About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Spectrophotometric Determination of Mebendazole using Diazotization Reaction and Coupling with m-Aminophenol Reagent

Rowa Falah Mohammed; Farha Kh. Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169972

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of mebendazole (MBZ) in it's pure and tablet form. The method is based on alkaline hydrolysis of MBZ with sodium hydroxide to give primary amine product which reacts with sodium nitrite in an acidic medium (hydrochloric acid) to yield diazotized mebendazole (D-MBZ) which is coupling with m-aminophenol reagent (mAP) to form an azo dye. The absorbance of the azo dye for this suggested method (yellow dye) has been measured at 360 nm. Beer's law for this proposed method is in the range of (0.5-20 µg.ml-1), the molar absorptivity value is 1.63×104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and the Sandell's value index is calculated and equal to 0.018 μg.cm- 2. Also, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification are calculated and equal to 0.1718 μg.ml-1 and 0.5726µg.ml-1 respectively. The ratio of the formed azo dye [D-MBZ: mAP] is [2: 1].

Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Copper (II) in a Synthetic Sample using a New Macrocyclic Compound

hawar fakhir mohammed; Nabil adil Fakhre

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 11-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169973

The paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a novel macrocyclic ligand. Liquid-liquid extraction studies were conducted to assess the extraction performance of the new macrobicyclic ligand towards copper ions. Selective extraction of heavy metals is highly demanded due to their toxicity and market significance. The results of the experimental studies to determine the best extraction conditions demonstrates pH=9 in the presence of 8.0 ppm of copper (II) in 10 mL with shaking time equal to 30 minutes at 25o C with using 0.05%   reagent and chloroform as an organic solvent. The article studies the influence of various parameters on the extraction percentage such as; effect of pH, shaking time, type of solvent, temperature, ionic strength, the effect of concentration of metal ion and reagent. IR and HNMR have been used for the characterization of the new macrocyclic compound. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated based on the experimental results at different temperatures with ΔH (39.91 kJ/ mol), ∆S (0.155 KJ/ mol. K), and ΔG                         (-6.28 KJ/ mol), which, indicates that the reaction is endothermic, randomness and spontaneous. This process has been used for extracting copper ions using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

Study the Influence of High Pressure on the Optical and Electronic Properties of Composite ZnO Using (DFT-GGA)

Ahmed Th. Shihatha; Abdulhadi M. Ghaleb; Rafea A. Munef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 22-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169974

In this article, the lattice constants, band structure and optical characteristics of ZnO wurtzite structure under various pressures were studied using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method. This method is based on the functional density (DFT) Theory, according to the first principle.  The results show that as the pressure increases and the band gap increases, the lattice constants (a and c) decrease. As the pressure increases, the minimum conduction band will move to a higher energy level, and the maximum valence band will move to a lower energy level, thereby increasing the energy band difference. As the pressure increases, the shape of the optical parameter curve remains almost unchanged, and all peaks move to higher energies. The state density, dielectric function, reflectance and absorption coefficient are also calculated. The overview of the spectrum and optical properties is discussed, including the imaginary part of the dielectric function, reflectance and absorption coefficient of wurtzite-type ZnO under environmental conditions. The optical constants indicate that the phase of ZnO wurtzite structure is transparent. We noticed that our measurements are comparable to those observed in the literature.

Nonlinear Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Film at Low Laser Intensity Using Z-Scan Technique

Tharaa Sony; Thoalfiqar Ali Zaker; Ammar Tahssen Zakar; Hala Nazar Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 32-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169975

          In this work, a highly sensitive well-known z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical properties of Zinc Oxide thin films as a function of low laser fluencies.  The transmissions of the continues-wave red laser diode with wavelength of (650 nm) were measured from the ZnO thin film sample with thickness of (425 nm). The thin film used in this study was deposited on the glass substrates based on atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) technique. The measurements were obtained at low laser powers ranging from (1.9-2.5) mW. The results indicated that the nonlinear absorption coefficient, refractive index and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility increase with increasing the laser intensity. The obtained curves of the closed aperture showed a positive sign of the nonlinear refractive index which in turn attributed to the self-defocusing of the material. The optical parameters obtained in this work are relatively comparable with that obtained elsewhere. The results also confirm the reliability of the z-scan approach even at low laser intensities.
  

