About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Using U. V. C Ray for Inducing Resistance Against Tobacco mosaic virus

Hameed Mahmood Ali; Nihal Y. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176067

The research discusses the use of flashes of ultraviolet-C rays in inducing resistance against viral pathogens and the possibility of its employment in covered houses or garden nurseries. A number of tomato and tobacco plants of type Nicotiana tabacum, uder protected cultivation conditions, were exposed to UV-C rays at wavelengths 200-280 nm using an electronic LED lamp, for 5 and 10 minutes, all plants were inoculated 48 hours after the last exposure to UV rays. The number and size of local lesions were calculated on the leaves of inoculated tobacco plants, as well as monitoring the development of symptoms on tomato plants inoculated with the virus for 12 days of inoculation, and the virus concentration was estimated based on the amount of absorbance at 405 nm by ELISA test. The results indicated that the ultraviolet rays used enhanced the plant's resistance to viral infection through a noticeable increase in the enzyme peroxidase, as it reached (59220 nanometers) in the treated plants compared to the untreated plants that were (28,016 nanometers). The irradiation for the first five minutes had a higher effect than the longer irradiation that lasted for ten minutes, in addition to that the irradiation for intermittent periods and for a short period was better than the continuous exposure for one time. It was found that the leaves far from the radiation exposure area acquired an inducible character of resistance against the pathogen.

Isolation and Identification of Phenolic Compounds from the Plant Residues of Hordeum sp. and Brassica sp.by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Rawnak Al-Taee; Janan A. Saeed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 8-14
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176068

        The current study included qualitative diagnosis and quantitative estimation of some active compounds in two types of weeds, namely wild mustard Hordeum sp. and wild barley Brassica sp. The results showed that these plants contained several chemical compounds that were diagnosed as phenolic acids. Wild mustard contained three chemical compounds, namely: Galic acid, Resorsenol, Vanillin While wild barley contained four compounds, namely: Galic acid, Resorsenol, Vanillin benzoic acid. The results of quantitative estimation also showed variation in the concentration of these compounds in the extracts of these weed residues.

Determination of Doxycycline as Pure and in Pharmaceutical Preparation (Capsule) Using 4-Aminoantipyrine in Presence of Potassium Periodate

Nameer M. Khalaf; Nabeel S. Othman

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176069

    A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of doxycycline in aqueous medium using oxidative coupling reaction has been described. The method was based on the reaction of doxycycline with 4-aminoantipyrene (4-AAP) which gives soluble and stable red colored product that gives the highest absorption at the wavelength 515 nm, and the linearity of Beer's law was in the concentration range from 5 to 110 µg/ml, and the value of the determination coefficient for the standard curve was 0.9995, which statistically indicates that it has excellent linear characteristics. The molar absorptivity was calculated and found to be 1.387x103 l.mol-1.cm-1. Sandell's sensitivity value, the Limit of detection (LOD), and ‎‏ limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated and equal to 0.3334 μg/cm2, 0.114 and 0.38 µg/ml respectively the method was successfully applied for the determination of doxycycline in its pharmaceutical preparation.

A Simulation Study on the Effect of the Thickness and Carrier Concentration of the Active Layers in the n-CdSe/p-CdSe Solar Cell

Maha Khalid Abdul Ameer; Laith M. Al Taan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 29-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176070

In this work, thin-film solar cells based on Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) film were used, due to the low manufacturing cost and superior electronic properties, and this type of cell also achieves appropriate efficiency. The current work will focus on investigating the effect of the thickness and carrier concentration of the active layers in the cell, and the thickness of the window on the performance of the proposed solar cell, using the one-dimension solar cells capacitance simulation SCAPS-1D computer program. The proposed structure of this cell consists of ITO/n-CdSe/p-CdSe/Pt, where ITO was used as a window layer, n-CdSe as a buffer layer, p-CdSe as an absorber layer, and platinum Pt as a back conductive electrode. The results revealed that the cell performed best at thicknesses of 5000 and 100nm for the absorber and buffer layers, respectively, and with carrier concentrations of 1016 and 1017cm-3for the same layers. The optimal window layer thickness is 100nm. These variables yield open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current density (JSC), fill factor (FF) of 1.0845 V, 20.87 mA/cm2, 88.02% respectively, while the conversion efficiency of cell (Eff.) was obtained, which is 19.92%.

