About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Variation of Scale Factor and Deceleration Parameter Through the Cosmic Evolution of Time and Temperature

Ahmed Subhi Ali; Mohammed K. Zeki

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167677

      In this work the differential Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model solutions which offer different cosmological parameters. We studied the effect of time and temperature evolution on these cosmological parameters, such as the scale factor R(t) and the deceleration parameter q, across radiation, matter and dark energy eras. The nature of the variations in time and temperature of these quantities are consistent with that obtained from other cosmological models which have taken into account astrophysical observations. Time and temperature variations of these parameters have been shown graphically. These parameters provided strong evidence about the expansion and acceleration of the universe. The scale factor and the deceleration parameter show a linear change with the increase in time during the radiation and matter dominated eras, followed by a rapid expansion during the dark energy era, indicating that the universe has a transition from a phase of decelerated expansion to an accelerated expansion, which is contributed to dark energy. This led to a flat, homogeneous, and isotropic universe.

The Pandemic of COVID-19: Current Scheme of Iraq (24 February- 8 August 2020)

saad taha mutlk; Ban O. Abdulsattar; Ian M. Jones

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 11-17
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167678

 Late in December 2019, the Wuhan City of China faced an outbreak of the unknown etiological agent of COVID-19, which spread rapidly in China and then worldwide to include 188 countries or regions of Africa, Oceania, Australia, Europe, America and Asia including Iraq. There are 31,132,906 of infected people over the world and 962,008 of global death, whereas the infection numbers increase rapidly. Several methods have been considered worldwide in order to control COVID-19. In spite of limited resources in Iraq. The Iraqi government has also taken demanding measures includes safety guides during Ramadan in the context of Covid-19. In addition, several strategies are used for that purpose such as designed particular hospitals, laboratories for testing, quarantine facilities, and movement restrictions to control viral spread all over the country. This review highlights the efforts of the Iraqi government to contain this deadly pneumonia inside it as well as travellers from Turkey, Iran and other neighbour countries.

Toxoplasma gondii: Model Manipulating by the Host Behaviour

Musafer AlArdi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 18-27
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167679

Toxoplasma gondii isan obligate intracellular parasite. Its life cycle includes two hosts, intermediate host (Mice, Rats, Birds, and Mammalians) and definitive host (feline family) which may be intermediate host, also. Toxoplasma infection exhibited variable consequences ranging from aborted to hard infections, in addition to modifications cytokines, change gene expression, and behaviour alterations.
 Alteration of behaviour mechanism includes stimulating a special immune response, a change in the rate of concentration of many neurotransmitters, and a change in the concentration of some important hormones, in addition to many genetic modifications.
          Many researches have established the association between Toxoplasma infection and various behaviour of the intermediate host. On the other hand, many studies regret the presence of such a relationship. Comparing the results of both studies, it can be said that the parasite infection has a ‎clear role in the emergence of many behavior disorders that may sometimes reach ‎schizophrenia, where the interaction of the parasite presence with the strength of the ‎immune response and the effect of it on the concentration of neurotransmitters and ‎some other hormones have confirmed their occurrence as confirmed the occurrence of ‎pathological effect.‎

Overview on Epidemiology of Leishmaniasis in Iraq

Haitham L. Al-Hayali; Muntaha alkattan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 28-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167680

  Leishmaniasis continues to be a significant public health issue and socioeconomic obstacle in Iraq. The various species of leishmania are transmitted by the bite of sandflies belonging to genus phlebtomus, where high temperatures might prolong the breeding season for this fly species. The current review proved that the infection in the southern regions of Iraq is more than in the northern regions.
 The incidence of leishmaniasis has increased and expanded to most Iraqi governorates, the reason may be due to the population growth, urbanization, pronounced poverty and lack of public health awareness. Furthermore, leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease with a rodent, cats and dog’s reservoir that poses a problem to human health. Leishmaniasis has spread in Iraq from the 1950s until now, additionally, wars forced migration of Iraqi people from their province to other places. All these have encouraged an increase in the infected rate with leishmaniasis in areas previously uninfected.

