About Journal

Rafidain Journal of Science (RJS) is a  scientific and open access journal  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published fourth issue by the College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since date of first issue (1976), No. of Issue per year (8) issues till the end of 2012 and (12) issues from 2013, (6) issues in 2014 , (2) issues in 2017. No. of papers per Issue (250 page ). No. of Issues published between 1976-2020 (102). We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Simulation of the Gamma Absorption by Lead Bronze Alloys Using Geant4

Hilala N. Mohammed; Ali H. Taqi; Abdulahdi M. Ghalib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168338

Shielding materials are extremely important in production or handling isotopes, nuclear reactors, accelerators, and medical centers, etc. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 is one of the most important and common platforms for the simulation of the interaction of radiation with matter. Therefore, this paper is devoted to simulating the partial absorption of the gamma-ray by Lead bronze alloys                  (Pb, Sn, Cu) in different proportions using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 from 1.5 keV to 15 MeV. The accuracy of the simulated results of the total and partial mass attenuation coefficients () for the photoelectric effect, Compton Scattering and pair production, and tenth value layers (TVL) were evaluated by using the XCOM program. The agreements were good, but it depends on the energy of the incident photon. The mass attenuation coefficients decreased when the photon energy increased and many peaks are observed. The effect of adding Pb was clear, as the  increases while the TVL decreases.

Simulation of the Gamma Attenuation through Borate Glass Using Genat4

Shlair I. Mohammed; Ali H. Taqi; Abdulahdi M. Ghalib

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168339

In this study, the protection parameters of the gamma-ray of Borate glass system containing 10Li2O. 10K2O. 20Na2O. xPbO.                   (60-x) B2O3 where x to be varied as 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60, were investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The coefficients of attenuation were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 as a function of the incident photon 0.0015 MeV and 15 MeV. The accuracy of the simulated results was tested by using the XCOM program. The Geant4 and XCOM results showed a reasonable agreement. The results of the attenuation parameters showed that the sample of higher PbO concentration absorbs a greater number of photons, therefore the attenuation coefficients are increased while the tenth-value layer (TVL) values are decreased due to the increase in PbO from 0 to 60%. The linear and mass attenuation coefficients decreased when the photon energy increase and many peaks are observed.

The Development of Microwave Applications in Medical Field

Qusay Kh. Al_Dulamey

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 23-39
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168340

Through this analysis, we conclude that there is no fixed limit to the radiation threat, but that the risk begins at any stage. High frequency electromagnetic waves have detrimental effects, in particular, on the body and sensitive cells. One of the susceptible organs affected by radiation is the reproductive system, though it does not contain a high percentage of blood. This plays an important role in reducing the heat generated by the cumulative microwave effect. Most studies have agreed that these radiation communication systems have an effective effect on red and white blood cells due to the heme's cellular structure, which is influenced by magnetic and electrical fields, creating a change in the cellular composition and composition. Thus, a shift in cell function clinically visible symptoms of photo damage are fine lines and rhytides. Traditionally, for nonsurgical facial rejuvenation, truncated and non-truncated lasers were used, in addition to that its cumulative side effects and its heroes time are in the work. Initially used to target photo damage, radio frequency represents an idea of radiation surgery technology. It is different from lasers   such as current of an electric is used as well as a light source. It is widely used for treating slouch of skin, deflations, skin tags and freckles, and dimple in dermatology. This work aims to show the different kinds of radiofrequency tools and their application. Assessing the effectiveness of these tools is based on facts.  This paper discusses the latest RF function, applications, clinical advance.         Application guide for various RF applications. The findings were positive with multiple clinical tools of radio waves, although more trials were non-randomized, non-comparative trials using local methods of assessment. Most non- truncated radio waves are a healthy, suggest method that produces moderate results for skin rejuvenation and cellulite therapy. Radio wave is act as replace from surgery.