The Effect of the Iron Arm's Relative Position to the Pole piece Tip Position on the Objective Snorkel Lens Type

Neam Awanees Samuel Awanees Derdrian; Mohammed Kh. Zeki; Abdullah I. Alabdullah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 39-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176071

The bipolar region is one of the most important factors in determining the effectiveness of a magnetic lens. Regarding the focus and optical qualities of the display devices, the optimal position of the polepiece and the most significant aspect of the magnetic electron lenses were the iron shrouds, where the magnetic field increases smoothly and uniformly with the highest possible value and has just one peak.  The goal of this study is to determine the position of the shroud tip relative to the axial axis (Z), where the tip of the polepiece is located at (Z = 0 mm). In practice, it has been seen that the optical properties of electron lenses have improved when the position of the polepiece iron shroud tip is separated by a distance of 180 mm. By extending the distance between the iron shroud and the polepiece face in the opposite direction of the coil, by removing or reducing magnetic flux leakage, it is possible to increase its performance. The axial magnetic field will then rise within the lens in a direction that prevents it from being lost. In this work, the FEMM and MELOP programs were used to investigate the lens' performance, axial magnetic field, and focal optical characteristics.

Assessment the Quality Number of Well Water on the Left Side of the City of Mosul / Iraq and its Suitability for Drinking Using the Canadian Water Quality Index.

قصی ثائر محمد; Abdulmoneim Mohammed Ali Kannah Kannah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176072

The current study was conducted on 10 wells of water located within the city of Mosul / on the left side. The quality of this water was evaluated to determine the number of physical and chemical properties, including acidity, turbidity, total dissolved salts, total alkalinity, nitrates, chlorides, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, and sulfates. The current study showed that the values ​​of total dissolved solids and sulfate rates for well water ranged between 155-1150 mg/L, and 226-1037mg/L, respectively, and the acidity function rates ranged between 7-7.6, which are within The appropriate determinants of drinking according to the specifications of the World Health Organization, while the average values ​​of turbidity ranged between 0.5-21 N.T.U, and the nature of the geological formations of the study area had an impact on the concentration of calcium and magnesium, as well as the chlorides and total alkalinity where the concentration rate ranged Between 29-325, 16-89, 20-259 and 179-366 mg/L, respectively. The results of the current study showed that wells water for drinking purposes, according to the Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI), varied between (doubtful - good).

Production of Lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia) Plants from Somatic Embryos Developed from its Seedlings Leaf Callus

Azza Adel Al-Tai; Amjad A. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176073

The current study succeeded in producing the lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) plant from somatic embryos induced by the leaves callus of its seedlings, The results of soaking its dormant seeds in a solution of gibberellic acid at concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0) gm l
-1
for 24 hours showed the superiority of the concentration 0.5 g L
-1 in stimulation the germination rate that reached 75% after 6 days comparing with other treatments and control that had 20% germination after 13 days. This study was able to initiated callus from seedling leaves when were placed on MS solid medium supplemented with by added 3.0 mg L-1
NAA and 10 mg L
-1
BA after 20 days, Initiated callus was characterized by its yellowish-green color and friable texture, and when its masses were removed and placed on the same media, it produced well-growth cultures that were perpetuated every 15 days. After the second sub-culturing, the first stages of somatic embryos appeared, the spherical stage, which later developed into the heart,then torpedo and cotyledon stages and produced when placed individually on MSO medium, Intact lavender plants after 30 days were characterized by their good growth and density of leaves.
 

