About Journal

A Scientific and evaluated journal published by the college of Science, University of Mosul, Date of first issue (1976) No. of Issue per year (4)issues till the end of 2012 and 6 issue from 2013. No. of paper per Issue (250 page ) No. of Issue published between 1976-2019(105)
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University- College of Science

Email:  rafidianjournalofscience2020@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amera M. Al-Rawi

Managing Editor: Prof. Dr. Laith Ahmed Najam

Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Cinnamon, Clove, Eucalyptus, and Tea Tree Oils Against Oral Streptococci

Shababa A. Bahjat

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163138

Biofilm formation is becoming recognized as a key step in many infections. Prevention of this process as well as destruction of pre-formed biofilm are considered key strategies in controlling infectious diseases.
The aim of the present work is to study biofilm formation in oral streptococci isolated from children aged 6-10 years and to test the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of four essential oils (Cinnamon, Clove, Eucalyptus, and Tea tree) by using three in vitro methods; Tissue Culture Plate, Tube Method, and Congo red agar for the detection of biofilm formation
Results of this study showed that all oral streptococci exhibited biofilm formation with varying degrees. Also, cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, followed by tea tree oil not only had a distinctive antibacterial activity against oral Streptococcal isolates, but also possessed anti-biofilm activity. These data provide evidence that plant oils could be potentially used as natural additives, clinically effective, inexpensive and safe plaque control supplements in the prevention of oral diseases.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfamethoxazole in Pure and in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Diazotization and Coupling Reaction

Salim A. Mohammed; Nassem M. Al-Hamdany; Asmaa N. Abdulkader

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.163144

A highly sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of sulfamethoxazole(SMX) in both pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. In this method SMX is diazotized with equimolar of sodium nitrite(NaNO2) in acid medium of hydrochloric acid to form diazonium ion , which is reacted with 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid in alkaline medium of NaOH to form a yellow water soluble azo dye that has absorption maximum at 416 nm versus reagent blank. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range 0.2-16 µg. ml-1 with an excellent determination coefficient (r2= 0.9996) and molar absorptivity 1.84×104 l.mol-1.cm-1. The recoveries are obtained in the range of 97.8 - 99.8% and the relative standard deviation is better than ±0.23% . The stoichiometry of the resulting azo dye has been also worked out and it is found to be 1:1 SMX: 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid. This method has been applied successfully for the determination of SMX in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets and oral suspension).

Clinical Study of some Biochemical Parameters in Serum of Women Undergoing Uterine Removal

Raghad A. Hammo

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163145

The present research includes a clinical study of estrogen hormone and ferritin protein, cholesterol, and some levels of mineral, such as calcium and phosphorus in the serum of women who have undergone uterine removal. The results showed a significant decrease in the estrogen hormone level of serum for women who have undergone  uterine removal (50.3Pg∕ml), in comparison with healthy women (138.65Pg∕ml) at a probability level of P≤0.05. The study also showed a significant increase of ferritin protein level of women who have undergone  uterine removal (64.35mg∕dl) when compared with healthy women (52.10mg∕dl) at probability level of P≤0.05, with a significant increase in the cholesterol level in serum of women who have undergone uterine removal (7.643mmol∕L), in comparison with  healthy women (4.525mmol∕L) at a probability level of P≤0.05. The investigation also discussed the effect of some minerals, like calcium and phosphorous on the serum of women who have undergone uterine removal, and it found significant decrease in calcium level of women who have undergone  uterine removal while compared with healthy women (1.86), (2.41) mmol ∕ L respectively at probability level (P≤0.05), while present slight increase in phosphorous  level compared with healthy women(3.95), (3.731) mmol∕ L respectively.