Measurement of Body Fat Mass, Fat-Free Mass, and Muscle Mass Measured using Bioelectric Impedance and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

Farah Mohamed Ali Nathim; khalid Ghanim Majeed; Firas Mohammed Ali Al-jomaily

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 39-51
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169976

In this research, we discussed the bone density by measuring the total bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in a sample of Mosul people, as soon as to compare the accuracy of the BIA approach to DXA in assessing total body compartments and segmental tissue mass. A cross sectional study conducted at DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, Nineveh University, Mosul-Iraq. A total of 136 persons, 44 males and 92 women, recruited from reviewing of college Medical College Academic Centre and took part in the current study. A highly statistically significant association between BIA and DXA measures for TFM, TLM, and FFM was also found. BIA underestimates total fat mass by 7.24 kg than DXA. BIA approach overestimated muscle mass by 10.1 kg when compared to the DXA. BIA underestimates fat-free mass by 20.67 kg compared to DXA.                                                                                      

Morphological and Optical Properties of Silicon Nanostructure, Obtained by One Step Ag-assisted Chemical Etching

میادة حبیب حسین; Samir Mahmmod Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 52-62
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169977

Silver-assisted one-step chemical etching (AACE) is a low-cost, straightforward method for producing silicon nanostructures to improve their light absorption; it includes the etching of the wafers in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and nitric acid (HNO3) solution. Influence of various parameters, such as AgNO3 concentration (0.47, 0.58, and 1.17 mM), HF concentration (0.67, 0.9, and 1.129 M), HNO3 concentration (0.12, 0.24, and 0.37 M), etching temperature (40, 50, and 60oC), and etching time (4, 5, and 6 min), on the Morphological and optical properties of silicon wafers were investigated. The results show that these parameters have a main role in determining the nanostructure size. The reflection measurements show that the minimum reflectance with 11% achieved with 0.58 mM AgNO3, 1.129 M HF, and 0.12M HNO3 recipe. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) appears that the morphology of the manufactured silicon is semi-spherical nanostructures with the formation of the porous surface on the surface of the wafers.

Role of Ascorbic Acid in the Initiation and Growth of Helianthus annuus L. Callus under Salt Stress Conditions

Shima M. Sultan; Sajida A Abood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169978

The research included study the effect of sodium chloride NaCl salt with concentrations 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM and ascorbic acid concentrations 20, 40 mg/ l-1 in the initiation and growth of Helianthus annuus L. callus. The results showed that increasing salt concentration in cultured media led to decrease callus induction from stem segments of seedlings that grown on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) provided with 1 mg/ l-1 of BA and 0.5 mg/ l-1 of NAA. This was accompanied by a decrease in the fresh and dry weights of callus, whereas, the addition of ascorbic acid to media containing salt resulted in a restoration of the initiation and growth of callus after 30 days of cultivation. The results also showed that cultivation of samples of callus in MS media with different concentrations of NaCl led to a significant decrease in the indicators of callus growth (fresh and dry weight, salt stress index, absolute and relative rates, callus viability) with an increase in electrolyte leakage of callus cells. The addition of ascorbic acid 20 or 40 mg/ l-1 to MS media encourages the callus growth indicators above with the superior concentration 20 mg/ l-1. The presence of ascorbic acid, especially 20 mgl-1 in growing media containing NaCl at 150 mM, increased the callus content of ascorbic acid as compare to salt treatment only, after 21 days of cultivation.

Electrical Conductivity Study of Aqueous Solutions for some Complexes of Manganese, Cobalt, Nickel and Copper Divalent Elements in Different Temperatures

ِAhmed Jassam Mohamed Subhi Jassam Al Lehebe; Mohamed Yaha Al Tamer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169980

Preparation of the complexes of some transition metal elements with 1,2-DACH  compound and a study its conductivity in water at different temperatures , the determination of its electrolytic behavior and the using of Lee-Wheaton equation in conductivity to study molecular and ionic interference, Determine its type and to calculate the conductivity parameters the ion association constant (KA) , the equivalent conductivity (Λ𝑂) and the equivalent ionic conductivity (𝜆𝑂) at the infinite dilution. As well as calculate the values of distance parameter between ions (R) at the lowest value of the standard deviation (𝜎𝛬) And finding the thermodynamic values Δ𝐻, Δ𝐺 and Δ𝑆. The complexes for 1,2-DACH with Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) and Mn (II) were prepared and their identification by electrical conductivity and spectral methods such as U.V.-Vis. spectrum and physical properties such as complex color and melting point. These Including the preparation of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of each of the 1,2-DACH complexes with the metal ions Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) and Mn (II) and the study of the electrical conductivity of these complexes and their analysis using the computer program of the Kohlrausch equation to study the electrolytic behavior of the complexes by draw the relationship between the equivalent conductivity and the root of the concentration, The program using the Lee-Wheaton equation for asymmetric electrolytes (2:1) In different temperature degrees (283.16, 288.16, 293.16, 298.16, 303.16, 308.16) K to calculate the values of conductivity parameters (𝝀𝟎𝑴𝟐+) ,( 𝝀𝟎𝑴𝑿+) ,(𝝈𝚲) ,(𝑲𝑨) ,(𝑹) of each complex.
 