The Ability of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Minced Meat to Adhere and form Biofilm on the Aluminum and Stainless-Steel Surfaces

alaa hussein almola

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167681

The research included isolation and diagnosis of 19 bacterial isolate from 10 samples (minced meat and meat mincer), as 15 isolates belonging to the Micrococcaceae were diagnosed including 8 Staphylococcus spp. Isolates depending on the phenotypic properties and biochemical test, and in order to investigate the bacterial ability of the Micrococcaceae family to the formation of biofilms, two methods are used, the tube method and the Congo red agar method, as the results showed that all of the 15 isolates possess the ability to form biofilms as 100% depending on The tube method compared to the results of the Congo red agar test, which gave 13 positive result of 15 isolates in ratio 86.6% of the Micrococceae family. The highest rate of biofilm formation attributed to the Staphylococcus spp. which it gives 8 positive result for both tests as 100%. When comparing the adhesiveness of Staphylococcus spp. on the surface of the aluminum and stainless steel coupons as the materials used in the manufacture of meat mincers, our results showed that the adhesion and formation of biofilms were high on the surface of the aluminum coupons compared to the stainless steel coupons in the turbidity test using sonication and when investigating the total number of bacteria attached to the aluminum and steel coupons after exposing them to sonication, it was found that the number of units forming colonies CFU / cm2 for the aluminum coupons is 97 × 106, while it was found that CFU / cm2 of stainless steel coupons is 172 x 105, which enhances the turbidity comparison results.

The Protective Effect of Ficus Carica Leaves Extract on some Fertility Parameters in Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Treated with Paracetamol Drug

Noori Taha Khalaf; Waad S. Shaher

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 11-20
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167682

This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of leaves extract of Ficus carica on some fertility parameters in white rats Rattus norvegicus.
 In this study used (40) male rats (2.5-3) month, weights ranged (200-250) g were divided into (4) groups (10) rat/group. The first group (control group), the second group (paracetamol group), the third group (extract group), the fourth group (extract + paracetamol group). All treatments were given doses every other day for (6) weeks.
 Results showed a significant decreased (P<0.05) in testosterone levels in paracetamol group after the third and sixth weeks of treatment as a compare with control group. While the testosterone level for extract group don’t changed after the third week, but the hormone level increased after sixth week of treatment to exceed the hormone level of the control group. While the (extract + paracetamol) group showed a decrease in testosterone level after the third week, then the hormone level increased to close level of (extract group) after the sixth week of treatment.
 The result revealed a significant decrease in the total sperms count and the percentage of the living sperms at (P<0.05) and increased the percentage of dead and abnormalities sperms of the paracetamol group as a compare with control group, the results showed no significant changes in the total sperms count (P<0.05) of the (extract + paracetamol) group, whereas found a significant change in percentage of living and dead sperms, there were no significant change in abnormalities sperms between the extract group and (extract + paracetamol) group.

Initiation Callus Cultures from the Seedlings of Silybum Marianum and Estimate their Protein Content

Sabah Abdullah Al-Badrani; Rehab ِA. AL-Baker

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 21-37
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167683

The present research investigates the best Method for sterilization the Silybum marianum Plant seeds for getting best seedlings and the roles of plant growth regulators the (BA) Benzyl adenine and (2,4-D) 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, as well the type of the explants of the seedlings to induce and grow callus. In addition, determined the callus viability and its protein content. The results showed the best treatment seeds is to soak them with water for (24) hours and then with Ethanol 70% for (3) minutes, immerse them with Sodium hypochlorite) NaOCl) 2.5% for (10) minutes, and with 0.1% Tween 20 for (10) minutes. The explants of seedlings (roots, leaves, shoots, nodes) have been cultured on solid MS medium contain different concentrations (0.1,0.5,1.0,1.0) mg/L of BA and (0.25,0.5,0.5,1.0) mg/ L of 2,4-D. The medium which supplemented with (1) mg/l of (BA) and (2,4-D) had succeeded to induction of calls growth, which produce (2.4,3.1,4.1) gm. fresh weight respectively. The results showed that roots and nodes have more response than others to initiate and induce callus. The viability of callus showed a noticeable increase in age (80) day to reach (87%) for roots, leaves, and nodes callus. The callus of roots showed best increase in viability which reaches (95%) in (120) day. The results explained variation in protein level in callus culture with different in callus source and age, it reaches the highest level in nodes callus, and in (80, 120) days was the highest level of protein where in roots callus.

