About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Using of 4-Chlororesorcinol as a Coupling Agent in Spectrophotometric Determination of Benzocaine

Mohammed M. Mohammed; Nabeel S. Othman; Faiz M. Al-Abady

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168906

         Simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the estimation of benzocaine (BENZ) as pure form and in its formulation (ear drops) in aqueous solution has been developed. The method is based on the diazotization of BENZ, with equivalent amount of nitrite, in an acidic medium to yield the diazotized benzocaine. Then the diazotized benzocaine is coupled with 4-chlororesorcinol (4-CRL) reagent in basic medium to formed, an intense yellow azo dye, which is water-soluble and it has good stability. The yellow azo dye exhibits maximum absorption at 436 nm. The relationship between absorbance and concentration gave good range of determination from 10 to 50 μg BENZ in final volume of 10 ml i.e.,1 to 5 μg.ml-1with a molar absorptivity and Sandell''''s sensitivity index values of 3.722´104 l.mol-1. cm-1 and 0.0044 μg.cm-2 respectively, a relative error of –1.06 to +2.47% and a relative standard deviation was not more than 0.921% depending on the concentration level of BENZ, low detection limit of 0.1924 μg.ml-1 and low of quantitation value equal to 0.6416 μg.ml-1 have been estimated. The method has been applied to the estimation of BENZ in ear drop (otocol drops).
 
 

Size Dependent Thermo Elastic Properties of Nano Lead Sulfide (PbS) under High Pressure

Madlool M. Tbeen; Adnan M. Al sheikh

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 12-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168907

Present paper reports a theoretical study to investigate the compressional behavior of nano PbS(,,) under high pressure by using different equations of state. The pressure dependence of these parameters for three nano PbS particles of different sizes (2.6nm, 5.4nm and 8.8nm), have been calculated by using B-M EOS, m L-J EOS and S-K EOS. Obtained results are compared with available experimental data. This comparison reveals the validity of using the well-known EOSs of bulk materials such as B-M EOS and m L-J EOS further to S-K EOS which was used for studying nano materials. The effect of particle's size, under high pressure, have been investigated in present work. The overall results in this work let us put question mark about S-K EOS.
 
 

A Brief Review of Novel Coronavirus

Khansaa Mohammed Younis; Shaima Gamal

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 21-29
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168908

       Since December 2019, the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which has emerged in China, has drawn global interest due to its quick spread, which affects more than 221 countries and territories worldwide and many of external transportations. Covid-2019 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome of viral pneumonia. After the (SARS CoV-1) of the 21st Century and the Coronavirus Respiratory Syndrome of Middle East, the emergence of Covid-19 has been established as the third entrance of a potential pathogen Coronavirus.       Due to a lack of proofreading activity for viral RNA polymers, single-stranded RNA viruses show a higher biological mutation rate; however, CoV has minimal proofreading abilities, as the nsp14 protein allows members of the CoV family to increase the size of the genome, unlike the other RNA viruses that are susceptible to mutations, with the exception of the Arenaviridae family.
      The wide range of new discoveries has brought importance to coronavirus researches and strategic expansion is important to accept the newest innovations and advances. This review extensively summarizes the genetic structure, cause of COVID-19 infection and detection to assist with follow-up research, prevention and to provide the current information to the readers.
 
 

The Allelopathic in the Diatoms

Huda Abdullah Ali; Mustafa Nuhad Al-Darraji; Shaimaa Fatih Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 30-38
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168909

       Diatoms considered as are a phytoplankton main group of in aquatic ecosystems abundance, diversity, and productivity. Allelopathic infractions, are an important part of phytoplankton competition, allelopathy may be one of the factors affecting the structure of phytoplankton. Diatoms are known to produce a number of allelopathic compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) and polyphenolic and halogenated compounds. However, Allelochemicals (AC) are chemical substances produced by diatoms and release which affecting microorganisms in their neighborhood. These chemicals are able to prevent or encourage the co-occurring phytoplankton species growth along other organisms. Such sintering behavior affecting not just each species that replying to or making a definite chemical, but as well functioning of communities, populations, and ecosystems including defense, reproduction, competition, and predator avoidance. The current review demonstrates work of Allelopathy in diatoms and stimulated or excreted chemicals via diatom direct or indirect way to environment for maintaining their domination.
 
