About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Identification of Red Complex Pathogens Group from Chronic Periodontitis Patients in Mosul City

Sumaya A.S.M. Al-Hamdoni; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166307

This study is concerned with the isolation of red complex pathogens, identifying them by a new molecular method as the first locally used and described procedure and characterizing these pathogens by their phenotypic features and biofilms. Gingival fluids were sampled from chronic periodontitis and inoculated into three types of culture media, Schaedler Anaerobe Agar, Tannerella forsythia (TF) agar, and Trypton Yeast extracts Gelatin Volatile fatty acids and Serum (TYGVS) agar. The different appearing colonies were purified and identified by Loop- Mediated Isothermal Amplification protocol (LAMP) for the detection of red complex species. Bacterial biofilm was estimated in term of mono- and polytypic biofilm by measuring the absorbance of a crystal violet- stained biofilm formed in a microtiter plate. Different forms of colonies appeared at the primary isolation. LAMP method was of a significant value for perfect rapid identification of the target species of extracted DNA or intact cells within half an hour. The three types of red complex pathogens were simultaneously detected in the same gingival fluid sample. They formed mono- and polymicrobial biofilms in a synergistic manner particularly the two intimates P. gingivalis and T. denticola. In conclusion, the updated LAMP molecular protocol was attractive method for the diagnosis of red complex pathogens which showed great morphological variations. P. gingivalis fortified the growth of the other two to establish polymicrobial biofilms in a synergistic manner.

Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus and its Roles in Cytokines Stimulation in Immunocompromised Patients in Mosul City, Iraq

Nawal Shahir Mahmood; Abdulrhem Thonnon AL-Ghazal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 17-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166308

Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) cause different infections in humans all over the world with a prevalence exceeds 70% in adults and 90% in poorer communities and developing countries. Two hundred immunocompromised patients (cancer, dialysis, thyroid gland, and thalassemia) infected with CMV were subjected to determine CMV seroprevalence and its effect on cytokines expression using advance molecular test (Real time PCR) and Serological ELISA test.  The results showed high CMV seroprevalence rate in immunocompromised patients but in low rate in thalassemia patients in Mosul city compared with other cities near Iraq. CMV stimulates upregulation in expression (mRNA transcripts) of three cytokines genes (IL-10, TNF, and CCL2) which affect four key immune pathways which in turn may cause severe complication on patients such as asthma and cytokine storm.

Synthesis of some New Spiro 1,3,4-Oxadiazolines Derived from Azlactone

Shaymaa K. Younis; Mohamad R. Mohamad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166309

In this work a mixture of hippuric acid (N-benzoyl glycine) (1) and substituted benzaldehyde undergone Erlenmeyer and Perkin reactions respectively to afford the 4-aryl methylidene-2-phenyl oxazole-5-one (2a-d). This reaction proceeded under acidic media using acetic anhydride and sodium acetate. The azlactones (2a-d) used as starting material to prepare the imidazolone derivatives. New 4-aryl methylidene-5-oxo-2-phenyl-N'-(substituted cyclohexylidene)-4,5-dihydro imidazole-1-carbohydrazide(3a-j) were prepared from reactions the azlactones (2a-d)   with Schiff’s bases which prepared through condensation reaction of semicarbazide with substituted cyclo hexanone. Finally, the preparation of new 1-(4-acetyl-5-spiro substituted cyclohexyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-4-aryl methylidene-2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-one (4a-j) via intracyclization reaction of imidazolones (3a-j) in the presence of acetic anhydride as suitable cyclizing agent.
        The structure of the synthesized compounds were illustrated by the available physical and spectral analysis (M.P, T.L.C, U.V, FT-IR and some of them by 1H-NMR) .

Using of Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline in Spectrophotometric Estimation of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride

Shlear H. Hasan; Nabeel S. Othman; Kafia M. Surchi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166310

The suggested work included simple accurate diazo-coupling spectrophotometric method for the determination of phenylephrine-HCl (PHEPH) in pure drug and tablet formulation. The method was based on coupling of PHEPH with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline in alkaline medium. The sensitivity expressed by the value of molar absorptivity of yellowish-orange azo- dye was 1.915 ×104 L. mol-1. cm-1, the maximum absorption at 455 nm and Beer's law obeyed within the range of 10-200 μg/10ml of PHEPH. The color of the product was highly stable and did not show a significant change in absorbance up to 60 min. with a recovery of 99.97% and a RSD% is 0.024%. The PHEPH in nose drop and syrup has been estimated with satisfactory results.

