively were able to regenerate few roots after 50 days of culture . The optimum treatment for callus production was 10-5 Molar of 2,4 – D .

Invitrogenesis of Renal Struvite Stone

Rasha N. AL-Sa’doon; Amera AL-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 56-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42498

The study aimed designation of a continuous culture of P. mirabilis which isolated from urine of patients with renal stones and Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) by using artificial urine and similar conditions to that of human urinary system, the bacteriaum exhibit ability to form struvite stone crystals. Then a number of chemical tests were done on a precipitate that formed and the results showed that it consists of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus in addition to investigation on bacteria in it. The effects of alkaline, acid and neutral materials were studied, the preciptates were soluble in acidic and neutral solutions but not in alkaline. A comparison was carried out on the quantity of preciptate with time and the ability of bacteria to stimulate crystallization in surplus urine from the continuous culture was tested in different pH values, the quantity of crystals formed depend on calcium and magenisium concentrations in urine.

Study of Breast Feeding Effect and other Factors on the Carriage Rate of Haemophilus influenza in Children in Mosul City

Hiyam A. Al-Tai

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 26-35
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42704

148 samples were collected including 74 throat swabs and 74 Nasopharyngal swabs from children with ages from after birth to 12 years old. From day care centera and primary school in Mosul city, data about sex , age , type of feeding , Respiratory tract infections , smoking exposure and Scocio-economic state were recorded .
Isolation and identification of Haemophilus influenza (Hi) were done depending on morphological and biochemical tests.
The results showed that the carriage rate with Hi bacteria was 38.5%, 56% , of it was from Nasopharynx and 44% from throat as well as the carriage state in breast feeded children was 72%, while 26% , 2% in battle feeded and mixed feeded children respectively also it showed that the highest carriage rate was in the age group 4-6 years old with predominance of male. This study appeared that 24% of carriage were infected with respiratory tract infections and 80% of them were exposed to smoking, in addition the socioeconomic state showed an important effect on carriage rate it found that 52% of carriers were living in medium economic level , 30% in bad level, 18% in a good one.

Numerical Taxonomy for Genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) in North of Iraq

Zeravan A. S; Saleem I. Shahbaz; Amer M. AL Maa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2007, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2007.42626

The present research included numerical taxonomy for the genus Crataegus L. which is growing in Iraq and represented by the following five taxa namely: (Crataeques azarolus var. aronia, C.azarolus var. pontica, C. azarolus var. sharania , C. monogyna and C. meyeri) by using morphological, pollen grains and Chromosomal number features.
The results showed that the similarity range among the species was 30-68% and the highest Similarity was 68% found between the C. azarolus var. aronia and C. azarolus var. sharania.
In dendrogram the taxa meet at (51%) level of similarity, indicating awide range of Variation among the taxa of this genus.

Effect of Thyme Leaves Extracts in Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Level and other Parameters in Local Male Rabbits

Muna H. Janker; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan; Saeb Y. Abdul

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 237-244
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44353

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of boiled extract of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on blood glucose and cholesterol level, and some blood parameters and body weight in local male rabbits (3-4 months old). Rabbits were divided into 2 groups (6 rabbits each). The first group received orally the boiled extract of thyme at a dose of 100 mg L Kg B. wt daily for 28 days. The second group was treated with distilled water (control group). The results revealed a significant reduction in blood glucose and cholesterol level, total leukocyte and erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration. The results also showed a significant increase in body weight and an improvement in relative growth rate of treated animals as compared with the control group.

The Effect of Mepiquat Chloride (Pix) and Soil Moisture on Growth and Yield of Two Cultivars Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Mohammed S. Faysal; Alaa H. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 13, Pages 169-184
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44342

The study has been done in the greenhouse. It investigated the effect of two cultivars of wheat (Al-Iz and Eratom) shoots spraying with three concentrations of growth retardants (zero,500,100 ppm)during tillering stage under three levels of soil moisture (25,50,75% field capacity )on some physiological characteristics, and yield. The experiment have been designed on the basis that it is factorial experiment and over completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the results obtained showed: growth retardants highly effective in reducing plant height, length of base interned and leaf area. The treatment of growth retardants reduced negative effect of soil moisture levels (25,50,75%) on (relative water content, chlorophyll, proline)and increasing appeared in the number of grains in spike which reflected in increasing of grains yield. on the other hand Al-Iz cultivar showed agood results in some of the important characteristics (relative water content, chlorophyll, number of grains /spike).

Effect of Interaction Between Growth Regulators and Sulfanilamide on Stem Parts Callus Initiation and Suspension Culture of Almond Plants

Amjad A. Mohammad; Mutallib S. Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 15-30
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44008

Callus growth was affected by the types and concentration of growth regulators used. The best medium sustained callus growth was MS medium supplemented with 10-4 molar NAA and 10-5 molar BA. The callus fresh weight in such medium reached about 3.73 gm after 60 days of subculture as compared with other medium used.
The growth of the cultures was affected by the type and concentration of growth regulator used as well as the sulfainlamide added. The best medium sustained suspension cultures growth was MS containing 10-8 molar NAA and 10-8 molar BA with cell density reaching about (53.5x105 Cell/Cm3) after 7 days of incubation. Callus initiation was about (%50.2) from the cells embedded in agar as compared with %80.31 by the addition 100 M sulfanilamide to MS medium containing 10-4 molar BA.

Asystematic study of the genus Rhus L. (Anacardiaceae)in Iraq

Amer M.M.AL-Maa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 100-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.44048

The present study includes asystematic study of the genus Rhus L. that represented in Iraq by one species namely R. coriaria L. Which growth widley and cultivated near the villages in the north of Iraq . Macro and micro characteristics of plant, pollen grain, and anatomical characters of epidermis, venation, wood and indumentum were studied. According to the information of survey field and some herbarium specimens are utilized to elucidate the ecology and distribution of the species belong to the genus.