Structural Properties of Zinc Aluminate ZnAl2O4 Compound

Hothama A. Mohammed; Raad A. Rasool

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163146

Zinc Aluminate, 14 ZnAl2O4">  is prepared using the double sintering heating which is known as the ceramic method at high temperatures 1000 Co.  The structural properties are studied using the X-ray and Infrared techniques at room temperature. It was found that the compound has the spinel face centered cubic structure by showing the diffractions from the main crystalline planes of the spinel structured. The infrared spectrum shows the main absorption bands for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The lattice constant, " 14ahkl"> ", is calculated using Bragg's equation and found to be equal to (8.0573Å).The force constants, the average crystallite size, densities and the porosity are calculated using the X-ray and Infrared results.
Keywords: Spinel structure, Sintering heating, X-ray, Infrared.

Estimation of some Enzymes Activity of Sheep and Cattle Lungs Infected with Hydated Cysts

Mohammad Al-Salihi; Hussain I. Al-Khan; Fulk A. Khattab

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163147

Enzymatic activity of Aspartate transferase (AST), Alanine transferase (ALT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Gluocose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PH) were evaluated in lungs tissues and protoscoleces of cattle and sheep infectd with hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus
The result showed that there was a significant increase in ALT and G-6-PH activity; decrease in AST and ALP activity, while there were no difference in LDG activity in sheep lungs infected with protoscoleces when compared with control group.
In case of cattle lungs, no significant differences of G-6-PH, ALP, LDH and ALT enzymes activity when compared with control group.
When both infected lungs of sheep and were compared in their enzymatic activity significant differences were noticed in ALT, G-6-PH and ALP but with not in LDH and AST.
The enzymes enzymatic activity of protocoleses itself when isolated from both sheep and cattle showed no differences in ALT, AST and G-6-PH as well as there was no increase in ALP or decrease in LDH in cattle compared with these in sheep.
From all above it could be concluded that sheep infected lungs with Echinococcus granulosus affected the enzymatic activity of ALT, AST, ALP and G-6-PH.

Detection of Cryptospridium sp. Oocysts in Drought Horses in Mosul, Iraq

Dhiyaa A. Moosa

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163148

The aims of the present work were to detect Cryptospridium sp. oocysts in drought horses from different regions in Mosul city, Iraq as Bab-Sinjar region in addition to horses which were brought to Veterinary Teaching Hospital in College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Fifty fecal samples were collected from horses with different ages and both sexes (25 fecal samples from foals aged less than one year and another 25 fecal samples from adult horses 3-10 years old). Diseased horses showed severe signs of diarrhea with offensive odor, anorexia, dehydration and emaciation with generalized debility. Diagnosis of Cryptospridiumoocysts were confirmed by two methodes Modefied acid fast stain and Lugol’s iodine stain. Results showed that out of 50 fecal samples 15(30%) were positive for oocytes, and the results also showed an increase in the percentage of infection of foals compared to adult horses (26%, 4%) respectively. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain proved to be more efficient revealing (24%) followed by Lugol’s iodine stain (6%) Microscopical examination revealed thatCryptospridiumoocysts have small spheric shape with pink color, 4-5 micron in diameter. It has been concluded that Cryptospridium infection is an important disease affected horses in Mosul, Iraq and the percentage of infection was high in foals compared to adults horses, and Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain for detection of oocysts could  be authenticated. 

Effect of Formaldehyde Treated Barley in Awassi Ewes Rations in Milk Production and some Chemical and Microbial Traits of Yogurt

Ghanim M. Hassan; Omar D. Almallah; Nadir Y. Abo; Mohammed N. Abdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 17-23
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163153

  This study was conducted in research department of animal resource/ Al-Rashidiya, at ministry of agriculture by using 14 of genetically improved awassi ewes, average body weight 56.00 ± 2.10 kg and age ranged between 3-5 years. Ewes were allocated according to their weight and milk production into two groups. The first was control (T1), fed on ration consist mainly of untreated barley and contain 9.69% of degradable protein and 3.77% of undegradable protein as dry matter. The second group (T2) was fed on same control ration but barley grain were treated with formaldehyde and contain 9.63% degradable protein and 6.37% of undegradable protein as dry matter, the two rations are nearest in its content of metabolizable energy. Results are indicated to a significant increase ( p > 0.05 ) in milk production in T2 which were 1.322 kg/day as compared to T1 which were 1.128 kg/day, milk components did not differ significantly between the two groups, but the quantity of lactose, fat and protein increased significantly ( p > 0.05 ) in T2 as compared to T1. No significant differences were noted in yogurt composition, but the total number of bacteria and colonic bacteria decreased in T2 ( 52.10 x 103and 4.16 x 101) compared to T1 ( 55.66 x 103 and 5.33 x 101) respectively.

