About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Determination of IL-6 and TNF-∝ Levels in Sera of Laboratory Animals Injected by Different Concentrations of Lipopolysaccharide Isolated from Escherichia coli

Dhuha J. Mohamed; Hiyam Adel Altaii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167307

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted from Escherichia coli by using EDTA method. Three concentrations of LPS have been prepared which are 50, 100, 200 μg/100g of body weight. Three groups of rats aged 2-3 months were used three animals per each were injected Intraperitoneally (IP) with three doses every 48 hours, followed by two booster doses in two weeks, then blood was withdrawn and serum was separated and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor( TNF-∝ ) and  interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) were estimated by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) method. TNF-∝ concentrations were 125.566 ± 1.826, 133.566 ± 1.149 and 150.766 ± 1.954 picogram (pg)/ml for different doses of injected LPS, further the concentrations of IL-6, were 37.733± 4.747, 51.333± 4.475 and 63.000 ±1.982 pg/ml for various injection doses.
          Exposure to LPS stimulated production of TNF- ∝ and IL-6, However, we noticed that TNF-∝ was higher compared to IL-6, the concentration 200 μg/100g also had a greater catalytic effect than the other concentrations for TNF- ∝ and IL-6.

Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Extracted from Enterobacter cloacae on some Pathogenic Bacteria

Rawaa Ahmed AL Aswad; Hiyam Adel Altaii

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167308

A 106 different specimen were collected to isolate and diagnose some gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, as it was performed for the period from 15 August to 30 November 2019 from AL-Salam and Al-Khansaa educational hospitals in Mosul. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted from Enterobacter cloacae by using the Methanol - Chloroform method. extract was diagnosed, using some biochemical tests such as the Molisch test to detect carbohydrate content and Folin reagent in order to determine proteins concentration, lipid solubility in organic solvent and Bio drop technique as well as to detect nucleic acid concentration. The extraction methods showed its efficiency with low protein and nucleic acids concentration in the extract. Lipopolysaccharide demonstrated its efficiency inhibiting microbial growth on all test isolates at concentrations 1100, 1000 µg\ ml while its lipopolysaccharide showed its inhibition of Proteus mirabilis at all concentrations used. LPS showed possibility used as inhibitory, antimicrobial growth

Assessment of Natural and Industrial Radioactivity and Radiological Hazard in Sediments of Tigris River of Dhuluiya City, Iraq

Shaimaa J. Khudair; Abdullah M. Ali; Nada F. Tawfiq

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167309

Specific activity of Natural and industrial radionuclides in sediments samples collected from the Tigris river of Dhuliya city of Salah Uddin Governorate was measured using γ-ray spectroscopy. The γ-ray spectrometry was carried out using NaI(Tl) detector. The results indicated that specific activity of 226Ra ranged from 1.51Bq/kg to 84.68Bq/kg with average 15.48Bq/kg, 228Ac ranged from 1.47 to 49.84Bq/kg with average 8.36Bq/kg, 40K ranged from 56.51Bq/kg to 711.34Bq/kg with average 418.47Bq/kg and 137Cs ranged from 2.77Bq/kg to 9.78Bq/kg with average 2.88Bq/kg. The average concentrations of these radionuclides were less than the internationally accepted limit ​​except for 40K radionuclides. The radiological parameters of the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rate (Dγ), external and internal annual effective dose (AEDE), external and internal risks (Hex, Hin), and gamma radiation representative level index (Iγ) were calculated and found to be lower than the internationally acceptable limit value.

Role of the Hairy Roots as A Biological Agent in Phytoremediation

Amjad A. Mohammed; Owayes M. Hamed; Raed S. Alsaffar

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167310

Pollution is a growing undertaking for humans around the globe which affects in which affects both developed and growing towns (Suresh and Ravishankar, 2004). All herbal methods that make contributions to economic pollution are typically categorized as natural contaminants (Sosa Alderete et al., 2009). These are the human final products which include:  navy explosives, agriculture, oil products, gasoline manufacturing and wood results                            (Pilon-Smits, 2005). Subsequently, the natural activities can additionally sell the discharge of heavy metals as nickel, molybdenum, lead, copper, zinc and mercury to the environment which are harmful to human health (Nedelkoska and Doran, 2000).                              The whole surroundings are constantly being contaminated from pollutants which is unsafe for human fitness (Suza et al., 2008 ; Rezek et al., 2012).
The cost of cleansing up infected sites is high therefore using vegetation to extract, stabilize and degrade contaminants, all of them called as phytoremediation, is giving reputation as an extra cost-powerful opportunity to different strategies of cleanup                            (Kuiper et al., 2004).