Oviposition Deterrent and Repellent from Bites Activities of some Essential Oils against Culex pipiens molestus Forskal

Muneef Abed Mustafa; Aseel H. Ali

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 38-45
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167684

This study aimed to test the oviposition deterrent effect and repellent from bites for five essential oils (Hyacinthus orientalis L., Cinnamomum camphora L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Laurus nobilis L.and Ruta graveolens L.) at four concentrations (200, 100, 50, 25 ppm) against the female of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Results indicated that essential oils of all plants showed oviposition deterrent, the essential oils of H. orientalis, C.camphora and R.officinalis caused 100% deterrent at concentrations (200 and 100 ppm ), but oil of R. graveolens caused low deterrent to the female. Where the rate of deterrent reached 74% at concentration 200 ppm. The essential oils of plants showed repellent bites of female, H.orientalis caused the best protection period so reached (160.0 ± 20.4 ) minute, followed  C. camphora , R. officinalis, L. nobilis and R. graveolens, where caused protection period (130 ± 14.0 , 90 ±16.4 , 70 ± 15.3  ,50 ± 19.2 ) minute respectively.

Antiphosphatidyl Serine as Diagnostic Indicators for Detection of Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Aborted Women

Raqa& Alubaidi; Adeeba Younis Shareef

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 46-53
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167685

This study included 90 blood samples. 80 of which were collected from women who had undergone spontaneous or recurrent miscarriage and 10 were collected from women with a normal pregnancy as control samples. Serum was prepared from these samples for use in investigating antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies, the results of the study showed that 21 samples give a positive result for the presence of antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies, the concentration rate in these positive cases was 14.6±1.4 RU/ml in the patient group, control group did not show positive cases, the concentration rate of these antibodies reached 7.9±2.0 RU/ml in the control group and the presence of these antibodies increased in the group of patient who had suffered from three or more miscarriages and their number was 15 cases ,while the remaining 6 positive samples was belong to group of women suffered from two abortion and the average concentration of anti-phosphatidyl serine antibodies in this group of patient was 15.1±2.1 RU/ml, and there was no positive result in the group of women had underwent one miscarriage .

Synergistic Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Erythromycin on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Different Infections

Reyam Th. Ghazi; Essra Ghanim Alsammak

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 54-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167686

One hundred and Twenty (120) samples were collected from various pathogenic sources (wounds, abscesses, urinary tract infections and blood samples) for the period from September 2019 to December 2019 from Al Salam and Al-KhansaHospitals and the Public Health Laboratory in Mosul city.
Samples were cultured on Mannitol Salt Agar medium; 105 samples showed a positive result. 50 isolates fermented mannitol sugar, at a rate of 47.6% depending on the phenotypic characteristics and production of Coagulase, 14 isolates were identified, at a rate of 13.3%, belonging to Staphylococcus  aureus the diagnosis were confirmed using VITEK system. The highest isolation rate from wounds was 57%, then abscesses 21%, blood samples 14%, and urinary tract infections 7%. The sensitivity of the isolates was tested for 16 antibiotics, the isolates showed variation in their resistance to antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed high resistance at 92.8% to Oxacillin, with a resistance rate of 85.7% for Erythromycin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Erythromycin was determined and ranged between (1250-5000) mg / cm3. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO nanoparticles was determined at different sizes (30,20, 50-150) nm and ranged between (5000-10000) mg / cm3 for all isolates. The results of the study showed a synergistic effect of Erythromycin with zinc nanoparticles and with good efficacy by inhibiting the bacterial growth of antibiotic-resistant strains as the MIC value of Erythromycin decreased from (1250-5000) mg / cm3 to (19.5-156.25) mg / cm3 when mixed with ZnO nanoparticles are 20 nm. Meanwhile, the MIC value of ZnO nanoparticles decreased from (30,20, 50-150) nm from (5000-10000) mg / cm3 to (78.125-312.5) mg / cm3 when mixed with Erythromycin.