An Epidemiological and Diagnostic Study of Toxoplasma gondii by Serological and Molecular Methods Using nPCR Technique in Pregnant and Abortive Women in Mosul and its Environ

Aws Al-Safar; Shihab A. Mohammed; Abdulrhem Th. Al-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 24-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163154

The study examined 120 samples of blood and serum of pregnant women who miscarriaged in Al Salam Educational Hospital to investigate their incidence of Toxoplasma gondii since 1/5/2013 to 1/5/2014, using latex test and The Enzyme -Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the Enzyme-Linked Fluorescence Assay, in addition to Toxoplasma gondii (B1) gene by the Nested polymerase chain reaction technique. The results of the study showed that the best technique for acute T.gondii was nested PCR with 36.6% followed by ELISA 31.6%, ELFA 26.6% and Latex 18.3%. ELISA and ELFA tested high sensitivity to anti-IgM (85% and 73%, respectively), based on the results of the nPCR test as a positive control group, Where as latex test revealed a sensitivity of 50%. The acute infection in Mosul and its suburbs was 36.6%. The results showed no significant differences in different age groups, the housing area has an impact on the incidence rates in the suburbs and villages of Mosul, 42%, while in the city 32.8 %, infection rates rise, with the lower educational level of women. The friction of women with animals and cats raise the infection rate to 53.8%, while the percentage dropped to 23.5%  in women who did not treat or contact with animals and cats.

Capacity Growth of Mycorrhiza Species at Different Concentrations of Heavy Metals

Mazin N. Fadhel; Mawj R. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 38-47
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163155

     The study investigates the possibility of three types of R.rosulus, S.varigatus, P.involutus in removing and lowering the ascending concentrations of copper and zinc elements, and during three incubation and contact periods (5,7 and 10 days) and comparing the growth of isolates with control samples. Type P.involutus is the most efficient in the removal by observing the growth of isolates by increasing its diameter compared to the control samples and the concentrations of copper and zinc and for all the days of incubation, while the type S.varigatus was the highest growth at the low concentrations of copper and zinc only and for all periods of incubation, the type R.rosulus. The diameter  was smaller as compared to control samples All elemental concentrations of copper and zinc except at concentration (2.5 ppm), and is generally observed increase diameters of the isolates of the three types of increasing periods of incubation and all elemental concentrations of copper and zinc, and this increase is less than at high concentrations of these elements and of all species studied.

Diagnosis of some Bacteria Causing Gingivitis in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Investigating some of Their Biochemical and Immunological Parameters

Marwa J. Aljumaily; Najdat B. Mehdi; Sahla KH. Abbas

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 48-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163156

  The study aimed to isolate and identify of the types of bacteria which cause gingivitis. Gram positive bacteria were isolated by 89% more than gram-negative bacteria, 60 isolates were Streptococcus viridans and 5 isolates were Escherichia coli. The biochemical study showed a significant increase in concentration of total cholesterol (P 14≤"> 0.05) in the gingivitis and diabetes groups, as well as in very low density lipoproteins showed a significant increase in gingivitis and diabetes group (P 14≤"> 0.033), High-density lipoproteins showed a significant decrease in the group of gingivitis and diabetes compared to the control group at a significant level (P 14≤"> 0.018). In the immunological parameters, the results showed a significant decrease in the concentration of IL-10 in the group gingivitis and diabetes (P 14≤"> 0.05). The concentration of TNF-α increased in gingivitis and diabetes at a significant level (P 14≤"> 0.05).