Pathological Effects of Toxoplasma gondii in the Brain and Liver of Sheep’s Fetuses in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

Yahya N. ALKATEB; Ayad H. Ibrahim; Saad T. Rasheed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167311

Congenital toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of abnormalities and pathological changes in fetuses that cause miscarriage, fetal death, or the death of newborns, especially in farms animals. The research designed to study of the histological changes in the brain and the liver of sheep’s fetuses that infected with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in in the third trimester of pregnancy. 32 fetuses where taken after slaughtering the mothers and then collect the brain and liver after confirming the infection by laboratory tests. The histological study showed that the brain suffering from congestion of blood vessels, hemorrhage and necrotizing areas surrounded with Glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and the parasites tissue cysts. In the liver the lesions were sever necrosis, degeneration, dilatation of blood sinusoids and the tissue lost the characterizing appearance of liver tissue, the presence of the parasite in multiple areas surrounded with leukocytes and kupffer cells. We conclude from the current study that the parasite has a severe and destructive effects on the brain and liver tissues of sheep’s fetuses, however pregnancy may continue to the last period and this explains the death of fetuses in late pregnancy or the death of lambs immediately after birth when they are congenitally infected with toxoplasmosis as a result of failure of Those organs to perform their vital functions.

Detection of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in some Pathogenic Samples and Medical Devices and Determining Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

Ahmed A. Hammadi; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167312

This study was conducted to detection of bacterial types belonged to (CoNS) group from pathogenic sources and medical devices and studying the pattern of their resistance to different antibiotics. 120 samples (pathogenic samples, surgical instruments and tools) were collected from some hospitals in Mosul city for the period from August 2019 until January 2020, Various diagnostic methods were used, which included phenotypic methods (Cultural, microscopic and biochemical) and the use of the Api Staph system, and Vitek system. The sensitivity of the isolated bacteria to (12) antibiotics was tested.
 The CoNS bacterium group was isolated from all studied sources and (37) isolates were obtained, at a rate of (52.8%) of the total staphylococci, and it prevailed on Staphylococcus aureus in many cases, and the isolated species included Staphylococcus epidermidis (12 isolates 32.4%) followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (8 isolates 21.6%), then Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis (6 isolates 16.2%) for each of them, then Staphylococcus lentus (3 isolates 8.1%) Finally, Staphylococcus sciuri (2 isolates 5.4%).
 Antibiotic sensitivity results of CoNS isolates showed high resistance to Tetracyclin 89.1% (%), Penicillin (86.4%), Erythromycin 81%), and Oxacillin 78.3%), respectively, and in lower percentage to the rest of the studied antibiotics. Isolates are absolutely sensitive (100%) to the Vancomycin and high sensitivity for Ofloxacin (89.1%) and Novobiocin (72.9%). These results confirm the prevalence of different bacteria belonging to the CoNS group in the various pathogenic sources, and their health importance and severity associated with their high resistance to antibiotics.

The Effect of Diode Laser on Growth of some Gram-Negative Bacteria

Mohammad Tarish; Ghada Mohammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167313