Effect of Alfatoxin and Ninivite on Total and Differentlal Leukoceyte Counts in Broiler Chicks

Nabela M. Shareef; Anwar Z. Al-Zubaedy; Akeel M. Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 34-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43920

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of aflatoxin at a concentration 2,5 mg/kg diet alone or with different levels of Ninivite 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% on total, differential and absolute leukocyte counts in broiler chicks. The addition of aflatoxin (AF) in broilers diet at a concentration of 2.5 mg/kg did not significantly alter leukocyte counts when compared with the control group. The addition of Ninivite at all doses to the AF contaminated diet were resulted in a significant increase in the total circulating leukocytes when compared with the control group.
Differential leukocyte counts revealed a significant increase in the percentages of both monocytes and heterophils, and a reduction in lymphocytes when Ninivite was added at all doses to AF contaminated diet. The differential leucocyte counts of the remaining cells (Basophils and Eosinophils) show no significant changes when compared with AF and control group. The heterophils lymphocytes (H/L) ratio was significantly increased with each increase in the level of Ninivite addition to AF contaminated diet when compared with AF and control group .The picture of the absolute and differential leukocyte counts were identical except that, the lymphocytes were significantly reduced when Ninivite was added to AF contaminated diet at concentrations more than 1.5% when compared with AF and control group.

The Effect of Methoxy Psoralen in Presence of UVA on the viability of conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami

Rafia K. Girges

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2006, Volume 17, Issue 10, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43728

In the present research we studied the effect of 8- methoxypsoralen ( 8-MOP) and long wave ultraviolet (UVA) light on the viability of conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami.
The conidial suspension was treated with 8-MOP(15 Mg/ml) for 5 min, and then exposed to UVA. Seven exposure times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 min) were tested and appropriate dilution of the conidial suspension for each treatment was plated on minimal medium to which Sodiumdeoxycholate(D) was added.
The plates were incubated for four days at 30 ْC. Viability of conidia was significantly reduced as the exposure time to NUV increased.

Study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated fromrespiratory tract of neonates in Mosul City

Najlaa Alnaeimy; Amera M. Alrawy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 10, Pages 121-134
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43314

279 samples of aspirate from respiratory tract infected neonates has been collected by Fluid Sucker including 100 samples from full term neonates, 109 samples from premature births and 70 samples from healthy neonates (control). The samples were cultured in Methylene Blue - Glucose Diphasic Medium. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were confirmed by Morphological & Biochemical test , sensitivity to antibiotics were also studied. The results showed that Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been isolated from full term , premature neonates by 6.1 % and 10.2 % respectively it was isolated from control samples. The out comes of sensitivity and resistance for antibiotics showed that this bacteria was sensitive to Gentamycin , Tetracyclin , Erythromycin and Chloramphenicol while it was resistant to Vancomycin , Rifampicin , Ampicilin and Trimethoprim .

Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection Among Children of Al-Nusoor Kindergarten in Mosul City and the Effect of Some Disinfectants on its Eggs Viability

Ahmed A. Aldaoody

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 10, Pages 188-201
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43330

In this research the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection was conducted among children of Al–Nusoor kindergarten, Mosul city.A total of 177 children were examined by adhesive cellophane tape swab. The overall infection percentage of enterobiasis was 24.3%. As for sex, there were no significant difference between positive percentage (boys 23.3%, girls 25.3%), while significant difference was found among the positive percentage for ages, the highest was detected in age 6 years and lowest in age 4 years. There was significant correlation between enterobiasis and anal pruritus. The infection percentage was greatly dependant on the number of children per family. The ethanol of 70% concentration terminated all the eggs after 48 hours and caused higher effect than ethanol of 50% or septol, the eggs kept their shapes and viability for more than 8 days in septol. All the eggs incubated at 37C and dry conditions were terminated after 24 hours, while at temperature (18–22) C, the eggs kept their shapes and viability for more than 18 days. Moreover, the children in kindergarten may be a source of infection for the elder ones in the family.

Effect of Different Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on the Production of Xanthan by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951.

Taha A. Khmis; Yousif J. Isma; Mohammed Bashir I. Kassim

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 10, Pages 30-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.43286

Xanthan production by Xanthomonas Campestris ATCC 13951 was studied in a basal medium containing various carbon and nitrogen sources. The greatent yeild of Xanthan was achieved with sucrose and sodium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. The yeild of Xanthan was abtained with lactose and sodium nitrite.Regarding the optimum comcentrations of both sucrose and sodium nitrate, 7.5% and .124% respectivly gave the highest production of Xanthan.

Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments of the Euphrates Formation Between Fuhaimi and Al-Qaim Valleys, in Western Desert-Iraq

Kotayba Al-Youzbaki; Salim Q. Al-Naqib; Abdul–Aziz M. Al-Hammdani

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 44-45
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41394

The study involves the Euphrates Formation in the area between Fuhaimi and Al-Qaim valleys in the western desert of Iraq. The Formation was divided into six informal units depending on various lithological properties. Facies analysis reveals the presence of the following microfacies, from bottom to top respectively; pelletal lime packstone, pellitoidal lime grainstone, oolitic lime grainstone, benthonic lime packstone and dolomitized lime mudstone microfacies. These microfacies, in addition to some geochemical properties were used to interpret the depositional environments, which are ranging from shelf, low water energy restricted and lagoonal environment to relatively high water energy open marine.