Effect of Different Level of Iron and Vitamin B12 Injection on Production Performance and some Physiological Characteristics of Blood in Awassi Lamb

Wasem K. Ahmad; Wissam J. Mohammed; Mohammed S. Abrahem

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 55-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163158

       This study was conducted on 15 Awassi lambs with an average weight 11kg and with average age (1 month) these lambs were randomly divided into three groups, (5 animal/  group) 1st  group as control, The 2nd group was injected subcutaneously once every ten days with Iron and vitamin B12 (4.54 mg/kg body weight/a living animal, 4.54 mg/kg body weight / a living animal) respectively, the 3rd group lambs were injected with iron and vitamin B12  (9.09 mg /kg body weight /a living animal 9.09 mg/kg body weight /a living animal) respectively. The results showed a significant effect (p<0.05) for 2nd and 3rd group compared with control group in (red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, Glucose, Triglyceride, body weight) and the result show the 3rd group had a significant effect (p<0.05) compared with control group in (packed cell volume) there was no significant effect (p<0.05) between the groups in (Albumin, globulin and total protein concentration, in conclusion The enhancing of iron level and vitamin B12 led to improvement, body weight and some blood characteristics in awassi lambs.                  

Influence of Spraying with Water Extracts of Liquorice and Animals Wastes on Yield, Yield Components for Trigonella foenum - graecum L. Local Variety

Maha Z. Al Hialy; Saad Adeen M. Al Hafodhi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 61-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163159

         The study was conducted in wire house of biology department/ college of Education for pure sciences / University of Mosul during the winter season (2017- 2018). The seeds were planted on 25/11/2017 and the plant was harvested on 24/5/2018. The aim of the study was to study the effect of spraying with water  extracts  of  liqurice Glycyrrhizin glabra, and manure (cow, sheep, poultry and their mixture) with concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30) g / L and three spray periods once every 2, 4 and 6 weeks in the growth and yield seeds of  Trigonella foenum - graecum L. In order to obtain a product free from the chemical effects of mineral fertilizers or industrial growth regulators to obtain a low-cost product, this experiment was designed, according to the design of stochastic sectors full RCBD with three replicates according to the program SAS. The results were analyzed by the Duncan test at a probability level of 0.05. The results of the study of Yield and its quality showed that spraying the plants with the chicken manure solution at the highest concentration (30 g / L) led to significant increasing in the number of pods, number of seeds per pods, number of seeds per plant, seed index, seed weight and total seed yield. In addition, spraying with liquorice root extract (30 g / L) showed significant increases in seed weight in pods, number of seeds per plant and total seed weight per plant.

A Study of Physiochemical Characteristics of Al- Khoser River Effluent and its Effect Upon Tigris River Quality within Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 77-89
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163161

Many of the physio-chemical characteristics of Al- Khoser water effluent have been studied for the period from October 2017 to June 2018. Some of the physio- chemical charachteristics which represented by Temperature, pH, E.C, D.O, BOD5, T.H, 14NO3-1"> , 14PO4-2">  ,and 14SO4-2">  were measured. The results showed that most of these characteristics have high values, within the first location in comparison with the international maximum allowable limits, this is due to the discharge of sewage and wastes into the river without treatment. Whereas the second and third locations, after mixing with water of Tigris River, showed low concentrations of pollutants due to the influence of precipitation, dilution, diffusion and high flow.
Al- Khoser water was considered very hard in comparison with the water of TigrisRiver. It is worth mentioning that the amounts of human industrial, agricultural and human detached pollutants have severely impacted the water of Al-KhoserRiver, which finally considered the more hardness in comparison with the water of the TigrisRiver.