Detection of Bacteria Causing Skin Infections in Mosul City and Studying its Resistance to Antibiotics

Dhuha Younus; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 20-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176074

The current study was conducted to detect the bacteria that causes skin infections in Mosul city and to study its resistance pattern to different antibiotics. For this purpose, 30 swab samples were collected from different skin infections from patients referred to the dermatology consultations of Al-Salam Teaching Hospital and Mosul GeneralHospital in Mosul city. The results of isolation and diagnosis showed that (20) samples, 66.6% of the total samples were positive for bacterial culture. (56.5%) of isolated bacteria were Gram-negative and 43.5% belonged to Gram-positive bacteria. The isolation percentage for Staphylococcus aureus and Sphingomonas paucimobillis were (17.3%) each, Pantoea spp. (13%), and all three species belonging to the genus Kocuria and Klebsiella pneumonia was 8.6% each, while Acinetobacter baumannii , Brevundimonas diminuta, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas luteola were isolated by (4.3%) each.
The results for antibiotic sensitivity showed the prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon in all isolates, and the isolates showed a clear variation in their resistance to each antibiotic. The highest percentage of resistance towards antibiotics were (69.5%) and (60.8%) against the Oxacillin and Penicillin, respectively. All isolates were sensitive towards levofloxacin, which makes it a suitable treatment option for infections associated with the bacteria understudy.
 
 

Uptake of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Hypocotyl Callus Tissues of Helianthus annuus L. Seedlings

Ashraf Mohammed Hamed; Amjad A. Mohammed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 32-42
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176075

This study gives a special indication about the ability of callus tissues of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling stems in uptake of copper oxide Cu2O nanoparticles with concentration (30,60,90,150) µg ml-1 which reflect their important role in phytoremediation, and in the same time the nanoparticles have role in improve callus growth and fresh weight. The positive role of growth regulators NAA and BA it become clear in induction the callus of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plant. The result showed superiority of 150 µg ml-1 in encourage the increase of the fresh weight of the callus which developing on MS mediums that supported with growth regulator 0.5 mg ml-1 NAA and 1.0 mg ml-1 BA. Where the average fresh weight of the callus was 7.1 gm, 12.9 gm after 20 and 40 days of the growth respectively. Compared  with the fresh weight of callus  developing on same medium without nanoparticles where the average of the fresh weight was 4.1 gm, 6.2 gm after 20 and 40 day of the growth respectively, similarly the same concentration of nanoparticles above encourage the highest fresh weight when added alone in nutritional medium where it was 2.2 gm, 3.6 gm after 20 and 40 day of the growth respectively in compared with the other treatment. The Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) pictures explained the ability of callus tissues in uptake of nanoparticles on the surface of their cells in variant quantity according to the different concentration that used. 
                                                                                   
 

The Design and Manufacturing of a Czerny-Turner Spectrometer and a Spherical Aberration Reduction Mechanism for the Spectrometer

Atheel Alaqa; Yaser A. Al-jwaady; Raied Ahmed Al-Wazzan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 43-54
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176076

One of the most important diagnostic tools for a better understanding of actual systems is the spectroscopic examination of the physical properties of plasma and other bright sources. Atomic transitions of optical wavelengths are frequently used in a range of plasma devices as indicators of plasma characteristics like temperature and density. The design and construction of an effective spectrophotometer were motivated by the requirements of our ongoing plasma physics research. One of the most crucial methods for figuring out the density and temperature of electrons is the optical spectroscopic emission method. This study focused on the design and production of a low-cost Cherny-Turner spectrometer that could be produced locally. Using a manual micrometer, the slitter's exact movement is managed. Two quartz concave mirrors, one with a focal length of 15.375 cm and the other with a focal length of 16.825 cm, were employed. The spherical aberration was then treated by lowering the angle of incidence and angle of diffraction as much as feasible. The spectrometer's light input was focused, and the mirror positions were calibrated. The positions of the mirrors were calibrated with the diffraction grating to the location of the camera, first manually using a red laser light with a wavelength (650nm), and then using a CCD camera to locate the final image. With the movement of the diffraction grating to scan the wavelengths and analyze the light to its original components.
 