Single-Stage Amplifiers Simulation for Microwave Applications Using S-Parameters

laith Al Taan; Nawfal Y. Jamil; Salah I. Saleh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 47-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166312

A single-stage amplifier circuits containing transistor as BJT or FET transistor were designed for the microwave application using S-parameters, and developed as a lumped circuit then converted to its equivalent microstrip distributed circuits on different substrates such as Alumina (er=9.8) and Beryllia (er=6.3). The output results as power gain Gp, noise figure NF, and stability factor K were obtained. These results were compared with other published worked included circuits having the same conditions. The comparison shows that in case of the feedback applied to the circuit the Gp achieved about (~1.5) dB for BJT circuits along (0.6-1) GHz and noise figure increased about double, where for FET circuit the increasing in Gp about (7) dB along (2) GHz, and noise figure was less than BJT circuit. The physical characteristics are discussed with respect to substrate and show that the substrate with high permittivity was helpful to reach the higher operating frequency and good power gain values.

Multicore Photonic Crystal Fibres Designing for Multiplexers and Demultiplexers Applications

Miami Mohammed; Ahmad K. Ahmad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 61-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166313

Coupling properties are significantly affective when the three cores of a photonic crystal fiber are identical or non-identical, we analyze this numerically using COMSOL Multiphysics software 5.5 to gain insight into the nature of the coupling between these cores. A non-identical core produced by a slight mismatch in the propagation constants which are sufficient to suppress coupling between the cores or may strengthen the coupling between the cores because they sometimes have equal propagation constants. By manipulating the central core diameter (increase or decrease) compared to the diameter of the other cores can limit the strength of the coupling between the cores, the coupling efficiency and the coupling length of the cores become decreasing. Introducing anisotropy in three core diameters resulting in the modes of these cores are isolated in a certain region of the array of photonic crystal fiber, as a result, the coupling is suppressed between the modes of cores at the wavelength 1064nm while some coupling appears between modes of the cores in the wavelength 1550nm where the coupling coefficient is evaluated as a function of wavelength. The coupling between three cores reveals novel characteristics more than two cores and this useful for Multiplexers and Demultiplexers applications

Hemodialysis Effect in Myeloperoxidase Activity and Number of Biochemical Parameters in Blood Serum of Chronic Renal Failure Patients

Eyman Taha Al Ali; Eyman T. Al-Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166314

This study was conducted in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital in Mosul for the period from the beginning of February 2018 to the end of June 2018, and this study aims to assess the effect of hemodialysis in the activity of the myeloproxidase enzyme and number of biochemical parameters for chronic renal failure patients who are undergo to hemodialysis, and this study included follow-up 95 patients with Chronic renal failure at the age of (15-65) years, and different parameters were compared with the same parameters in 30 healthy people who did not have any disease and the same ages as a control group. A significant increase was achieved at the probability level (P ≤ 0.05) in the activity of the enzyme before and after dialysis, compared with the control group. results showed a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in iron concentration and total iron capacity in iron associated with patients before and after dialysis compared with the control group. The results showed a significant increase in the activity of the enzyme myeloperoxidase in the age group       (31-40), and the concentrations of Urea, Creatinine Uric acid, and decrease in Iron concentration of Iron and TIBC as a result of the effect of age..

Investigation of the Ability of some Bacteria Isolated from Intravenous Catheters to form Biofilms and the Effectiveness Ability of some Substances in Removing them

Raad M. Mahmmod; Amera M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 14-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166315

The research included investigating some of the contaminated bacteria of the Cervical Vein Catheter (CVC) devices in patients with dialysis in  Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital (alternative site), then testing the ability of the isolated bacteria to form the biofilms in two ways, the  congo red agar and the tube method, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of some substances to remove the biofilms                       
   The results showed that the contaminated bacteria of the cervical venous catheter apparatus included: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Burkholderia cepacia. The current study also showed that the ability of the pathogenic bacteria above to form the biofilms by Tube Method came at 3,2 and 0, bacteria respectively, and its ability to the composition of the biofilms by the Congo Red Agar Method came at 2,2 and 0, bacteria respectively. The results also showed the high ability of Vancomycin and Meropemen 10% for each one, and Alum 20% as well as natural lemon juice undiluted to remove the biofims formed by the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium. As for the other materials that were used, they did not show any ability to remove the biofilms.                                                                                                

Levels for some Toxic and Essential Metals in Patients with Neurological Diseases

Omar M. Hameed; Luay Al-Helaly

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 27-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166316

The research included studying the levels of some of the toxic and essential metals in the serum of patients with neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Epilepsy and Migraine, as levels of toxic metals including lead, nickel and chromium and the levels of essential metals that included copper, iron and calcium were measured in the male patient group who suffered from neurological diseases in Mosul city, Samples reached (144), which included group of male patients (97) and a group of normal persons who were in numbers (47).
The results indicated that there was a significant increase in patients with Alzheimer's, epilepsy and migraine in levels of: lead, nickel and chromium compared with the control group, as well as a significant increase in the level of copper for Alzheimer's and epilepsy patients when compared with the control group and no significant difference for migraine patients.
In addition, the results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the level of iron for all groups of patients, and was non-significantly there decrease in the level of calcium for Alzheimer's and epilepsy patients and non-significant difference in calcium was observed in migraine patients when compared with the control group.
The study showed that there was an increase in the levels of toxic metals especially in lead and nickel and a decrease in the levels of essential metals especially in iron and calcium in patients with neurological diseases, Which may constitute one of the causes of the occurrence of neurological diseases, especially among patients with Alzheimer's and epilepsy in the Mosul city.