Specialized High-Quality 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Databases for Identification of Bacterial Taxonomic Groups: a review

Talal Sabhan Salih; Hiba K. Saeed; Mohammed A. Ibraheem

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 40-46
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168341

        Recent accumulation of the bacterial 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences in the public GenBank databases obtained from the wide use of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) applications has led the specialists in the fields of microbiology and bioinformatics to provide specific and reliable databases for storing, retrieving and aligning bacterial ribosomal gene sequences. In our review, we have provided a comprehensive description of gene databases with an emphasis on the most specialized and high quality rRNA gene databases. These databases are freely accessible and widely used for all specialist users for accurate bacterial genera and species identification from different sources. rRNA genes, platforms, internet addresses and references of each gene specialized database were outlined. The Silva, EzTaxon-e and BIBI have been shown to be the most confident and reliable specialized rRNA gene databases. These databases contain the semi fully high-quality ribosomal gene sequences along with some              house-keeping and uncultured gene sequences in case of EzTaxon-e.   

Comparison of Three Biofilm Detection Methods in Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Species

Ahmed Al-Jubory; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168342

This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the ability of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) for the detection of biofilms, which are considered as the main virulence factor in their pathogenicity. Three methods were used for this purpose, the tube method, congo red agar and tissue culture plate method. Thirty-seven isolates of the following bacteria were tested, which includes Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus and S. sciuri.The results of the tube method showed that most isolates (64.5%) gave a moderate positive result, (32.3%) was weak positive and six isolates showed no ability to form biofilm, the congo red method showed that, the majority of isolates were a moderate positive result (89.3%) and nine isolates were negative for biofilm formation. As for the tissue culture plate method, the results ranged between (62.9%) a moderate positive and (31.4%) a weak positive, while only two isolates could not form biofilm. When comparing the efficiency of the three methods in detecting the ability of CoNS isolates to form biofilm, it was found that tissue culture plate method was the most efficient (94.6%), followed by the tube method (83.8%), and the congo red (75.7%).

In Vitro Propagation of Petunia hybrida Plant

Amina Ameen Ahmed; Bashar Zaki Kassab Bashi; Aysar M. Almemary

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 16-28
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168343

This study was carried out in the laboratory of cells and plant tissue culture at Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, to propagate Petunia hybrida cv. “grandiflora doppia miscuglio” in vitro through multiplication of shoot tips and nodes produced from axenic seedling by culturing them on MS medium supplemented with (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg/l BA. Shoot produced from multiplication stage were cultured on MS medium containing (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) mg/l IBA. In addition, this study included culturing leaf explants and petioles on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0) mg/l BA and NAA (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) mg/l. The results indicated that highest shoots number 9.3 shoots/explants with 3.0 cm length were obtained from culturing shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BA as compared to nodes which gave 10.2 shoots/explants with 2.9 cm length when cultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l BA after eight weeks. Highest rooting percentage 100% with highest roots number 12.4 were obtained from shoot tips that produced during multiplication stage on MS medium containing 0.25 mg/l IBA after four weeks. Highest fresh weight of callus was obtained from culturing leaf explants and petioles on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l NAA which reached to 1.237gm. and 1.346 gm. respectively. Leaf explants that cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA produced shoots with percent of 10% while highest percentage of shoots production 20% with 1.0 shoot/explant were achieved from differentiation of petiole callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l NAA after 8 weeks. All plantlets produced from these experiments were acclimatized and transferred to field successfully.

Allelopathic Effect of Residues Medicago sativa L. in Mineral Content and Antioxidant Enzymes of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on Growing under Different Levels of Field Capacity

Mohammed S. Faysial; Ibrahim O. Saied; Ahmed J. Taha

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168344

This study was conducted inside the wire house of the Department of Biology/ College of Education for Pure Science/ Mosul University for the agricultural season 2018- 2019 to test the effect of vegetative and root residues of Medicago satival on the chemical content and antioxidant enzyme fenugreek plant Trigonella foenum- graecum L. (Iraq and Indian) growth under three different levels of field capacity (25, 50 and 75%). The experiment was designed as a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD). The result showed that the addition of vegetative residues of caused an increase the concentration of enzymes peroxidase, catalase, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to the root residues and the control treatment (without residues) while the filed capacity 75%, exceeded compared to the field capacity 25 and 50% in concentration of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium with the exception of nitrogen concentration, peroxidase and catalase. On the other hand, Indian cultivar was superior compared to cultivar Indian in most studied traits. Antioxidant enzyme.
 
