About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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The Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Powder on some Immune Parameters in Rat

Hiyam Adel Altai; Mahmood A. Altobje; Ali A. Dawood

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172921

The impact of Ganoderma lucidum powder on both chemokines, IgG and C3 complement concentrations, as well as WBC types, was investigated in 60 ester citrine rats split between two groups, one of which was injected with Carbon tetrachloride CcL4 and the other with Ganoderma lucidum powder. They were not given this drug; instead, two concentrations of mushroom powder, 40 mg/ per kilo-gram of body weight and 80 mg/ per kilo gram of body weight, were utilized, along with a control group. The results revealed a clear increase in all immune factors measured, with a clear difference between males and females when compared to control samples, as well as an increase in the numbers of both neutrophils and lymphocytes in males for both concentrations, with a higher increase for the second concentration than the first, while the increase in females for both concentrations was similar.
In the groups exposed to CcL4, an increase in the values of chemokines, IgG, and C3 as well as the number of neutrophils appeared in males in varying numbers for both concentrations, whereas the increase in females appeared in the second concentration higher than the first concentration of immune values, and the opposite was true for the number of white cells. The number of monocytes showed slight changes in both males and females under study with clear significant differences between C3, chemokine, white blood cell count, lymphocytes and monocytes.

Biochemical Study of Consumption Zahdi Dates (Phoenix dactylifera) in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Saba Z. Al-Abachi; Sameer M. Yaseen; Ghofran A. Shihab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172924

Dates considered one of most significant commercial crops and have been documented in the Holy Quran and scientific references. This study was designed to determine the therapeutic effects of Zahdi variety of dates in control subjects and their effects on glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), antioxidant vitamins (C and E), and inorganic phosphate and calcium excursions. Study subjected twenty-four control group (12 male and 12 females), mean age (42.0±8.69 year), and twenty patients with diabetic type 2 (10 males and 10 females) with a means of HbA1c (9.25 ±2.02 %) and age (47.7±9.33 year). All participants ate a single number of the Zahdi dates (5-7) before breakfasting for a prior twenty-one days. Glucose was measured in control group and for diabetics.
        Glycemic index (GI) was established as proportion of the gradational areas below the return curves for dates as compared to glucose. Collecting blood samples from patients and control group were collected and the statistical data examinations are achievement by using independent samples and paired t-test. The results indicated a significant increase in glucose, MDA, total cholesterol and TG, while a significant decrease in GSH, vitamins (C and E) and phosphate in patients when compared with control group (previously and in accordance) consumption dates palm. No considerable changes in calcium level between diabetic and control subjects. The consumption of dates palm led to a significant decrease in MDA, total cholesterol, TG, and phosphate, also a significant increase in GSH and vitamin E in diabetic patients when compared with control group.

Development of Spectrophotometric Method to Assay Sulfadiazine in Pure and in Pharmaceutical Dosage form through Diazotization and Coupling Reaction

Dheyaa Thamer Azeez; salim ali mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172925

This study involves the development of a sensitive accurate and low-cost spectrophotometric procedure to analyze sulfadiazine as pure and in its dosage forms. In this method sulfadiazine was diazotized with an equimolar solution of sodium nitrite in the presence of hydrochloric acid to form corresponding diazonium salt followed by coupling with phloroglucinol reagent in basic solution of NaOH to produce a yellow water-soluble azo dye that has maximum absorption at 417 nm versus reagent blank. Under optimum conditions. The linearity of the method obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range 0.25-15 μg/ml with an excellent determination coefficient             (R2= 0.9992) and molar absorptivity 3.81×104 l/mol.cm. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) have also been estimated and their values were found to be 0.192 and 0.563 μg/ml, respectively. A relative error% was calculated and found in the range -2.75% to 4.02%, while the precision (RSD%) was estimated as ≤ 1.36%. The stoichiometry of the resulting azo dye was found to be 1:1 sulfadiazine: phloroglucinol with stability constant 0.37×107 l/mol. The suggested procedure was applied to the analysis of sulfadiazine in cream and veterinary drugs (powder and injection).