The Effect of Sn, Cu -Doping on the Optical and Structural Properties of CdSe Film Deposed by CBD Technique

Laith M. Al Taan; Rahma N. Thannoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 38-49
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.166317

Cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition technique (CBD) on glass slides with a solution concentration of 0.5M, at temperature 50oC, pH=9 for 3 hours. The doping process was carried out with Tin (Sn) and Copper (Cu) with different concentrations 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% also by CBD tech. The effects of different doping concentration on the optical and structural properties of the doped CdSe films was studied. The energy gap was found decreased by increasing the concentration of Sn up to 1.81eV, while the energy gap increased with increasing the Cu concentration. The relation between the absorption coefficient and the incident photon energy was shown that the electronic transitions between the energy bands are direct type. XRD studies revealed that pure and doped thin films was polycrystalline with cubic structure (111) preferential orientation.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Genetical Analysis of Self-Fertilized Generation Variances in Two Durum Wheat Crosses

Nabeel T. Al-Badrany; Najeeb K. Yousif; Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59623

Phenotypic variance in parents and third generation were analyzed to estimate the additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability in broad sense, heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance from selection in F3 generation, of two crosses in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the first cross between Azeghar-1 and Um-Rabie-5 and the second cross between Leeds and Waha for traits, heading time, flag leaf venation, plant height, peduncle length, number of spike, spike length, grain yield, 100 grains weight and number of grains per spike. Average degree of dominance revealed the different types of dominance for the studied traits, the values of narrow sense heritability were high for plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes, grain yield and number of grains per spikes in both crosses, spike length and weight of 100 grains in first cross, and flag leaf venation in second cross.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt(II) with Mordant Blue 9 -Application to Vitamin B12 (Injections and Powder)

Saddalah T. Sulaiman; Tamathir A. Hamoudi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 93-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.145394

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cobalt with Mordant Blue 9 in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in order to form an intense violet-colored chelate which exhibits maximum absorption at 586 nm at pH 3. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range of 0.004 -1 ppm with a molar absorptivity 3.97×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, Sandell’s sensitivity index of 1.484 ng.cm-2, while LOD (limit of dedication), LOQ (limit of quantitation) are found to be 4.006 ng/ml (n=10) and 13.353 ng/ml (n=10), respectively. The method has been applied for determination of Co(II) in pharmaceutical preparations.

The Applications of Al- Chrome Azurol S Color Reaction to Assay Mishraq Alum Purity and Fluoride in Tablet

Hanan H. Ahmad; Farha K. Omar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 6, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.6530

In the present research, a spectrophotometric method is suggested as an alternative to the gravimetric method used to find mishraq alum purity. The method is based on the complex formation between aluminium ion and either Chrome Azurol S (CAS) or Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR) to give colored products suitable for the determination of aluminium. The same reaction has been applied to the determination of fluoride in tablet, depending on the bleaching effect of fluoride on the formed aluminium colored complex. Statistical comparison of method has given satisfactory results

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Cellulytic, Pectolytic and Protease Enzymes of the Fungi Trichoderma pseudokomngii, Trichoderma harizianum and Gliocladium roseum Used in Biological Control

Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2008, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 94-102
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2008.41993

The ability of the fungi Trichoderma pseudokomngii, Trichoderma
harizianum and Gliocladium roseum to produce Polygalacturonase (PG),
Polygalacturonase transeliminase (PGT), Carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) and protease were studied in culture medium filtrates as well as mycelial mats. The study revealed that (PG) in the culture medium filtrate of each fungus had higher activity than in that in the mycelial mat. While there is no significant difference in it's activity between the culture medium filtrate and mycelial mat in the three fungi (PGT) activity of
T. harizianum culture medium filtrate had significant difference from that of the other fungi wheares (PGT) had significant difference between G. roseum culture medium filtrate and it's mycelial mat. While T. pseudokomngii had the reverse. The results revealed that there is no significant difference in the (CMCase) activity of the culture medium filtrate for T. pseudokomngii and T. harizianum. Also no significant difference has been found in the enzyme activity of the mycelial mat for the three fungi. The enzymeprotease had higher activity in the G. roseum culture medium than of
T. pseudokomngii and T. harizianum .

Publisher: College of Science/ University of Mosul

Email:  rafscij@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amera M. Al-Rawi

Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

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