The Effect of Biological Control Agents on Fungi Isolated from some Citrus Trees in Mosul

Maha M. Taha Al-Nuaimy; Faten N. Mula Abed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 68-77
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167687

In this study, the counter effect of two Biological Control Agents, namely Trichoderma harzianum fungi and Bcillus subtilis bacteria against the fungi-like organism Phytophthora infestans and the fungi; Fosarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani isolated from orange- trees’ bark and from lemon- trees’ roots. The results showed that the counter effect of T. harzianum (using double culture on petri dishes) reached 1.0 according to Bell scale, against all these pathogens. The counter effect of this antibiotic was also tested in vitro on branches taken from citrus trees and infected with Phytophthora infestans. The infection percentagesbefore treatment with T. harzianum were 75% and 58.3% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively, whereas after treatment with the inhibition fungi, the percentages of infection were 25% and 16.6% for the branches isolated from lemon trees and orange trees respectively. The percentages of inhibition by Bacillus subtilis bacteria were 83%, 71% and 73% against Phytophthora infestans , Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani respectively

Synthesis and Study some new Schiff Bases Derived from Pyrazolo-Coumarin

Ahmed G. Abdulsalam Ghalib Al-shahwany; Adnan Othman Omer

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 78-90
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167688

The research included the preparation and spectroscopic study of some of Schiff's bases derived from pyrazolo-coumarin by using 3-acetylcumarin (1) as a starting material, which was prepared by condensing a Knoevenagel of the salicylaldehyde derivative with an aceto-methyl acetate compound and using pyridine as a catalyst. (3-Methyl 1-Substituted Pyrazolo[4,5-c] Coumarin) (2a, 2b, 3a, 3b) were synthesized through the reaction of compound (1) with aqueous hydrazine in a basic medium. When the (2a, 2b, 3a, 3b) compounds reacted with an increase of aqueous hydrazine using pyridine as the base medium the (3-Methyl 1-Substituted Pyrazolo]4,5-c[1-Amino Quinoline-2-one) was prepared (4a, 4b, 5a, 5b) by replacing the oxygen atom with a nitrogen atom to create the pyridine ring, In this paper, some Schiff bases are also prepared by reacting (4a, 4b, 5a, 5b) compounds that contain free amino groups with Benzaldehyde or its derivatives to give Schiff base (Substituted Benzylidene (3-Methyl 1-Hydro/ Phenyl/ Amido/ Thiamido Pyrazolo[4,5-c])1-Amino Quinoline-2-one) (6a-e) - (9a-e). The compounds prepared in the research were diagnosed and investigated using physical and spectroscopic methods using the infrared (I.R) spectrum as well as the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectrum.

Structural Properties of the Doped Thin Films CdSe: Cu and CdSe: Sn, Prepared Using Chemical Bath Technique at 70oC.

Rahma N. Thannon; Laith Al Taan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 91-99
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167689

In this work, CdSe thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition on glass substrates using  and  as a source of  and  respectively, with a solution concentration 0.5M, a solution temperature at 70oC, pH=9 and deposition time 3 hours. The doping process was carried out with tin Sn and copper Cu with different amounts 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% also by CBD. The XRD studies show that the pure and the doped thin films were polycrystalline and cubic structure in the (111) plane direction, (220) and (311) too. SEM technique used to identify the surface nature of CdSe thin films as well as the average crystal size of the growing grains was (5.9nm). The images show a spherical grain, microcode, and other floral shapes with Cu doping at 70oC.