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Preparation Polymeric Composites from Epoxy with Randomly Woven Fiber Glass and Studies the Mechanical Properties

Ebtahag Z . Sulyman; Rwaa E. Ibrahiem

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 104-115
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163163

         In this study, polymer compositions of epoxy resins were prepared as a base material with fiber glass at different weight ratios (4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 11%) as reinforced materials. Polymeric compositions were compared before and after reinforcement. Fibers have increased the values of all mechanical properties (Impact resistance, hardness, elasticity, compressive strength). The values (elasticity coefficient, compressive strength, hardness) are reduced by increasing the temperature.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Sulphacetamide Sodium in Ophthalmic Preparation Using 2,6-Dihydroxytoluene as a New Coupling Agent

Saad H. Sultan

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 116-127
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163164

        A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of sulphacetamide sodium (SAS) in aqueous solution. The proposed method depends on diazotization of drug compound using sodium nitrite in acidic medium to produce the corresponding  diazonium salt which coupled with 2,6-dihydroxytoluene reagent in presence of sodium carbonate to form              a colored water soluble and stable azo-dye, which has a maximum absorption at 435 nm with          a molar absorptivity and Sandalʼs sensitivity of 4.6×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and 0.00543 µg.cm-2 respectively. Beer's law is valid over the concentration range  0.25-12.5 µg.ml-1. The relative error is in between -0.40 and +3.60 % and the relative standard deviation from ±0.13 to ±1.25 % depending on the concentration level. The proposed method was applied successfully to determine sulphacetamide sodium in its pharmaceutical formulation as ophthalmic drops.

Operating Specifications for Double Polymeric Thin Films Capacitors

Ahmed N. Mahmmood; Asmaa E. Abid; Yahya A. Salman

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 128-140
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163165

In this research two groups of parallel plates capacitors (MIM-Device) with thin polymeric film, were prepared. The first group with a single polymeric film of materials (PMMA) with long saturated chain, (PC) with short saturated chain and (PS) with short unsaturated chain and the thickness is about ((300± 10 )µm(. The second group where the insulating film is of double type of material (PMMA//PS) and (PC//PS) with total thickness about ()300± 10 )µm(. The results showed that the used double thin films may lead to redistribution of the raing of regions of (I-V) characteristics equally which were different when the thin films  were single and there was a difference in the raing of regions of (I-V) characteristics of linear polymer chain and these differences are created due to length or shortness of polymer chain and for saturated or unsaturated for this chain, also the results have shown that there is an interface in double polymeric thin film cause and distortion in (C-V) characteristics and it is gone by increasing the amount of thermal energy and the induce electrical filed con be created by effect of external filed and with help of interface in double thin films, the existence of this filed can lead to mismatch in the value of capacity between increase and decrease stages except low values of external field. The increasing of the thermal energy lead to deformation in (C-V) characteristics gradually with increases difference in capacity between increase and decrease stages. The latter strengthens the hypothesis of induced electric field.

Genetical Analysis of Self-Fertilized Generation Variances in Two Durum Wheat Crosses

Nabeel T. Al-Badrany; Najeeb K. Yousif; Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59623

Phenotypic variance in parents and third generation were analyzed to estimate the additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability in broad sense, heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance from selection in F3 generation, of two crosses in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the first cross between Azeghar-1 and Um-Rabie-5 and the second cross between Leeds and Waha for traits, heading time, flag leaf venation, plant height, peduncle length, number of spike, spike length, grain yield, 100 grains weight and number of grains per spike. Average degree of dominance revealed the different types of dominance for the studied traits, the values of narrow sense heritability were high for plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes, grain yield and number of grains per spikes in both crosses, spike length and weight of 100 grains in first cross, and flag leaf venation in second cross.

Total Efficiency and Output Power of Nd:YAG Laser with Spatial Interaction Efficiency Factor

Watfa K. Younis; Farouk A. Kasir

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 78-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43412

Optimum total efficiency and output power were derived for Nd:YAG laser with symmetrical resonator configuration, taking into account a new interaction factor called spatial interaction efficiency factor. Under the assumption of the same pumping power and the same resonator losses, the results interacted a lower output power and higher lasing threshold provided that the mirror reflectivity was optimized as compared with a laser system that did not take the spatial interaction efficiency factor into consideration.