The Laser is distinguished of it’s the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacterial cells and spores, the effect of laser with (650 nm wavelength and a capacity of 50 mw/cmand a distance of 10 cm) were studied on the growth of four species of gram-negative bacteria: Shigella spp., Entereobacter cloacae,  Morganella morganii, and  Entereobacter hormaechei, All of them isolated from an eradicated gallbladder were diagnosed with conventional methods. After isolation and identification, the bacterial suspensions were prepared separately for each bacterium understudy, then were exposure to the laser beam for a period of (0,2,5) minutes, respectively, after that 0.1 ml of bacterial suspension for timings (0,2,5) min. were transported to the Muller-Hinton agar with triplicate.
After incubation, the results showed a clear decrease in the number of developing colonies, and the intensity of the killing was associated with direct relationship with increasing the time of exposure. The results also showed a variation in the bacterial sensitivity under study to killing by laser, Where the isolate E.cloacae recorded decreasing  in the number of its colonies from 144 before exposure to 80 and 28 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with a killing percentage of 45% and 81% respectively, E.hormaechei isolates also recorded decreasing in the number of its colonies from109 before exposure to 62 and 25 colonies, with a killing percentage reaching 43% and 77% respectively after (2 and 5) of exposure, as well as the number of Shigella spp colonies decreased from 180 before exposure to 134 and 97 colonies  with a killing percentage of 26% and 64% after (2 and 5) exposure respectively, in addition, M.morganii isolates witnessed decreasing in the number of its developing colonies after exposure to the laser beam from 233 colonies before exposure to 148 and 120 colonies after (2 and 5) minutes of exposure with percentage of killing reaching 37% and 48% respectively.

Physical Thermal Effect Test for Treatment of Polystyrene Plastic Waste

Ali Mohammed Ahmed; Ahmed N. Mahmood; Rasheed M. Yousuf

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167314

Two groups of plastic waste manufactured from polystyrene (PS) were used to manufacture samples, the first group of polystyrene (Ps) is not subject to recycling, while the second group was made of polystyrene (Ps), which was subject to a recycling process using the sulfonation method and by (19.3%). The first group was called the saturated polystyrene group, while the second group was called unsaturated polystyrene, Manufactured samples underwent surface hardness and bending durability checks before and after exposure to a thermophysical effect at temperatures ((T = 60, 80 and 100 C
)). The results indicated that the polystyrene cannot maintain its surface hardness in case it is exposed to a thermophysical effect. The amount of decrease in the value of the surface hardness takes the exponential form instead of the linear shape, the extent that the value of the surface hardness is fixed with the increase in the time period of exposure to the thermophysical effect. Even if the change in the effect value was relatively few. And that there is a critical time period in which the bending resistance of the polystyrene material reaches the maximum value, after which the ability of the material to resist the bending decreases with an increase in the time period of exposure to the thermophysical effect. The effects associated with the bending process (tension, compression, shear) collapse after exposure to the thermophysical effect during a critical time period due to the loss of the continuity property in the body of the polystyrene, and finally the material loses its ability to resist the bending, and this characteristic depends on the quality of the polystyrene .

Effect of Pole Face Thickness on Magnetization of the Single-pole Magnetic Lens

Sarah Akrm Sultan; Abdullah Idrees Alabdullah; Abdulsamee fawzi Abdel Azeez

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 44-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167315

An innovative design of a polepiece magnetic lens has been introduced so that the thickness of the pole face can be changed without affecting the other geometrical parameters of the lens, for a systematic study to develop the important region of ​​the pole face to improve the performance of  single polepiece magnetic lenses and to get a high intensity magnetic overflow and a narrow half width. A study was conducted for each design that includes calculating the axial magnetic field and studying the magnetization of the lens by means of the finite element method using the (EOD) program to get the best design for the polepiece proposed in this study, it was found that the best magnetic properties and the highest value of magnetic flux and the lowest value of the axial magnetic field strength half-width were at the value of the pole face thickness equal to (0.5 mm). The effect of the magnetic circuit iron and the magnetic field of the coil on the total magnetic field produced from the designed polepiece magnetic lens was also studied.

New Formula for Negative Beta Decay Energy in the range

Aws Tariq Qasim; Firas Mohammed Ali Al-jomaily

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167316

In this research the negative beta decay energy  has been determine for light, medium, and heavy nuclei (even – even, even – odd, odd – even and odd – odd), which their atomic numbers are from . An equation of the negative beta decay energy was derived in terms of the nuclear binding energy of the parent and daughter nuclei instead of the mass difference between them as it known. After making the conceptual derivations, the Liquid Drop Model (LDM) was used to calculate the decay energy, which results in agreement with the experimental and theoretical values. With this, a new and general formula for negative beta decay energy () was achieved. The statistical relationship of standard deviation and root mean square deviation have been used to determine the reliability of this model to determine the negative beta decay value. The results showed that there is an acceptable agreement between the experimental and theoretical values, especially for medium and heavy nuclei, and less acceptable in light nuclei due to the presence of magic numbers and their interference in this spectrum of beta particles. 