 
 

Effect of Different Concentrations of Silver Nitrate AgNO3 on Leucaena leucocephala Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth in MS Culture Media and Callus Induction

Rasha Mohammad Hamza; Azhaar Hussaien Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168910

The current research work was carried out to verify the role of AgNO3 silver nitrate in the germination and growth of seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala trees and to demonstrate the effects on seedlings growth indicators such as stem height, root length, number of vegetative branches and number of leaves per seedling, as well as the induction of callus from stem and leaf explant, In presence and absence of silver nitrate in MS culture media. As well as different concentrations of silver nitrate were used, the continuous growth of seedlings that were grown on MS media and supported by different concentrations of AgNO3 showed to a variation in the response in terms of stem high and root length of seedling. As for the branches that arose after the cotyledon leaves and the number of leaves for these branches, they also varied as a result of using different concentrations of nitrates. Variation of the incidence of callus with the type of plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in this research, The study also included an explanation of the role of growth regulators in creating callus from cutting the stem and leaves and comparing it with callus growing on the same nutrient media and supplied with concentrations of silver nitrate.
 
 

Detection of AmpC Enzyme in Gram Negative Bacteria by Phenotypic and Molecular Methods

Adeeba Younis Shareef; Sahar Lukman Saleem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 16-26
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168911

In this study, the ability of some gram-negative bacteria isolated from different clinical samples to produce AmpC enzymes by phenotypic and molecular methods was investigated. The percentage of its occurrence was (40.6 %) by the use of cefoxitin disk as this antibiotic is used to screen for isolates that can produce this enzymes, the highest rate was for bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.5 %) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5 %), as for the three dimensional extraction method, the percentage of this enzyme reached (13.2 %), which depend on the use of crude enzymatic extracts instead of live microbial cells, the highest rate was for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5 %) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.3 %), (37.5 %) by using disk antagonism test method which is one of the best methods for investigating these enzymes. As for molecular methods PCR assay was used to detect the blaAmpC gene encoding for this enzyme, the highest percentage was for Klebceiala pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa reached(13.3 %).

Assessment of the Water Qualitative Characteristics of the Tigris River Passing Through the City of Mosul and Calculating the Water Quality Index Coefficient

Hiba Fares shihab; Abdalrahman M.A. Kannah

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 27-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168912

The quality of the water of the TigrisRiver passing through the city of Mosul was studied, starting from the Kubba area in the north to the Yarmajah area in the south, and the TigrisRiver is the only water resource for the city. The Physical and Chemical propertiesof river water was conducted, which included (water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and some positive and negative ions), and the Canadian Water Quality Index = (WQI) was used to express the quality of river water. Tigris as it passes in the city of Mosul. The results indicated that the water of the TigrisRiver passing through the city of Mosul tends towards alkalinity, and the river water has good ventilation, as the average dissolved oxygen values ​​ranged between (8.3-9.3) mg / liter. The ions of nitrates, orthophosphates, sulphates and chlorides showed a variation in their concentrations during the study period. The rates of sodium and potassium ion concentrations ranged between (19.9-24.6) and (2.6-4.2) mg / liter, respectively. The studied water was classified as (good - moderate) for drinking, as the values ​​of the water quality index ranged between (76.7-91.2). The index values ​​ranged between (86.3-99.6) and the water was classified as excellent too good for the river conservation system.
 