The Applications of Al- Chrome Azurol S Color Reaction to Assay Mishraq Alum Purity and Fluoride in Tablet

Hanan H. Ahmad; Farha K. Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6530

In the present research, a spectrophotometric method is suggested as an alternative to the gravimetric method used to find mishraq alum purity. The method is based on the complex formation between aluminium ion and either Chrome Azurol S (CAS) or Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) to give colored products suitable for the determination of aluminium. The same reaction has been applied to the determination of fluoride in tablet, depending on the bleaching effect of fluoride on the formed aluminium colored complex. Statistical comparison of method has given satisfactory results

Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt(II) with Mordant Blue 9 -Application to Vitamin B12 (Injections and Powder)

Saddalah T. Sulaiman; Tamathir A. Hamoudi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 93-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145394

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cobalt with Mordant Blue 9 in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in order to form an intense violet-colored chelate which exhibits maximum absorption at 586 nm at pH 3. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range of 0.004 -1 ppm with a molar absorptivity 3.97×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, Sandell’s sensitivity index of 1.484 ng.cm-2, while LOD (limit of dedication), LOQ (limit of quantitation) are found to be 4.006 ng/ml (n=10) and 13.353 ng/ml (n=10), respectively. The method has been applied for determination of Co(II) in pharmaceutical preparations.

Studying Some of the Extracts and Isolated Proteinous Compounds From Apple (Pyrus malus) in Mice Exposed to Oxidative Stress

Mohammed B. Al-Saadon

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 116-133
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.42341

This study was conducted to prepare cold and boiled aqueous extracts of Pyrus malus fruits, and thens to isolate extracts of alkaloid, flavonoids and glycosides for this plant. The study also comprised the sisolation and study the proteinous compounds, one of the techniques used to isolation was the gel filtration technique which was isolated two compounds A (166226) Dalton, B (2925) Dalton from the cold proteinous precipitate and two compounds A (34609) Dalton, B (719) Dalton from the boiled proteinous precipitate. The effects of these extracts and compounds previously mentioned above were studied on serum glucose, total cholesterol, total lipids, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, also glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver, kidney and heart tissues in mice exposed to oxidative stress. These extracts were administrated intraperitoneally.
After one week from the treatment the results were indicated that the cold and boiled crude aqueous, non proteinous extracts, proteinous precipitate and proteinouse compounds (B) which were isolated from it at the doses of 500,500,490.35, 491.66, 9.65,8.34,5.07,3.836) mg/kg body weights ,also the alkaloids, flavonoids at the doses of (0.52,0.31) mg/kg body weights were caused a significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum glucose, total cholesterol, total lipids, LDL-C levels and MDA level in liver, kidney and heart tissues, with an associated significant increase (p<0.05) in serum HDL-C level and GSH level in liver, kidney and heart tissues in mice exposed to oxidative stress. Finally we suggested most of extracted isolated from fruits of apple (especially the extract of flavonoids) have antioxidant in mice exposed to oxidative stress.

Isolation and Identification Species of Vibrio Genus from Fresh and Frozen Shrimp and Confirmation the Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159381

This research was concerned with the isolation and identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from seafood (shrimp) samples. (40) samples of freshly harvested shrimp from the local markets in Al-Basra city and twenty (20) samples of frozen shrimp (Turkey origin) were collected. Two enrichment methods were used for the enhancement of the growth and isolation of vibrio species, which include enrichment in non selective medium Alkaline peptone water (APW) for 8 hours and then in selective broth salt polymyxin broth (SPB) and then plated on two solid selective media, ThioSulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose agar (TCBS) and Arabinose Ammonium Sulphate Cholate agar (AASC) and morphological, cultural and biochemical tests were performed on the colonies grown on selective media, then we confirmed the identification by using the chromogenic medium ChromagarTM Vibrio for the first time locally. Finally tox R based polymerase chain reaction was used to cofirm the identification of V. parahaemolyticus. The results showed the isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus in percentage 45%, 20%, 37.5%, 17.5% from fresh shrimp, 35%, 20%, 25%, 15% from the frozen shrimp respectively. The results also showed that there is an accordenance between biochemical tests and ChromagarTM Vibrio. The results of tox R based PCR revealed that 22l25 of V. parahaemolyticus contain the tox R gene which is species-specific gene.

