Keywords : clinical variables


Effect of Passive Smoking on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Male Swiss Albino Mice ( Mus Musculus )

Huda Y. Al- Attar; Tamara W. Jihad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 6, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.74558

The study included the effect of passive smoking exposure for different periods on some physiological and biochemical parameters in the blood and organs of male mice, forty adult mus musculus male mice were used. All animals were randomly divided into five groups depending on exposure time to cigarettes smoke, the first group was exposed for two hours daily for two months, the second group was exposed for four hours daily for two months, the third group two hours daily for three months, the fourth group four hours daily for three months while the fifth group was considered as control group. Results showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the total number of white blood cells and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in each of packed cell volume and heamoglobin concentration in groups exposed to cigarettes smoking as compared with control group.
The results also revealed that there is a significant increase in the activity of the enzymes: alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). The highest enzymatical activity occurred when increasing the exposure time to four hours for three months. A significant increase in bilirubin concentration was observed in groups that exposed for two hours, four hours daily for three months respectively. Results showed also significant decrease in protein concentration in the group which was treated for two hours daily for three months and four hours daily for three months as compared with the group that was treated with four hours daily for two months. Measurement of acetylcholineesterase activity in brain tissue showed a significant decrease occurred in the group exposed for two hours daily for three months when compared with the group that was treated with two hours daily for two months, and the group which was treated for four hours daily for three months as compared with the group which was treated for four hours daily for two months.
The conclusion from this study suggested that exposure to smoking for different periods causes alternations in some physiological and biochemical parameters in male albino mice.

Biochemical Study of Chitinase and its Relation with Thalassemia

Thikra A. Allwsh; Baraa R. Mahmood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 111-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.44421

The present research is a clinical study of chitinase and its relation with thalassemia. It had been found that the normal range of chitinase activity in serum of healthy control (1.79 ± 0.10 U/ml), and it had been found that significant decrease of chitinase activity for patients group when compared with controls group. It was also found that the activity was not affected by sex whereas an increase was found with aging in both patients and control groups. The result demonstrated that the chitinase activity was not affected by the type of thalassemia (a or β - thalassemia), distress of β- thalassemia (major and intermediate) and splenctomy. The results show a significant increase in (GPT), (GOT), (Fe) and (TIBC) while also showed a significant decrease in hemoglobin level of thalassemia patients compared with control. Correlation coefficient between chitinase activity and clinical variables of thalassemia patients studied showed a significal reversible relation between chitinase and (Fe) and irreversible relation between chitinase and(GPT) in control. It also show a reversible relation between chitinase and hemoglobin in patients.
The isolation method of chitinase from lysosome of plasma (protein peak B) showed two protein peaks by gel filtration technique, using column containing sephadex G-75. The activity of a chitinase showed in(protein peak B).while the isolation method of chitinase from ammonium sulphate solution (75%) saturation of plasma showed three protein peaks by gel filtration technique, using same column. The activity of a chitinase showed in (protein peak E), a high number of purification showed in (protein peak B) compared with (protein peak E), it was found that the two peaks (B and E) had apparent molecular weight (39180 ± 1000 dalton) and (36307 ± 1000 dalton) respectively. The study of the optimum condition of chitinase activity in the two peaks show an optimum reaction time at (35), (30) minute, optimum pH at (7), optimum temperature at (60°C), (55°C), optimum concentration of substrate colloidal chitin (12 mg/ml), (10 mg/ml), Vmax (2.08 U/ml), (2.00 Uml) and Km (2.12 mg/ml) and (2.00 mg/ml) respectively.