 

Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna for GSM Applications and Study the Effect of Substrate Thickness on the Bandwidth

Mona R. Talab; Fares S. Alatallah; Ahmed A. Ahmed

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2021.168345

In this paper, a microstrip patch antenna designed for GSM (Global System for Mobile) applications at the frequency 0.9GHz (0.89 - 0.96 GHz), using an epoxy FR-4 substrate with an isolation constant of 4.3 and a thickness of 1.6mm and improving its radiate properties. The thickness of the substrate was changed, where a thickness of 3.2 mm was taken, then a third thickness of 1.4 mm was taken, then the results of changing the frequency beam width for each thickness were compared and it was noticed that the frequency beam width at the thickness 3.2 is equal to 0.41018GHz and the working frequency is 0.939 GHz, but at the thickness of 1.6 mm, the beam width The frequency is 0.35448GHz With a working frequency of 0.963GHz and the beam width at the third thickness 1.4 is equal to 0.26998GHz and a working frequency of 0.94939GHz, the thin film antenna was designed and the results simulated using (CST) 2019 software.
 
 

Sepsis in Burn Patients

Ghassan A. Hassan

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163292

One hundred blood samples and burn swabs from septicemic burn patients were collected over a period from July 2017 until may 2018 at Burn Center in Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The age of patients was between one year to sixty years and they were suffering from burn wound sepsis ,the highest number of patients was female among age group 20-29 years old. The highest frequent cause of burn was flame 78% and the least was chemical 1%, it was found that flame burn patients were more vulnerable to sepsis. The mortality rate among male 56%, females 48% and the highest mortality rate was 100% in the age group less than one year and more than sixty years, the least rate of mortality was 27% in the age group 10-19 years old. The number of septicemic patients 36 who is total body surface area (BSA) burned 30-39% and the mortality in this group was 16.6%, however the least number of patients was two of BSA 90-99% with mortality rate 100%. The most frequent aetiological agents isolated from the blood of septicemic burn patients was staphylococcus aureus 34(28.1) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25(20.7), Klebsiella pneumonia 13(10.8), Streptococcal pyogenes 10(8.3), Escherichia coli 8(6.6%) and Serratia marcescense, Acinnetobacter calcoceticus were 5(4.1) equally. The incidence of gram negative bacteria was much higher than gram positive bacteria in the septicemic burn cases, most  of septicemic attack occur during the first week of admission and especially on the 7th day of staying in hospital and above, and they were much more  likely to result from gram positive organism e.g S.aureus and S.pyogene. After the 1st week the septicemic attack was much more likely to result from gram negative organisms e.g. P.aeruginosa  K.pneumonia, E.coli, Serratia mercescense, Acintobacter calcoceticus, P vulgaris and P. rettger.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Diazotization Coupling Reaction

Ghassan F. Alubaidy; Asma A. Basheer; Shakir M. Saied; Enas S. Thanoon

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159979

An accurate, simple, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method which proposed and developed for the determination of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was based on acid hydrolysis of PAR to produced p-aminophenol (PAP), PAP was diazotization with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt, followed by coupling with histidine reagent in alkaline medium to produced azo dye that showed maximum absorbance at 430 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration rage of 10-500 µg/20 ml (i.e. 0.5-25 ppm). The molar absorpitivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the dye were. 1.118×104 l.mol-1.cm-1and 0.0135 µg.cm-2 respectively. The method successfully has been applied for the determination of PAR in pure form,and its pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection).

).