Estimating the Concentrations of Radioactive Radon Element along with the Radiation Risk Indicators at the Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Hospital in Mosul, Iraq

Firas Mohammed Ali Al-jomaily; Edrees Gh. Eedan; Mayan Khalil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 100-115
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.167691

The radioactive radon concentration was determined in addition to the radiation risk indicators represented by the effective annual dose and the effective alpha energy concentration, as well as the lung cancer cases per year at selected and different well-ventilated sites in the Oncology and NuclearMedicineHospital in Mosul. The long-term cumulative counting technique of nuclear traces deposited on the nuclear track detector CR-39. Twenty-five sites were chosen within the hospital in its multiple buildings (administration building, laboratory building and consulting building), where these reagents were installed in the lower part inside the radiometric dose room (Dosimetry) with certain geometric dimensions for 47 days as an irradiation time Calibration was performed with a 2µci radium(222Ra) source. The results showed that the radon concentrations recorded for all sites ranged between (41.44 - 79.88 Bq.m-3) with a rate of (59.32 ± 9.08 Bq.m-3) and could be considered within the global normal levels. As for the annual effective dose (HE), as its value ranged (1.3-2.52 mSv.y-1) with a rate of (1.84 ± 0.29 mSv.y-1), while the annual effective dose values ​​ranged between (4.48-8.6 mWL) with a rate of 1.08 mWL (± 5.92, and the risk index is lung cancer). It included within the values ​​(32.52-54.34 / 106 person) and a rate of (35.16 ± 5.39 / 106person), and these indicators can be considered in light of the results obtained as falling within the normal global levels. I indicated the sites of the refrigerator of refrigerated drugs, the office of mental health and the laboratory store the highest-level Radon concentration, as well as radiation hazard indicators, while its values ​​were within the lowest levels recorded in the advisory path. The highest level of radon concentration as well as radiation risk indicators were identified at the sites of the medication refrigerator, the mental health clinic, and the laboratory store, although their values were below the lowest levels documented in the advisory corridor. The results showed that the Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Hospital is logically radio-safe, despite the fact that some of its sites reported high levels of radon concentration compared to other sites, especially when combined with appropriate global levels that do not exceed ( (200-300 Bq . m-3).

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Diazotization Coupling Reaction

Ghassan F. Alubaidy; Asma A. Basheer; Shakir M. Saied; Enas S. Thanoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159979

An accurate, simple, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method which proposed and developed for the determination of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was based on acid hydrolysis of PAR to produced p-aminophenol (PAP), PAP was diazotization with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt, followed by coupling with histidine reagent in alkaline medium to produced azo dye that showed maximum absorbance at 430 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration rage of 10-500 µg/20 ml (i.e. 0.5-25 ppm). The molar absorpitivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the dye were. 1.118×104 l.mol-1.cm-1and 0.0135 µg.cm-2 respectively. The method successfully has been applied for the determination of PAR in pure form,and its pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection).


Assessment of Dibdibba Sand (Southern Iraq) for the Manufacturing of Semi Silica Bricks

Firas Faisal Al-Hamdani; Sattar Jabbar Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41577

Three different mixtures (sand:clay), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40), were formed in a cylindrical shape of 50×50 mm, using a semi–dry pressing with 300 kg/cm2 as forming pressure and then fired at 1430˚C.
The results showed that the produced semi silica bricks have apparent porosity ranging from 21.3-25% with specific gravity between 2.42-2.93 N/mm2 and having spelling resistance between 15 to 25 cycle.
The results show that it is possible to use a mixture of 60:40 sand:clay for the manufacture of semi silica bricks.

Genetical Analysis of Self-Fertilized Generation Variances in Two Durum Wheat Crosses

Nabeel T. Al-Badrany; Najeeb K. Yousif; Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59623

Phenotypic variance in parents and third generation were analyzed to estimate the additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability in broad sense, heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance from selection in F3 generation, of two crosses in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the first cross between Azeghar-1 and Um-Rabie-5 and the second cross between Leeds and Waha for traits, heading time, flag leaf venation, plant height, peduncle length, number of spike, spike length, grain yield, 100 grains weight and number of grains per spike. Average degree of dominance revealed the different types of dominance for the studied traits, the values of narrow sense heritability were high for plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes, grain yield and number of grains per spikes in both crosses, spike length and weight of 100 grains in first cross, and flag leaf venation in second cross.

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

Publisher: College of Science/ University of Mosul

Email:  rafscij@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amera M. Al-Rawi

Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

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