Estimation of p-Aminophenol via Diazotization and Coupling Reaction with 4-Chlororesorcinol –Application on Paracetamol

Hiba abdul salam Alhafhd; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 35-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172930

A spectrophotometric method has been proposed for the direct determination of p-aminophenol (p-Amp). The method includes diazotisation of p-Amp using an excess of sodium nitrite and in the presence of hydrochloric acid, and after destroying the remaining nitrous acid by adding sulphamic acid, then the produced diazonium salt coupled with the reagent 4-chlororenocinol (4-Chlr) in an alkaline medium of sodium hydroxide to form a water-soluble azo dye that gives the highest absorption at the wavelength of 488 nm. The linear range that follows Beer's law was from 0.5 to 15 μg/ml. The value of the molar absorptivity was 1.9905x104 l/mol. cm. After investigation of the optimal conditions by studying all factors affecting the absorption of the formed azo dye. The method was applied to estimate paracetamol in its pharmaceutical preparations after hydrolysis process. The results of standard addition method proved that there is no interference by additives.

Study of Electrical Conductivity for Salt Diclofenac Potassium in Water and Water-Methanol Mixtures at Different Temperatures

Hakam Alhayaly; Mohamed Yaha Al Tamer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 47-61
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172932

This paper traces the conductivity of diclofenac potassium salts in the low concentrations in water and mixtures of water and methanol (10%, 20% and 30% aqueous methanol) at different temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K). The conductivity data were analyzed using the Lee-Wheaton conductivity equation to obtain the values ​​of equivalent conductivity at infinite dilution “∧o”, association constants (KA), the association diameter (R) and Walden product (Λ0η0). The results showed that diclofenac potassium salt behaves as weak electrolytes in the solvents used. Moreover, standard thermodynamic parameters of the association (change value in: Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the values ​​of molar conductivity, the distance parameter between the ions (R) and association constants (KA) increase with increasing temperature at the best fit value of the standard deviation (σ). The thermodynamic results also indicated that the ion association process is endothermic (+ΔH) and spontaneous (- ΔG) and increasing degrees of freedom (+ΔS).

Preparation and Characterization of some Transition Metal Complexes with di -2- Quinolinone Dibenzylidine Ligand and their Adducts with 1,10 – Phenanthroline

lana abdalhameed alnuaimy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172933

The present work includes the preparation with complexes of the general formula [M2L2] Cl4 and [M2L2(1,10-phen)2] Cl4 were
M= Mn (II), Fe (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II)
L = di -2- quinolinone dibenzylidine
1,10-phen = 1,10phenanthroline
       The ligand was prepared by condensation reaction of N-aminoquinoline-2-one with terphaldehyde (2:1) and characterized by infrared and proton NMR.
       The complexes number (1-6) prepared into (2:2) (M: L) molar ratio respectively while complex number (7-12) prepared into (2:2:2) (M: L: 1,10–phen) molar ratio respectively.
       The I.R spectra data suggest the involvement of nitrogen atom of azomethine group and oxygen atom of carbonyl group of the ligand in coordination to central metal ion.
       The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, and spectral measurements (UV – Vis, IR).
        Elemental analysis data proposed 2:2 (metal: ligand) and 2:2:2 (1,10-phen). The molar conductance measurements showed 1:4 electrolytes complexes, Further more magnetic moment measurements and electronic spectra indicated that the complexes of the type [M2L2] Cl4 possess a tetrahedral geometry while complexes of the type [M2L2(1,10-phen)2] Cl4 possess an octahedral geometry.

Most Concern Strains of Coronavirus-2 and Diagnostic Protocol in Iraqi’s Hospitals: A review

Hadeel Musafer; Raghad A. Abdulrazaq; Majid A. Al-Bayati; Sadeq A. Kaabi; Bashar K. Abdulateef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 77-87
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172934

The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 is responsible for the current global pandemic. The emergence of covid-19 variants on different continents has caused great concern in global human health. These variants affected many places around the world including China, Europe, U.K., and United States. The most variant of concern is Beta (lineage B.1.351), Epsilon (lineage B.1.429), and Kappa (lineage B.1.617). These variants allowed the virus to become higher transmissible in the population, and undetected because a large number of mutations accumulate in the spike (S) protein, especially within the amino-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor-binding domain (RBD). The consequences of these variants are stimulated high virulence, frequent re-infection, and increased resistance for monoclonal antibodies. In Iraq the diagnosing process starts with a PCR test to confirm the infection, however, if the result comes up negative with persistence symptoms, the PCR need to be followed by CT the most supportive procedure for diagnosing the infection, where the infection is classified into three types depends on symptoms of cystic fibrosis as High confidence, intermediate confidence, and low confidence. The diagnosis procedure infection summaries that all series of diagnostic tests need to be done even if the PCR results are negative.