Assessment of Dibdibba Sand (Southern Iraq) for the Manufacturing of Semi Silica Bricks

Firas Faisal Al-Hamdani; Sattar Jabbar Al-Khafaji

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2005, Volume 16, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2005.41577

Three different mixtures (sand:clay), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40), were formed in a cylindrical shape of 50×50 mm, using a semi–dry pressing with 300 kg/cm2 as forming pressure and then fired at 1430˚C.
The results showed that the produced semi silica bricks have apparent porosity ranging from 21.3-25% with specific gravity between 2.42-2.93 N/mm2 and having spelling resistance between 15 to 25 cycle.
The results show that it is possible to use a mixture of 60:40 sand:clay for the manufacture of semi silica bricks.

Genetical Analysis of Self-Fertilized Generation Variances in Two Durum Wheat Crosses

Nabeel T. Al-Badrany; Najeeb K. Yousif; Ghada A. Al-Hamdany

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2012, Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2012.59623

Phenotypic variance in parents and third generation were analyzed to estimate the additive genetic variance, dominance genetic variance, environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability in broad sense, heritability in narrow sense and expected genetic advance from selection in F3 generation, of two crosses in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the first cross between Azeghar-1 and Um-Rabie-5 and the second cross between Leeds and Waha for traits, heading time, flag leaf venation, plant height, peduncle length, number of spike, spike length, grain yield, 100 grains weight and number of grains per spike. Average degree of dominance revealed the different types of dominance for the studied traits, the values of narrow sense heritability were high for plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes, grain yield and number of grains per spikes in both crosses, spike length and weight of 100 grains in first cross, and flag leaf venation in second cross.

Isolation and Identification of Uncommon Bacteria from Different Infections with Detection some Virulence Factors

Luai M.I. Al-Douri; Mohammed N. Maaroof

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2018, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 321-333
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2018.159328

A total of 220 samples were collected from different sources of infection from the patients of Tikrit Hospital and Samarra Teaching Hospital who showed symptoms of infection, both sexes and different age groups for the period from April 2017 to January 2018. The results of the isolating showed that the number of samples that showed positive bacterial growth on the used media was 135 samples (61.4%),while 85 samples (38.6%) of total samples did not produce significant bacterial growth, The common bacteria isolates in our study were the highest number of isolates with a total of 111 samples and 82.2%, the uncommon bacterial isolates showed in 24 growth samples (17.8%). The results showed that Morganella morganii had the highest percentage of isolates by 3 isolates (12.5%), followed by Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Micrococcus luteus with isolates (8.2%), for other species, only one isolate (4.2%) was obtained, All isolates showed an absolute sensitivity of 100% for Imipenem and 100% absolute resistance to 10 antibiotics,the results showed that both bacteria Kocuria kristinae, O. anthropi, have three virulence factors, Protease, Urease, β-lactamase, While the bacterial species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Gemella sanguinis, Aerococcus urinae, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gave a positive test result for the production of β-lactamase, Hemolysin, while Morganella morganii, Alloiococcus Otitis have two factor, Urease, Β-lactamase. As for the isolates Pantoea agglomerans, Kocuria rosea has shown its ability to produce only one type of β-lactamase β-lactamase.

Sterilization of Culture Media for Microorganisms Using a Microwave Oven Instead of Autoclave

Suzan A. Shareef; Payman A. Hamasaeed; Abdulilah S. Ismaeil

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159390

Different culture media in different volumes were exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation for 2, 3 and 4 minutes to investigate the ability of MW to destroy microorganisms and compared with media sterilized by conventional autoclaving method. MW sterilized media were screened for microbial growth.
Exposure of different microorganisms to microwave irradiation resulted in destruction of all microorganisms within 3 minutes. Using MW for irradiation is a practical, easy, rapid and energy saving way to sterilize different types of culture media with no effects on the quality of culture media and microbial growth after sterilization. It can be used as alternative apparatus instead of autoclave in microbiology laboratories for preparing different sizes in rapid and routine experiments especially in the conditions of the weak electricity current and interruption
.