 

Generalization of the Quark-Like Model (QLM) to Obtain at a Modern Formula for the Positive Beta Decay Energy for the Range of Nuclei

Raghda Tareq Abdullateef; Firas Mohammed Ali Al-jomaily

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 38-51
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168913

         The nuclear binding energies of the parent and daughter nuclei, rather than their mass values, were used to calculate the positive beta decay energy ( ) for a wide variety of nuclei ranging from . The Quark-like Model (QLM) was used to compute the positive beta decay energy because it can efficiently compute the nuclear binding energies of the parent and daughter nuclei. As a result, a novel formula for calculating the positive beta decay energy was derived. The employment of a graphical representation between the practical and theoretical binding energies resulted in the generation of linear calibration equations for the parent and daughter nuclei, as well as a correction factor in MeV, resulting in the convergence of experimental and theoretical results. To produce a new final version of the () mathematical derivations were used. The results indicated that after modifying the model utilized, there is an adequate match between the actual and theoretical values, particularly for medium and heavy nuclei, but less so for light nuclei due to the presence of magic numbers and their overlapping in this spectrum. A standard deviation of not more than (2.32) was obtained which can be considered relatively large due to the continuous spectrum of beta decay. The significance of this work lies in the possibility of calculating the values of the decay energies based on the values of the nuclear binding energies, which are calculated based on knowledge of the number of protons and neutrons, resulting in more accurate and efficient results than using the accepted mass formula, because mass values in the atomic mass units of the nuclius are difficult to obtain.
 
 

Mycorrhizae Fungi

هبة هادی

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 52-64
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168914

 
 
Mycorrhizae is a symbiotic relationship between roots of the most types of Vascular plants and fungi. These symbionts are characterized by a two directional movement of nutrients, whereby the fungi take up carbon while the nutrients are transferred to the plant, and thus there is a link between the plant root and the soil in infertile soils, As the growth of the Mycorrhizae in the plant roots greatly increases the surface area of ​​the root absorption, the absorption of nutrients by the mycorrhiza fungi leads to improve plant growth and production, according to this, Mycorrhizae plants are more able to withstand environmental stresses compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizae vary in form and function, including the fungus Ectomycorrhiza, Endomycorrhiza with other type, as well as increasing plant immunity and helping to reduce pathogens and harmful organisms (for example, fungi are effective against nematodes and some types of fungi, they can elimination to 60 types of pathogens that cause rot and scab) and help accelerate the flowering process and accelerate the process of crop survival and it affects the growth of green mass. 

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Diazotization Coupling Reaction

Enas S. Thanoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159979

An accurate, simple, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method which proposed and developed for the determination of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was based on acid hydrolysis of PAR to produced p-aminophenol (PAP), PAP was diazotization with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt, followed by coupling with histidine reagent in alkaline medium to produced azo dye that showed maximum absorbance at 430 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration rage of 10-500 µg/20 ml (i.e. 0.5-25 ppm). The molar absorpitivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the dye were. 1.118×104 l.mol-1.cm-1and 0.0135 µg.cm-2 respectively. The method successfully has been applied for the determination of PAR in pure form,and its pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection).

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Assessment of Dibdibba Sand (Southern Iraq) for the Manufacturing of Semi Silica Bricks

Firas Faisal Al-Hamdani; Sattar Jabbar Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41577

Three different mixtures (sand:clay), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40), were formed in a cylindrical shape of 50×50 mm, using a semi–dry pressing with 300 kg/cm2 as forming pressure and then fired at 1430˚C.
The results showed that the produced semi silica bricks have apparent porosity ranging from 21.3-25% with specific gravity between 2.42-2.93 N/mm2 and having spelling resistance between 15 to 25 cycle.
The results show that it is possible to use a mixture of 60:40 sand:clay for the manufacture of semi silica bricks.

Genetical Analysis of Self-Fertilized Generation Variances in Two Durum Wheat Crosses

Nabeel T. Al-Badrany; Najeeb K. Yousif; Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59623

Phenotypic variance in parents and third generation were analyzed to estimate the additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability in broad sense, heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance from selection in F3 generation, of two crosses in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the first cross between Azeghar-1 and Um-Rabie-5 and the second cross between Leeds and Waha for traits, heading time, flag leaf venation, plant height, peduncle length, number of spike, spike length, grain yield, 100 grains weight and number of grains per spike. Average degree of dominance revealed the different types of dominance for the studied traits, the values of narrow sense heritability were high for plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes, grain yield and number of grains per spikes in both crosses, spike length and weight of 100 grains in first cross, and flag leaf venation in second cross.

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
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Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

Publisher: College of Science/ University of Mosul

Email:  rafscij@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amera M. Al-Rawi

Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

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