Constructing a Solar Cell Based on n and p –type Polymers and Improve its Characteristics Using mWCNT

Haitham A. Ayoob; Laith Al Taan; Asaad F. Khattab

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 66-76
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2020.167317

In this work, solar cells were constructed based polymers prepared as n-type and p-type. Eight polymers were prepared from the reaction of P-phenylene-diamine with carbon disulfide and sulfur by polymerization. The IR, XDR, and thermal history of polymers were studied at room temperature, with thicknesses between (0.7-0.6) mm. Also, Hall factor, the mobility for electrons and holes before and after doping were studied. The polymer solar cells (PSC) were manufactured by depositing n-type polymers on Si/p-type substrate. And p-type polymers on the same area of ​​Si/n-type substrate. The aluminium layer was deposition as an ohmic contact on Si by evaporation under the pressure of 3.5×10-6 Torre the upper electrode, copper metal, was deposited on the surface covered with the polymer film. The I-V characteristics were obtained using a light with a power of 100 mW/cm2. From I-V curves, the value of the filling factor-FF and power conversion efficiency- Ƞ were calculated. Then to improve the efficiency, four n-type polymers were chosen with the highest electrical conductivity. A solution of 99.9% purity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mWCNT) was added by depositing the mixture on a Si/p-type substrate using the spin-coating method. The results of final four cells after improving showed an increasing in the short-circuit current density between Jsc=(13.8-19.8) mA/cm2, the open-circuit voltage between Voc=(0.345 -0.370)V, the FF=(~38%) where the efficiency improved significantly and increased between            ŋ =(2.6-4.48)%. The best PSC obtained gave a ŋ =1.07% before improvement, where after adding the carbon nanotube solution, it become about ŋ = 4.48%, that is, an increase of 4.18%. Therefore, the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into the organic conductive polymers can significantly improve the performance of the PSC.

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Diazotization Coupling Reaction

Ghassan F. Alubaidy; Asma A. Basheer; Shakir M. Saied; Enas S. Thanoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159979

An accurate, simple, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method which proposed and developed for the determination of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was based on acid hydrolysis of PAR to produced p-aminophenol (PAP), PAP was diazotization with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt, followed by coupling with histidine reagent in alkaline medium to produced azo dye that showed maximum absorbance at 430 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration rage of 10-500 µg/20 ml (i.e. 0.5-25 ppm). The molar absorpitivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the dye were. 1.118×104 l.mol-1.cm-1and 0.0135 µg.cm-2 respectively. The method successfully has been applied for the determination of PAR in pure form,and its pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection).


Genetical Analysis of Self-Fertilized Generation Variances in Two Durum Wheat Crosses

Nabeel T. Al-Badrany; Najeeb K. Yousif; Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59623

Phenotypic variance in parents and third generation were analyzed to estimate the additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability in broad sense, heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance from selection in F3 generation, of two crosses in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the first cross between Azeghar-1 and Um-Rabie-5 and the second cross between Leeds and Waha for traits, heading time, flag leaf venation, plant height, peduncle length, number of spike, spike length, grain yield, 100 grains weight and number of grains per spike. Average degree of dominance revealed the different types of dominance for the studied traits, the values of narrow sense heritability were high for plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes, grain yield and number of grains per spikes in both crosses, spike length and weight of 100 grains in first cross, and flag leaf venation in second cross.

Assessment of Dibdibba Sand (Southern Iraq) for the Manufacturing of Semi Silica Bricks

Firas Faisal Al-Hamdani; Sattar Jabbar Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41577

Three different mixtures (sand:clay), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40), were formed in a cylindrical shape of 50×50 mm, using a semi–dry pressing with 300 kg/cm2 as forming pressure and then fired at 1430˚C.
The results showed that the produced semi silica bricks have apparent porosity ranging from 21.3-25% with specific gravity between 2.42-2.93 N/mm2 and having spelling resistance between 15 to 25 cycle.
The results show that it is possible to use a mixture of 60:40 sand:clay for the manufacture of semi silica bricks.

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

Publisher: College of Science/ University of Mosul

Email:  rafscij@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amera M. Al-Rawi

Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

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