Contamination of Domestic Well Water in Nineveh Governorate with some Pathogenic Bacteria and Detection on its Ability to Biofilm Formation

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Manar F. Altaee

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.163162

Due to the unavailability of the drinking water in Mosul city in the period between                      (2014-2017), people started digging wells in their houses to use it in daily life for consumption and irrigation. Forty well water samples were chosen for this study in living quarters (AL-Dubat, Adan, AL-Mouthana, AL-Noor, AL-Zhoor, AL-Jamiea, AL-Falah, AL-Baker). Some pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified from well water digged in different areas in the left side of Mosul city and to study reconciliation to human consumption. Results showed that fifty-six bacterial isolates obtained included 21 of Escherichia coli, 10 of Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 7 of Pseudomonas florescens, and show two species ofKlebsiellabacteria, Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca 6 and 4 respectively.
Then the ability of these bacterial isolates to form biofilm was studied by using two methods; Tube method and Congo red method, isolates gave 100% positive results in its ability to biofilm formation by tube method. While by congo red Aeromonas and Pseudomons were unable to form biofilm.
Also the study included determination of antibiotic  sensitivity and resistance of bacterial isolates to different antibiotics as it is considered one of the important virulence factors , Results showed that there is variation in its sensitivity and resistance to these antibiotics.

Estimation of the Concentrations of some Heavy Metals in Water and Sediments of Tigris River in Mosul City

Eman S. Al-Sarraj; Muna H. Jankeer; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2019.159401

Tigris river is considered among the most important sources of water in Iraq. Therefore, an ecological study has been conducted on this river within a stretch in Mosul city starting from Mushirfa site north till Al-Busaif village in the south. The study aimed at verifying the impact of various pollutants including heavy metals on water and sediments. The study started on Spring 2011 through Winter 2012.
The heavy metals have been extracted by stander method using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the estimation of some heavy metal concentrations such as (Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in river water and sediments has been done.
The result reveled a significant increase in the concentration of studied heavy metals in water and sediments in the area of Al-Busaif compared with Mushirfa area (as a control group). The concentration of heavy metal in water followed the descending order: Zn< Cu< Pb .

Detection of the Efficacy of some Transport, Isolation and Culture Media for Oral Treponema Isolated from Periodontitis

Amera M. Al-Rawi; Summaya A. Muhammad

Rafidain Journal of Science, 2011, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 49-67
DOI: 10.33899/rjs.2011.31499

The ability of three types of transport media (Tris-HCl— EDTA fluid , Normal saline and Reduced transport media) to transfer oral treponema samples was investigated , in addition to the capability of relying five types of nutritional media (New oral spirochetes, Supplumented pleupneumolike organism, Thioglycolate medium, Pepton- yeast extract- glucose, and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum medium) and two types of solidified culture media (Thioglycolate-BHI agar and Trypton- yeast extract- glucose- volatile fatty acid-serum agar) for the primary isolation and subculturing of these organisms reaching the most necessary supplements required to support the growth of these organisms. The efficacy of the three types of transport media in transport and maintenance of the vaibilty of these organisms was shown, also the efficacy of primary isolation and subculturing media to support the organisms' growth was proved after supplementing these media with the necessary growth elements. Hence it was possible to provide the optimal anaerobic conditions for the growth by the addition of reducing agents (Sodium thioglycolate and L-cystein) to the culture media and incubation in anaerobic jar, furthermore, introducing the necessary elements of long chain fatty acid by the addition of isobutyric acid and serum, and we confirm the ability of three types of serum (Rabbit serum, Fetal calf serum and Fetal bovin serum) to support the culture media. We had showing possibility of depending upon the selection isolation method by the addition the antibiotic rifampicin. Moreover, it was observed two forms of growth of these organisms: the turbidity after two days of inocubation and the sediment form with the shot silk after four days of incubation, and the variation in colonies form on the solid media was also clear.

Publisher: College of Science/ University of Mosul

Email:  rafscij@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amera M. Al-Rawi

Print ISSN: 1608-9391

Online ISSN: 2664-2786

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