Evaluation of the Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticle AgNP on Stages of Housefly, Musca domestica L.

Zeena Zakaria Idrees Zakaria Al-Mashhadany; Muneef A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172935

        The current study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of silver AgNPs nanoparticles by dipping and feeding methods and for five concentrations (800, 400, 200, 100, 50) ppm in the stages of the house fly Musca domestica L., the concentration of 800 ppm caused an emergence inhibition rate of 100 %, while the lowest inhibition rate was at a concentration of 50 ppm, which amounted to 36% by immersion method after ten days of treatment, while the value of LC50 (the concentration that kills 50% of insects) reached (422.711) ppm. While the percentage of inhibition by feeding method reached 93% at a concentration of 800 ppm, and the concentration of 50 ppm gave the lowest inhibition rate of 43% and for the same time period, and the value of LC50 (794.099) ppm. For both methods. The results also showed that all concentrations had an effect on the natural development of the growth of the different stages and caused the appearance of deformations in the pupa and the adult and a decrease in the percentage of the appearance of the adult. The results showed that the effect of silver nanoparticles by dipping method was higher than by feeding method for all phases.

Preparation and Investigation of some Substituted Thiazole Complexes with Divalent and Trivalent Metals

Kawakib Abdulaziz mohammed Abdulaziz mohammed Altai; Ihsan A. Mustafa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172936

A new complexes of some transition metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu (II) and some non-transition metal ions Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) with two multidentate ligands 2-acetamidothiazole (at) and 2-acetamidobenzothiazole (abt). All the prepared complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, Molar conductance, Magnetic susceptibility infrared and electronic spectral. The complexes were classified as:
1-                  When the ligands (at and abt) behave as Mondentate coordinated throughnitrogen of thiazole ring, the resulting complexes are of the type [ML3X3] (M=Cr+3 when L= abt and at) (M=Fe+3 when L= abt,at).
2-                   When the ligands (at and abt) behave as bidentate coordinated through nitrogen of thiazole ring and nitrogen of amide or oxygen of the carbonyl, the resulting complexes are on the type [Co(abt)2.Cl.H2O]Cl.H2O, [ML2Cl2] (M=Mn+2 ,Zn+2,Hg+2when L= abt and at), [ML2.(H2O)2](NO3)2  (M=Cr+3 when L= abt and at; M=Ni+2 when L=abt) and [CdL2](NO3)2 (L=abt and at).
3-                  When the ligands (at and abt) behave as tridentate coordinated through the nitrogen of the thiazole ring and nitrogen of amide and the oxygen of the carbonyl group. The resulting complexes are on the type [Cu(abt)2] (NO3)2.
          The prepared complexes have octahedral structures except the complexes of type [CdL2] (NO3)2 have tetrahedral structures.

Using of Bathophenanthroline Reagent for Spectrophotometric Estimation of Acetylcysteine in its Pharmaceutical Preparations

Shahad L. Hasan; Saad Hasani Sultan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 21-33
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172937

A sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was suggested for the estimation of acetylcysteine in its pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was depended on the oxidation of the studied drug compound by iron (III) in aqueous medium, and then reaction of produced iron (II) with bathophenanthroline reagent to form a red color complex, which is stable and soluble in water and exhibits a maximum absorption at 534 nm. Beer̛̛s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.25 to 10.0 µg.ml-1 of acetylcysteine. The apparent molar absorptivity value is 2.35×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandalls sensitivity index of 0.00694 µg.cm-2, a relative error of                  -4.72 to 4.32% and a relative standard deviation of 0.627 to 3.54% depending on the concentration level. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of acetylcysteine in its pharmaceutical preparations as sachet (powder), capsule and injection.