Determination of Transposition Property of Neomycin , Streptomycin and Trimethprim Resistance Genes in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis

Khalid D. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 17, Issue 11, Pages 8-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2006.43897

Twenty bacterial isolates were collected from human diarrheal samples and then identified. Seven out of twenty isolates were E. coli and three P. mirabilis . These isolates were checked for their resistance to six antibiotics and two heavy metals ( HgCl2 and Cdcl2). The bacterial isolates showed variation in their resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals.and only one E. coli but all P. mirabilis isolates showed high level of resistance. Transposition induction of genes in the two chosen bacterial isolates was carried out.. Our results suggested that in E. coli isolate, neomycin resistance gene was induced to jump and insert itself into chloramphenicol and tetracyclin resistance genes causing them to mutate .in percents reaching 80% and 8% respectively. On the other hand, the streptomycin resistance gene transposition appear to be specific for generating mutations in the heavy metals resistance genes at rates 48% and 100 % respectively. In addition, transposition induction of the above genes in the chosen P. mirbilis isolate seemed to cause mutations in ampicilin, chloramphenicol and tetracyclin resistance genes ranging between 2 and 4 % .

Determination of the Concentration of 40K of Mudstone in Northern Iraq by Using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy and Flame Photometry Technique

Hala D. Kharrufa

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 97-107
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.88674

The study of natural radionuclide materials is important to assess the health hazards on human being and one of these materials is 40 K which is present in soil and different types of stones. This study is performed to assess the 40K concentration in mudstones in the north of Iraq by (flame photometry and γ-ray spectroscopy) and to compare between these two techniques in measuring its level. So the activity of potassium was measured by these methods, and their results were compared with the results of other studies. The results show that the concentration of 40K ranges from 284.3 Bq/kg to 2481.2 Bq/kg using γ-ray spectroscopy and 511.7 Bq/kg to 3623.6 Bq/kg using flame photometer technique and these results were comparable with the upper level of the world mean specific concentration of 40K and cause no health hazard. The results obtained by the two methods were also, compared using T-test and P-value and they show no statistical significant difference.

Synthesis Study of the copolymerization of Benzidine with some Vinyl Monomers

Ebtehag Z . Sulyman

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 140-159
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2009.40227

The study includes the preparation of the acidic monomer, benzidine bis maleimic BMA, and the monomer was investigated by IR technique. Copolymerization of the acidic monomer benzidine bis maleamic BMA with styrene, methyl methacrylate in was accomplished DMF was studies. The copolymers were investigated by their colors, solubility and IR technique.
The relative monomer reactivity ratios in prepared copolymers were studied and azeotropic copolymerizations was not found at all monomer concentrations and the PBMA ratio was higher in copolymer in all cases. Thermal studies of the copolymers by using TGA, IGA technique, Indicate that the polybismaleimide possess higher thermal stability in comparison with other polymaleimides .As well as, thermal stability in was increased directly with increasing the molar ratios of acidic monomer benzidine bismaleamic acid BMA. The reactivity ratios study appeared that the type of copolymerization prefers to be alternate copolymer.

Hydraulic Evaluation Of The Water Treatment Plants In Baghdad City

Lilian Y. M. Al. Saka; Adnan A. Al. Samawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 35-42
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.42243

This study is an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the water supply plants of the city of Baghdad, These plants are: A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Important topographical and hydraulic parameters, such as; location of water plant site relative to river (upstream or downstream), type of river section (on straight reach or on bend reach), location of plant site relative to river bank (west side of river or east side of river), type of intake (good or poor), were investigated to assess the operating situation of each water supply station.
The results of the study indicated that the water supply plant is the most suitable one according to the investigated parameters .The Al Karama water supply plant was found to be the most unsuitable one. It is recommended that such plant should be put out of service.

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