 

Studying the Effect of Changing Several Layers on the Performance of the Perovskite Solar Cell (CH3NH3PbI3) and Studying the Effect of Adding the Back Surface Filed layer to the Solar Cell Using the Simulation Program (SCAPS 1-D)

Raddad Mahmoud; Raad A. Rasoul

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 55-68
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2022.176077

This research includes testing several different materials for each layer of the five-layer perovskite solar cell (CH3NH3PbI3) and choosing the best material for each layer of the cell in order to obtain the highest efficiency of the perovskite solar cell, as well as studying the effect of both the thickness of the absorption layer and the back surface field layer on the performance  of the solar cell using the computer simulation program (SCAPS1-D), where the perovskite material (CH3NH3PbI3) was adopted as an absorption layer in the solar cell with a thickness of (1 µm), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) was selected from among several different materials as a window layer with a thickness of (0.05 µm), Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) was selected from among a number of different materials as a transparent conductive oxide layer with a thickness of (0.1 µm), as well as a buffer layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) with a thickness of (0.05µm) and after studying each cell layer and selecting the best one for each layer the structure of the four-layer solar cell became as follows:
            (CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2/ZnO/FTO).
      The outputs of the solar cell were as follows: [Voc=1.263(V), Jsc=24.01 mA/cm2, FF=89.017%, ƞ=26.94%]. Finally, the back surface field layer was selected, which is zinc telluride (ZnTe) with a thickness of (0.05 mµ). The structure of the five-layer solar cell became as follows: (ZnTe /CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2/ZnO/FTO)). The final output of the perovskite solar cell (CH3NH3PbI3) was as follows: [Voc=1.288(V), Jsc=25.04mA/cm2, FF=89.54%, ƞ=28.88%].
 
 

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Diazotization Coupling Reaction

Enas S. Thanoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159979

An accurate, simple, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method which proposed and developed for the determination of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was based on acid hydrolysis of PAR to produced p-aminophenol (PAP), PAP was diazotization with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt, followed by coupling with histidine reagent in alkaline medium to produced azo dye that showed maximum absorbance at 430 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration rage of 10-500 µg/20 ml (i.e. 0.5-25 ppm). The molar absorpitivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the dye were. 1.118×104 l.mol-1.cm-1and 0.0135 µg.cm-2 respectively. The method successfully has been applied for the determination of PAR in pure form,and its pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection).

).

Effect of Wet Cupping on Serum Lipids Profile Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients and Correlation with some Metal Ions

Layla A. Mustafa; Rukzan M. Dawood; Osama M. Al-Sabaawy

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 128-136
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.60009

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy on serum lipid profile concentration and correlated to some trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Mn). Thirty one men (35 to 55 years old), with hyperlipidemia and without antihyperlipidemic drug or high energy diet consumption for the duration of the study were subjected to cupping. The serum for total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) and trace elements concentration was collected from brachial veins, and determined before cupping and then once a week for two weeks after cupping. Patients with hyperlipidemia who subjected for cupping show a significantly decrease (p≤0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL/HDL ratio by comparison before cupping, while there were no significant differences in serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio show a highly significant difference (p<0.001) after cupping and also showed a significant correlation with serum lipids profile after cupping, especially zinc metal.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfadiazine via Diazotization and Coupling Reaction - Application to Pharmaceutical Preparations

Salim A. Mohammed; Haseeb Y. S. Zebary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2013, Volume 24, Issue 11, Pages 61-73
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2013.80282

A simple, rapid, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative determination of sulfadiazine (SDz) in both pure and its dosage forms. The method is based on diazotization of primary amine group of sulfadiazine with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid followed by coupling with γ-resorsolic acid (2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in alkaline medium of sodium hydroxide to form a yellow coloured azo dye shows a maximum absorption at 458 nm against reagent blank solution. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 10-300 μg of SDz / 25 ml (0.4-12 ppm) with a determination coefficient (R2=0.9998 ) and molar absorptivity 4.38×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and a relative error in the range of 0.1- 0.64% and a relative standard deviation from  0.27 to  1.21 % depending on the concentration level of SDz. The method is suitable for the determination of sulfadiazine in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms. The effect of organic solvents on the spectrophotometric properties of the azo dye and the composition of the resulting product have also been worked out and it is found to be 1:2 γ-resorsolic acid: sulfadiazine. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of sulfadiazine in its pharmaceutical preparations ( tablet, and burn cream ).

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

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