Studying the Effect of Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Flares on Thunderstorms in the City of Mosul for Solar Cycles 23 and 24

mohammed AKeel; Imad Ahmed Al-Ibrahimi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 33-45
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169982

The study of the impact of solar activity on the Earth's climate is an important matter for predicting the change of climate elements for long periods. Most research has been limited to studying the relationship of sunspots with a change in one of the climate elements. In this research, the effect of the solar activities of coronal mass ejections and solar flare on a climatic element in the troposphere, represented by thunderstorms during the winter season in the city of Mosul for the 23 and 24 solar cycles, respectively, was studied. The data on coronal mass ejections were collected from the SOHO/LASCO CME Catalog database and solar flare data were taken from the website National Oceanic and Atmosperic (NOAA). Climatic data on thunderstorms for the winter seasons from the period (1996-2019) were used from the monitoring station in the city of Mosul from the Iraqi General Authority for Meteorology and Seismic Monitoring.The parameters were analyzed using the statistical program (Minitab 19.0). The results showed that there is an inverse relationship between the monthly rates of solar activities with the monthly rate of thunderstorm frequency, with the exception of the rising phase of the solar cycle 24 for the time period (2008-2013), where the results showed the existence of a positive relationship between them

Effect of Switching the Preparation Solution for CdSe Films by (CBD) Method on, Thickness, Optical and Structure Properties of the Films.

Sarah Y. Abdulkaleq; Laith M. Al Taan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 46-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.169983

           In this work, cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films were prepared by two methods of chemical bath deposition (CBD) on glass substrate, where cadmium nitrate Cd (NO3)2 and sodium selenosulfite Na2SeSO3 were used. The deposition conditions at 70 oC temperature and for 6 hours and pH = 9 (during deposition). In the first method the deposition solution was changed every two hours, while the deposition continued without changing the solution in the second method. It was found that switching the solution affects the value of the thickness of the deposition film which increase too about double. The energy gap was reduced by 0.2eV when the solution was switched. As for (XRD) of the films prepared by the solution switched appeared polycrystalline, a hexagonal and cubic structure and growing in (002) direction. A hexagonal crystal with growth in the (002) direction in which the solution was not changed. The (SEM) of the prepared films found that they have spherical, sheets, and flower clusters nano-shapes distributed on the surface.

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Diazotization Coupling Reaction

Enas S. Thanoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159979

An accurate, simple, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method which proposed and developed for the determination of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was based on acid hydrolysis of PAR to produced p-aminophenol (PAP), PAP was diazotization with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt, followed by coupling with histidine reagent in alkaline medium to produced azo dye that showed maximum absorbance at 430 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration rage of 10-500 µg/20 ml (i.e. 0.5-25 ppm). The molar absorpitivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the dye were. 1.118×104 l.mol-1.cm-1and 0.0135 µg.cm-2 respectively. The method successfully has been applied for the determination of PAR in pure form,and its pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection).

).

Assessment of Dibdibba Sand (Southern Iraq) for the Manufacturing of Semi Silica Bricks

Firas Faisal Al-Hamdani; Sattar Jabbar Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41577

Three different mixtures (sand:clay), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40), were formed in a cylindrical shape of 50×50 mm, using a semi–dry pressing with 300 kg/cm2 as forming pressure and then fired at 1430˚C.
The results showed that the produced semi silica bricks have apparent porosity ranging from 21.3-25% with specific gravity between 2.42-2.93 N/mm2 and having spelling resistance between 15 to 25 cycle.
The results show that it is possible to use a mixture of 60:40 sand:clay for the manufacture of semi silica bricks.

Effect of Wet Cupping on Serum Lipids Profile Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients and Correlation with some Metal Ions

Layla A. Mustafa; Rukzan M. Dawood; Osama M. Al-Sabaawy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 128-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.60009

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy on serum lipid profile concentration and correlated to some trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Mn). Thirty one men (35 to 55 years old), with hyperlipidemia and without antihyperlipidemic drug or high energy diet consumption for the duration of the study were subjected to cupping. The serum for total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) and trace elements concentration was collected from brachial veins, and determined before cupping and then once a week for two weeks after cupping. Patients with hyperlipidemia who subjected for cupping show a significantly decrease (p≤0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL/HDL ratio by comparison before cupping, while there were no significant differences in serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio show a highly significant difference (p<0.001) after cupping and also showed a significant correlation with serum lipids profile after cupping, especially zinc metal.

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

Publisher: College of Science/ University of Mosul

Email:  rafscij@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amera M. Al-Rawi

Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

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