Solar Activities and their Relationship to the Maximum Temperatures of the City of Baghdad for the Solar Cycles 23 and 24

mohammed AKeel; Imad A. Hussain

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 34-42
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172938

The interaction of solar activities with the layers of the Earth's atmosphere determines the pattern of the complex climate system. It is clear that any change in incoming solar radiation has the potential to affect the climate. In this research, the effect of the energies of coronal mass ejections and solar flares on the maximum temperatures of the summer seasons over the city of Baghdad for the time period (1996-2019) representing the 23 and 24 solar cycles was studied. CME data were collected from the SOHO/LASCO CME Catalog. Solar flare data were taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Center (NOAA) database. As for the geoclimatic data for the study for the summer seasons, it was relied on through the meteorological ground station in Baghdad affiliated with the Iraqi General Authority for Meteorology and Seismic Monitoring. The statistical program Minitab 19.0 was used, and the results showed a direct relationship between the energies of coronal mass ejections and solar flares with maximum temperatures during the solar cycles 23 and 24. Except for the descending phase of the solar cycle 24, the results showed an inverse relationship.

The Efficiency of Nanoparticles Oxides in the Promoting the Formation of Secondary Metabolites Compounds in Plants

Rana T. Yahya

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.172939

The study impressed on the necessary of using advanced nanotechnology in different fields and applications, as it contributes in the increasing of production, improving quality, reducing costs, preventing the use of harmful pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and explain the role of research related to completing new added value for the agricultural section and  for obtain an clean environment free from nano-pollutants and manipulating them in a positive direction for the growth of certain types of accumulated plants, improving the plant's ability to obtain plant metabolic materials with medical and pharmaceutical benefits and directing work to exploit these materials in all aspects of life because of their importance and empty from any harmful side effects. For this purpose elements are used as stimulation factors, which leads to enhancing the bio- formation of these compounds in plant cell cultures in vitro. These factors include elements from biotic and non-biotic sources, the most important of which are nanoparticles, which are non-biotic extract materials used to obtain medicinal compounds derived from plants.

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Diazotization Coupling Reaction

Enas S. Thanoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159979

An accurate, simple, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method which proposed and developed for the determination of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was based on acid hydrolysis of PAR to produced p-aminophenol (PAP), PAP was diazotization with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt, followed by coupling with histidine reagent in alkaline medium to produced azo dye that showed maximum absorbance at 430 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration rage of 10-500 µg/20 ml (i.e. 0.5-25 ppm). The molar absorpitivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the dye were. 1.118×104 l.mol-1.cm-1and 0.0135 µg.cm-2 respectively. The method successfully has been applied for the determination of PAR in pure form,and its pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection).


Effect of Wet Cupping on Serum Lipids Profile Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients and Correlation with some Metal Ions

Layla A. Mustafa; Rukzan M. Dawood; Osama M. Al-Sabaawy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 128-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.60009

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy on serum lipid profile concentration and correlated to some trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Mn). Thirty one men (35 to 55 years old), with hyperlipidemia and without antihyperlipidemic drug or high energy diet consumption for the duration of the study were subjected to cupping. The serum for total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) and trace elements concentration was collected from brachial veins, and determined before cupping and then once a week for two weeks after cupping. Patients with hyperlipidemia who subjected for cupping show a significantly decrease (p≤0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL/HDL ratio by comparison before cupping, while there were no significant differences in serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio show a highly significant difference (p<0.001) after cupping and also showed a significant correlation with serum lipids profile after cupping, especially zinc metal.

Assessment of Dibdibba Sand (Southern Iraq) for the Manufacturing of Semi Silica Bricks

Firas Faisal Al-Hamdani; Sattar Jabbar Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41577

Three different mixtures (sand:clay), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40), were formed in a cylindrical shape of 50×50 mm, using a semi–dry pressing with 300 kg/cm2 as forming pressure and then fired at 1430˚C.
The results showed that the produced semi silica bricks have apparent porosity ranging from 21.3-25% with specific gravity between 2.42-2.93 N/mm2 and having spelling resistance between 15 to 25 cycle.
The results show that it is possible to use a mixture of 60:40 sand:clay for the manufacture of semi silica bricks.

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

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